2003 Public Choice and Economic Science Association 3, 21-23, 2003 Nashville, Tennessee Deokho Cho (Professor of Daegu University, Korea) Tel : 001-82-53-850-6167 [email_address] http://biho.daegu.ac.kr/~chodh A Study on the Electronic Government Development Process through Benchmarking Official Government Website
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Theoretical Review on Electronic Government Development Stages 1. The Concept of EG 2. Theoretical Review of EG Development Stages III. The Typology of E-gov Development Processes on the Web 1. Deficient and Minimal E-gov Capacity 2. Medium E-gov Capacity 3. High E-gov Capacity IV. Integrated EG V. Conclusion
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have changed the business environments and communication methods in the world. World people including the Koreans are changing the way they communicate using ICTs. The predominant medias of communication way are the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Particularly, the development of Web-based technologies provides a revolutionary way of information communication anywhere and anytime. The government elaborates the information management system for the government officers, builds the delivery system of public services for the citizens, and established the electronic communication system for the business. I. Introduction
Government departments are able to improve the way of the information provision to the citizen in innovative way. Citizens can get information from the government website anytime, anywhere. ICTs contribute to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the executive functions of government operation, to secure the transparency of execution process, and to change fundamentally the relationships between citizens and government, between central and local government ( http://www.parliament.uk) , and business and government. These activities are probably implemented on the government websites.
The key ideas are that the loading of public information, its communication between government and citizens, and provision of public services are implemented through the EG website. Based upon these ideas, this paper notes the role and function of EG websites, reviews the direction of information communication and its development process, and finally suggests the typology of development processes of EGs on the web, which considers the way of information communication, the flow of information, and the interaction between citizens and government. Chapter II notes the previous studies on the EG and the role of information technologies.
Chapter IV finally integrates three EGs into an Integrated EG Type that is a future EG vision. This research suggests the typology of E-gov development of each EG that includes the citizen participation and administrative development processes on the Web. Based upon the E-gov Index of United Nations(190 members, 169 countries), Chapter III distinguishes three EGs such as 1) Deficient E-gov capacity in terms of information flow which is a beginning stage of EG (Publishing information on the Web); 2) Medium E-gov Capacity (Interacting government with citizen and business using email and other interactive tools), and 3) High E-gov Capacity (Transacting: making government services available online) which is a mature stage. This paper benchmarks two or three E-gov websites in each category in order to set up the typology of E-gov in each development stage.
1. The Concept of EG The Concept of E-gov is very diverse and the level of E-gov development varies from countries and to countries. In terms of technology -determinism, we can define the EG as the web-based government that the government information resources are used in the more effective and efficient way for the citizens, business and government itself using the information technologies. It transforms government organizations and activities, and aims to provide better services for the citizen by using information and communication technologies, especially web-based technologies. II. Theoretical Review of Development Stages of EG
The most prominent characteristics of EG are that these things are implemented through the Internet and websites. The Web has become the most important way for citizens, business, and governments to improve the communication of information. It guarantees to access information and public services 24 hours without transmission costs, to allow information to be shared and integrated without additional costs. The anytime, anywhere character of the web makes possible the government business and public services to be more accessible to more people at greater convenience and less costs. The web will be a universal interface in information communication between government and citizens, business and government.
There are no agreements on the EG development stage. Moreover the previous studies usually did not consider the Internet and websites in spite that most of administrative information and public services are transmitted through the Internet and EG websites. Therefore, there are no typologies on the EG development stage even if several scholars suggest the vision on the EG development process. Kauver (1998) categorized the development process of EG as three stages following the process of information generation and flow by the government. 2. Theoretical Review of Development Stages of EG
Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) (1999) suggested four stages on the development of EG as follows: Stage 1 means that an agency or government had loaded its own work and service information on the Internet. Stage 2 is that an agency allows Internet users to access the agency database, and to browse, explore, and to interact with that data. Stage 3 notes that the government allows users to enter secure information and to engage in transactions with the government. Stage 4 indicates which the government entails the agency sharing user information with other relevant agencies to provide a whole-of-government integrated service ( http://www.anao.gov.au ). Keller (2001) elaborates Four Phases Model of EG using the development processes of e-commerce starting form e-service to transaction.
III. The Typology of EG Development Processes on the Web Based upon the E-gov index of United Nations, this paper addresses the development processes of electronic government on the web. It especially focuses on the development stages of web-based electronic government (EG), based upon the agencies of information provision, information communication technologies, and levels of administration information communication and citizen participation. The territory of public administration of the E-gov can be distinguished between the real world and virtual one. The latter is the electronic processing sector of public information in the backside of EG web. The former is the real world, which is the front-side, where the citizens get the information and require the civil application settlement through the EG web.
