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Emphasis: not on producing entrepreneurs but providing graduates with life & career skills
Link with Employability
Adopt a holistic view of enterprise learning
Seek to ways of leveraging the particular strengths of language degree curricula (e.g. year abroad)
Deep Learning Transferable Skills Business / Enterprise Knowledge (Reflection, Self knowledge, Independent learning) (General and Business specific skills) (Work based learning, Enterprise exercises & exposure, Business processes) Three dimensions of enterprise related learning
A Scheme for Enterprise Learning Assessment The Association of Graduate Recruiters scheme for graduate Employability identifies four key attributes of graduate employability. Using this scheme has the following advantages; it is holistic, relevant to graduates and provides a link with employability. Career management Reflection Time-management Self Management Ability and aptitudes for working with others (Teamwork, Inter-personal skills etc.) Connectedness Problem solving Communication Presentations IT skills Creativity Analytical ability Generalist Degree attainment Specialist Employability
Enterprise Assessment Scheme The assessment of enterprise learning is based on a modified AGR employability template which includes business and enterprise related elements. Self Reliance Self directed learning Work based learning Reflection Time management Career management Self Management Negotiation Intercultural aptitudes Teamworking Inter-personal skills Connectedness Innovation/IPR Project management Work related communication skills Marketing/Advertising Interviewing Business planning Finance/Accounting Media communication skills Commercial law IT skills Creativity Analytical ability Problem solving Communication skills Presentation skills Generalist Degree related and / or core business knowledge Degree attainment Specialist PLUS Employability ENTERPRISE
Initial research has identified a selection of HEI which involve a range of enterprise learning strategies and methods.
University of Central Lancashire
Leeds Metropolitan University
University College London
Oxford Brookes University
Lancaster University German Studies BA Level 1 year abroad preparation involves a week training course, (teaching of English, studying abroad, project work, career development, finances, officialdom, cultural adaptation) Level 2 Portfolio - eight pieces work with reflective summary of progress. Year abroad involves a weekly reflective log and a final summative assessment essay (both in TL) The LU VLE - module information and online tests, ‘MyPlace’ an online environment enabling collaboration and to record personal achievements (e.g. for CV). Self Management Level 2 Online collaboration exercises with students at Graz University. Connectedness The year abroad academic project often involves an analysis of the nature of the business (depending on placement type). Skills (Option) Level 2, mainly for language assistants, the University of Cumbria accepts students for two weeks teaching training and 4 weeks of paid teaching practice. Specialist
University of Glasgow Russian BA Weekly learning outcomes plan for in levels 1 & 2 aids independent learning through goal setting Student feedback into teaching approach Year abroad financing and administration is much more problematic than for placements in other countries, and Russia is generally a different and more demanding placement destination. Self Management Studying alongside Polish students and visiting students from Europe & US Connectedness Level 2 writing workshop involves CV and job application Skills Specialist
Pre 92 Institutions PDP Career development Year abroad logs require reflection Student portfolios and formal self learning schemes exist on a few courses Self management Negotiation Meetings Group work exists though not always assessed Connectedness Business communication Little, some HEI offer optional business related modules Transferable (Business) skills Teamwork Project Management Interpersonal skills Good coverage though typically not assessed Non-cognitive skills often not identified in the program Transferable (Generalist) skills Work based communication Cognitive emphasis (typically literature and historical study in modern languages) Specialist Comment General Observations
Pre 92 SWOT Widening range of student ability Modularity Lack of experience of formative assessment/support Mis-perception of ‘dumbing down’ of curriculum Greater use of business and work contexts for language development Threats Opportunities Transferable skills under emphasised Limited depth of “working with others” and work based context in learning Depth of content coverage Full year abroad development of self reliance and intercultural abilities Weaknesses Strengths
Newer Institutions Generally structured portfolio or student learning plans Self management Business related group projects More emphasis on group activities Negotiated outcomes in learning plans Connectedness Business project Generally more prevalent than in Pre 92 HEI Transferable (Business) skills Some examples of assessment of ability Some module titles make clear the skills that are being developed Transferable (Generalist) skills Contemporary and vocational slant to curriculum Specialist Comment General Observations
Post ’92 SWOT Enterprise basis / context to learning Threats Opportunities Shorter period abroad may curtail self reliance and intercultural awareness Career management Skills learning developed through process use or project application rather than by transfer training Greater emphasis and visibility of transferable skills Weaknesses Strengths
Business and professional skills in the target language exist in most of the core language programmes though in some cases these are only addressed through options.
The languages curriculum teaches a number of skills which can be classed as “for enterprise” rather than content “about enterprise”. Aspects which were represented on all courses include group work, IT use, presentation and all round communication skills.
The majority of courses do not involve interviewing training or experience (either as interviewer or interviewee)
The major problem solving skill developed on language degrees are related to translation
CV production, job application and formal / business letters are valuable skills in target languages though not present in the core language teaching of most the courses.
The Year abroad . This valuable aspect of languages study was often not sufficiently integrated into the overall curriculum.
Modularity . Highly modular programmes did not always give sufficient attention to student progression.
Staff expertise . Especially in small units, the availability of requisite staff expertise was not secure, resulting in significant failures in ability to deliver an adequate range of teaching, or discontinuities in what could be delivered from one year to the next.
Dispersal of staff . Teaching staff were often located in units dominated by a cognate discipline, with risks of marginalisation, or in a number of units contributing to a particular programme, with risks of fragmentation.
Specialisation . Staff tending to specialise in narrow areas of their discipline, with potential lack of overview and obstacles to communication between staff from different parts of the disciplinary area.
Assessment . In some cases, the relation between the programme and means of assessment was underdeveloped, and procedures for feedback to students required more attention.
Mixed teaching . Teaching to student groups of different attainment levels, different disciplinary backgrounds, or different personal backgrounds (non-UK, mature, part-time students etc) is widespread, and work was needed to address the difficulties to which this gave rise.
Key skills . These were often advertised, but not always adequately embedded into programmes. In particular, there was sometimes inadequate provision for higher level skills, for example in final year research- or project-type work .