ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

ppt

on

  • 1,019 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,019
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
1,018
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0

1 Embed 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    ppt ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Intercultural Communication Lecture 3 GOC (continued) Pragmatics of Intercultural Communication Non-verbal and Paralinguistic Communication
    • Review
      • Language is ambiguous
      • We have to make inferences (guesses) about what people mean
      • Inferences are made quickly
      • Our inferences seem like ‘the truth’ to us
      • Inferences
        • Roommate situation
    • Review
      • How do we form inferences
      • TEXT
        • Our expectations about grammar/lexis
        • Our expectations about paralinguistic cues (pausing, intonation, etc.)
        • Our expectations about non-verbal communication
      • CONTEXT
        • Our expectations about the what is supposed to happen in the situation
      • The Grammar of Context
        • ‘ Rules’ about who says what to whom, how, when and where
    • The Grammar of Context
      • People in different groups have different expectations about the GOC of the same situation
      • Sometimes the situation itself is ambiguous
        • 2 competing GOC’s
        • Pop concert and school assembly
    • Grammar of Context
      • 7 components
        • Scene
          • Time, place, use of space, purpose, topic, genre
        • Key
        • Participants
        • Message form
        • Sequence
        • Co-occurrence Patterns
        • Manifestation
    • Participants
      • Number
      • Who they are
      • What roles they take
      • Different roles in different situations
      • Performatives: Speech acts which can only be performed by certain people in certain places
      • ‘ I now pronounce you husband and wife’
    • Participants
      • Different discourse systems have different ideas about participant roles
      • Japanese vs. American decision making
      • American vs. Chinese classrooms
        • Chinese: Teacher always introduces topics
        • American: Students often introduce topics
    • Key
      • From music: minor key/major key
      • Mood
      • Key of a Wedding: Happy
      • Key of a Funeral: Sad
      • Key of a Lecture: ?
      • Intercultural Differences
        • laughter = relaxed/ laughter = nervous
        • crying at weddings/dancing at funerals
    • Message Form
      • Speaking
      • Writing
      • Silence
      • Other media
        • Video
        • Overhead projection, slides
        • Amplification
        • Recording
    • Message Form
      • ‘ The Medium is the Message’
      • The message form we choose changes the message
      • TV news vs. Newspaper news
      • ‘ Breaking-up’
        • face to face
        • telephone
        • Letter
        • icq
        • silence
    • Sequence
      • Order of events
      • Associated with ‘scripts’
      • McDonald’s script
      • Yum Cha script
      • Western Restaurant script
    • Coffee shop script
      • American coffee shop
      • Find seat
      • Determine order
      • Place order with waiter or waitress
      • Receive food
      • Eat
      • Pay
      • Japanese coffee shop
      • Determine order
      • Pay
      • Find seat
      • Place order with waiter or waitress
      • Receive food
      • Eat
    • Ambiguous Sentence
      • Yesterday I saw Eleanor in the coffee shop, but since I had just paid and she was just ordering, I told her we’d get together tomorrow.
    • Sequencing
      • Adjacency Pairs
      • X  Y
      • Preferred responses
      • Greeting  Greeting
      • Apology  Acceptance
      • Compliment  Acceptance
      • Compliment  Refusal
      • Offer  Refusal  Offer  Refusal  Offer
    • Offers
      • Host: Would you like some more dessert
      • Guest: It’s delicious, but I really shouldn’t have any more…
      • Host: OK
      • X ‘requires’ Y
      • If Y does not occur, it is heard as ‘officially absent’
      • creating implicature
      • ‘ given the first, the second is expectable; upon its occurrence it can be seen to be the second item to the first; upon it’s non-occurrence it can be seen to be officially absent’ -Schegloff 1968
      • ‘ Preferred responses’
      Conditional Relevance
    • Creating Implicature
      • A: I love you.
      • B: I love you.
      • A: I love you.
      • B: …
      • A: I love you.
      • B: Thank you.
    • Creating Implicature
      • A: I’m sorry.
      • B: …
      • A: Hi, my name is Rodney.
      • B: Hello.
    • Sequence: Rhetorical Patterns
      • 1) Face Work-------Introduction of Topic
      • 2) Introduction of Topic
      • Chinese usually use (1) in business relationships and with ‘insiders’, (2) with outsiders
      • Americans usually use (2) in business relationships and with insiders, often use (1) with strangers (in shops, etc.)
    • Co-occurrence Patterns
      • Things that usually go together
      • joke--humorous key
      • apology--serious key
      • lecture--lecture theater
      • meeting--set agenda
      • conversation on date--open agenda
      • Meeting—personal conversation?
    • Manifestation
      • Explicit (rules stated in a very clear way) (often the case in ceremonies)
      • Eg. ‘Please rise’
      • ‘ You may now kiss the bride’
      • Tacit (rule not stated but understood)
      • Manifestation of GOC is usually tacit
      • So people from different DS’s have problems
    • What’s the GOC in your discourse system for ...
      • Taking your boyfriend home to meet the parents
      • playing mahjong
      • robbing a bank
      • breaking up with a lover
      • ____________________
    • GOC
      • GOC can reveal information about deep seated cultural values, assumptions and prejudices.
    • Non-Verbal and Paralinguistic Communication
      • Non-verbal communication
        • Kinesics (gestures, facial expressions)
        • Proxemics (next week)
        • Concept of time (next week)
      • Paralinguistic communication