For instance, Korea is one of the rapid growing countries in terms of information technology and E-gov. Eventually, the Korean E-gov has been progressed as follows: Korean government focused on the computerization of pubic administration from 1978 to 1986. She built high-speed computer network from 1987 to 1996. And an official government website which provides citizen with text information on the public administration was opened in 1996. After several revisions of government website, a government portal site ( http://www.egov.go.kr ) was opened in 2001 and this site provides citizens with 20 online public services, 393 documentation forms and 4000 text information service. Actually, the government website is one of the most important components of electronic government. Based upon the E-gov Index of United Nations (169 countries), this paper benchmarks two or three government websites for elaborating typology of E-gov in each category.
Figure 1 : Government Centered EG 1. Deficient and minimal E-gov Capacity -. Open the government website(70 countries: Ghana , Thailand ) -. Provide the administration, business, and civil application information by the government, Information flows from government to citizen -. Large proportion of offline public service and civil application, small proportion of online service (paradigm: Administration) -. Maintain the structure and organization of industrial age government G overnment C itizen EG Web Off-line public service Off-line civil application Back-office in virtual space Front-office in real space On-line public service On-line civil application
Figure 2 : Interactive EG 2. Medium E-Gov Capacity(Interactive EG) -. 26 Countries ( Poland , Malaysia ) -. Decrease the offline service and civil application and increase them online base -. Increase the interaction and citizen participation (paradigm: introduction of governance) -. Transforming the structure and organization of government. -. No distinction between providers and users -. Increase the function and role of Web in EG -. High-speed Internet and Geographic Information System EG Web G overnment C itizen Off-line civil application Front-office in real space Back-office in virtual space Off-line public service On-line public service On-line civil application
Figure 3 : Citizen Centered EG On-line public service 3. High E-gov Capacity -. 36 countries ( United States , Korea , United Kingdom ) -. Decision-making process which is gradually led by citizen -. Increase the request on civil application and citizen participation. -. Various media: Text, Audio, 3 dimension information system for citizen -. Beginning high speed wireless Internet service. -. Transforming the organization and its restructuring -. Tailored public services for citizens -. Enlargement of the function and role of EG web. EG Web G overnment C itizen Off-line public service Off-line civil application Front-office in real space Back-office in virtual space On-line civil application
Legend : ○ Little Relationship ◑ Medium Relationship ● High Relationship Table 1 : The Range and Direction of Information Communication in GWC The characteristics of each EG are summarized like Table 1 Following the development stages of EG, it defines the principal agency of information provision, notes the direction of information flow, and to address the level of information technologies, and the level of citizen participation. It also addresses the level of relationship on each factor. ● ● ◑ ◑ ○ ○ High E-gov Capacity ● ● ◑ ◑ Medium E-gov Capacity ● ● Minimal E-gov Capacity Activation of IC Information Request by Citizen Enlargement of IC Mutual Information Provision Lack of Mutual Communication Information Provision by Government Characteristics EG Types
Figure 4 : Integrated EG IV. Integrated EG -. Enlargement the work range of E-gov -. Integration of three different Egs: depending upon the types of public services (Government-centered E-gov: Publishing of national policies, Interactive EG: local autonomy in local government, Citizen-centered Gov: community development and citizen participation) -. Decrease the offline service and increase them in online bases -. Wireless high speed internet, 3-dimension GIS, and virtual reality on the web. -. Global village (anytime and anywhere service system), mobile government EG Web G overnment C itizen Off-line public service Off-line civil application Front-office in real space Back-office in virtual space On-line integrated service & application
V. Conclusion The level of human ability is decided by the brain and computer use abilities in the information age. The human ability which creates the information will be significantly developed through the utilization of the information communication technologies which the information is presented and transferred. EG is the most representative example of these changes. Due to the rapid development of ICTs, EG development stages do not follow exactly and orderly the Government-Centered, Interactive, and Citizen-Centered Government development process. They provide mutual development environments and will be developed into an Integrated EG, interacting the several factors such as communication technologies, citizen participation, and presentation technologies. Especially, three different stages occur simultaneously in the developing countries.
1. Administration Governance. 2. From producer-oriented society to user or consumer-oriented society, from collective public services to tailored public services. 3. Diverse information delivery system and multi-dimension presentation technologies- virtual reality 4. High speed wireless Internet service, high quality of information service and presentation. 5. Continuously feed-back between government and citizen through web (E-democracy, e-business, e-politics, e-education) in anytime and anywhere, and integrated portal service in one-stop and non-stop bases .