        • Prosody (Stress, rhythm, intonation, pitch, volume)
        • Conversational management
        • Expressing emotion
        • Expressing/maintaining relationship
        • Cultural concepts of talk (amount, topic)
    • Message and Meta-message
      • Message
        • The words we say
        • information
      • Meta-message
        • What we express through non-verbal and paralinguistic communication
        • Attitude and relationship
    • Non-verbal and Paralinguistic Communication
      • In some ways like verbal communication
        • Symbolic, patterned, ‘rule’ governed
      • BUT…
      • Less planned
      • Less conscious
      • Unconscious ‘enculturation’ rather than formal learning
      • Very context dependent
      • We draw inferences very quickly from it
      • We believe our inferences more strongly and
      • Form stereotypes on the basis of it
    • Non-verbal Communication
      • Police checking IDs
      • ‘ How did you know he’s Japanese?’
      • ‘ Gaydar’
    • 6 Functions of Non-verbal Communication
      • • To provide information, either consciously or unconsciously
      • • To regulate the flow of conversation
      • • To express emotion
      • • To qualify, complement, contradict, or expand verbal messages
      • • To control or influence others
      • • To facilitate specific tasks, such as teaching a person to swing a golf club.
    • Universal?
      • We assume that NV communication is the ‘universal language’
      • Studies of monkeys
      • Studies of blind children
      • Cross cultural studies of facial expressions
      • BUT
      • Important cultural variation
        • Especially in terms of context and stimulus
    • Task
      • Fill in the chart indicating whether you think the NV behavior indicated is positive or negative
    • Examples
      • an Arab man indicates a romantic interest in a woman by running a hand backward across his hair
      • an Egyptian or Thai might mistakenly assume that a Westerner sitting with the sole of his or her shoe showing is offering a grave insult.
      • In Algeria (and other places) a wave means ‘come here’
    • Eye Contact/Gaze
      • North Americans assume that a person who won't meet their gaze is evasive and dishonest.
      • In many parts of Asia and Latin America, keeping your eyes lowered is a sign of respect.
      • It's also a sign of respect among many black Americans, which some schoolteachers have failed to learn. When they scold their black students, saying "Look at me when I'm talking to you," they only create confusion for the children.
    • Eye Contact/Gaze
      • North American tendency to look away while talking and re-establish gaze during turn shifts
      • Some groups look away during turn shifts
      • Floor holder gaze
      • Addressee
        • Cantonese greater than American
        • American may be a challenge
        • Japanese rare
    • Self/Other Indication
      • Pointing
      • Self-indication
      • Pointing to chest or face (nose)
      • Pointing at others
    • Non-verbal Communication
      • Gender differences
      • Generational differences
      • Professional/Corporate differences
    • Paralinguistic Cues
      • Used to express emotion or ‘meta-message’
      • Used to manage conversations
        • Turn taking
        • Framing
        • Face relationships
      • Conversational style
        • Habitual patterns of managing conversation among a group
    • Intonation in English
      • Falling (finality, certainty, statement, end of turn)
      • Rising (non-finality, uncertainty, question, more to come)
      • Rise-Fall (reservation, not sure)
      • ‘ Yes’
    • Contrastive Stress
      • I love you
      • I love you
      • I love you
    • Final Particles in Cantonese
    • L1 Transference Prosody for ESL Speakers
      • Russians: flat level tones
        • English speaker may assume that they are bored or rude
      • Middle Easterners tend to speak more loudly
        • May mistakenly be considered more emotional
      • Japanese are soft-spoken
        • Stereotype of Japanese as ‘polite’
      • Cantonese: Syllable-timed rhythm
        • May sound angry or nervous
        • Difficult to interpret emphasis
    • Backchannel Cues
      • Japanese use 3x more than Americans (Maynard)
      • American Whites use more than American Blacks (Erickson and Shultz)
      • German use 4x as many as Mainland Chinese (G ü nther)
      • White Americans use three times as many as Mainland Chinese (Tao and Thompson)
      • Chinese Americans use more than Mainland Chinese and less than White Americans (Tao and Thompson)
      • Problems with such findings
        • Be skeptical of categories
    • Backchannel cues
      • More-----------------------------------Less
      • Japanese
      • German
      • Am. White
      • Am. Black
      • Am. Chinese
      • Chinese
    • Timing
      • Length of pauses
      • New Yorkers and Californians
      • Power
        • Powerful (short)
        • Less powerful (longer)
      • Relationships
        • Solidarity (short)
        • Deference (longer)
      • Problems with ESL speakers
    • Silence
      • ‘ The Silent Finn’
      • Proverbs
        • Listen a lot, speak little
        • One mouth, two ears
        • If you can’t avoid speaking, drink as much as possible
      • Longer conversational pauses
      • Minimal backchannel
      • Little facial expression
      • Prefer not to be first speaker
    • Apache Indians
      • Silent in
        • Encounters with people who haven’t seen each other for a long time
        • Encounters where one person is emotional or angry
        • Situations of loss or tragedy
    • Role of Questions
      • Questions from authority figures
      • Doctors and probation officers
      • Athabaskans
        • The purpose of questions is to get listener to think about what he/she has done wrong
        • Doctor: Have you been eating a lot of sweets?
        • Patient: (silence)
    • Paralinguistic Communication
      • Gender differences
      • Generational differences
      • Professional/Corporate differences