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Lecture 10
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Lecture 10

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  • 1. MGT2201 Administrative Management Module 10 Specific Administrative Management Issues (Telecommunications, Email, Records, Reprographics)
  • 2. Possible responsibilities of the Administrative Manager Data Processing Manager Feasibility studies Computer systems Systems installation Systems evaluation Administrative Systems Manager General systems and procedures studies Personnel training and utilisation Standards development Telecommunications Records Manager Records storage Records Retrieval Records Maintenance Records Disposition Forms Management Correspondence Reports management Office Services Manager Equipment and supplies Machine maintenance and procurement Reprographics Mailing Services Text/word processing DIRECTOR – ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
  • 3. Telecommunications <ul><li>..the transfer of data from one place to another over communication lines or channels including communication of all forms of information including data, voice, sound, graphics and video </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly sophisticated telecommunications technology has had the greatest impact on the administrative section of the organisation </li></ul>
  • 4. Trends in telecommunications Application trends Technology trends Toward a greater number of competitive vendors, carriers, alliances and telecommunications network services Toward open and interconnected local and global digital networks for voice, data, and video with heavy use of high-speed fibre optic lines and satellite channels to form a global information superhighway system Toward the pervasive use of the Internet and enterprise and inter-organisational intranet networks to support collaborative computing, online business operations, and strategic advantage in local and global markets Industry trends
  • 5. Advantages of telecommunication networks <ul><li>Enables work groups to communicate electronically sharing hardware, software and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Increases productivity (transactions can be processed immediately) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales transactions can be processed immediately from remote locations – exchange business documents electronically with customers and suppliers or remotely monitor and control production processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computing power shared by end-users throughout an enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance collaboration and communication among individuals both inside and outside an organisation </li></ul>
  • 6. TELECOMMUNICIATIONS IN BUSINESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Centralised </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Client/server </li></ul><ul><li>Interorganisational </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul>ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS BUSINESS PROCESS SYSTEMS <ul><li>Electronic mail </li></ul><ul><li>Voice mail </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin board systems </li></ul><ul><li>Videotex </li></ul><ul><li>Facsimile </li></ul><ul><li>Public information services </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Decision room conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Online transaction processing </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry/response </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic data interchange </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic funds transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Activity monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Process control </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul>
  • 7. Telecommunications – current trends <ul><li>“ Telecommunications technology is moving toward integrated digital networks for voice, data and video, and the pervasive use of technology to build inter-connected global networks, like the Internet..” </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, A, 1997, Introduction to Information Systems , 6 th Edn, Irwin Book Team </li></ul>
  • 8. Elements in a telecommunication system (1) <ul><li>Voice communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KTS (key telephone system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PABX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercom systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice recognition systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio response systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio communication systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paging systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Elements in a telecommunication system (2) <ul><li>Data communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area networks (LANs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows lusers to share resources such as printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows exchange of email with other computer users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows keeping track of how often software is used by whom and for how long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area networks (WANs) </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Elements in a telecommunication system (3) <ul><li>Text communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facsimile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voicemail </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics communication </li></ul>
  • 11. Increasing telecommunication costs <ul><li>Telecommunications costs have increased dramatically as a result of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing sophisticated telecommunications technology eg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for transmission of multimedia documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorised and uncontrolled use of internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased customer/client demand for ‘instant’ communication resulting in use of more expensive technology </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Controlling telecommunication costs <ul><li>Recording all outgoing calls and requesting itemised accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension number making call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number dialled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration and cost of the call </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraging employees to reduce unimportant personal phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidelines as to cost-effective telecommunications usage </li></ul><ul><li>Billing employees for unauthorised use of internet </li></ul>
  • 13. Email – friend or foe? <ul><li>Potential problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deletion at will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content – often includes communications which would not be considered appropriate for memo or letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage – users tend to communicate with greater frequency and with a greater number of recipients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language – users often use more informal communication approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users often expect immediate response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Email – an organisational record? <ul><li>Many employees tend to regard email as a private communication channel </li></ul><ul><li>BUT many email messages are in fact organisational records which need to be retained in order to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the transactions of the organisation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide evidence in the case of litigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Australia the Evidence Act (1995) expanded the definition of a document to include email </li></ul></ul></ul>EVIDENCE ACT 1995
  • 15. Managing email <ul><li>Need for same professional level of records management applied to other types of communication to be applied to email </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of an email policy to achieve the following objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure capture of all corporate records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure compatibility in treatment of records captured in email and traditional communication methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent capture of ephemera (information which does not represent an organisational record) </li></ul></ul>Employees should not communicate by email any message they would not be comfortable broadcasting over the company loud speaker system!!! Guidelines on Workplace E-mail Guidelines for Electronic Mail (Email)
  • 16. Netiquette <ul><li>Thorough knowledge of email etiquette (netiquette) required to create good impression and avoid misundertandings </li></ul><ul><li>Care needs to be taken in communication approach in email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of face to face, audio or visual contact leads to more informal approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of body language, intonation patterns etc may result in reader taken a very different view of message contained in email to what was intended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many first impressions are created by email </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Some netiquette suggestions (1) <ul><li>Don’t type entire message in capitals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly taken to indicate shouting or strong emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid using emoticons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard symbols used to convey your tone or voice, humour, facial expression, or gestures eg %-) (confused) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid using email shorthand unless you are sure the recipient is familiar with them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg CUL (see you later) FYI (for your information) etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respond promptly to email </li></ul><ul><li>Do not forward email without the sender’s permission to do so </li></ul>
  • 18. Some netiquette suggestions (2) <ul><li>Keep number of copies to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Count to 10 before responding to an annoying message </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful how you construct your message </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict subscriptions to newslists and newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict subscriptions to newslists and newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Log off from your computer when leaving your workstation </li></ul>
  • 19. Organisational records <ul><li>What is an organisational record? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>..information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organisation or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(AS ISO 15489) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The success of organisations depends to a large extent on their ability to acquire/create, process, manage and distribute information </li></ul>
  • 20. Importance of records management ORGANISATIONAL SUCCESS Right information to support decision making Right information for operational purposes Right information as evidence of policies and activities Right information as litigation support Legal, ethical and professional responsibilities Need to control volume of information being created and stored
  • 21. Records – an organisational problem? (1) <ul><li>Growth in both the number of records and the formats and media in which they are stored has created a number of problems that seriously affect office operations and administrative costs eg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to capture electronic records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of unnecessary records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overloaded file drawers and folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly labelled files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misfiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible equipment and software </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Records – an organisational problem? (2) <ul><li>many organisations find their records critically out of control </li></ul><ul><li>organisations running out of space for records </li></ul><ul><li>constant frustration and embarrassment caused by missing files </li></ul><ul><li>unacceptable amounts of time spent tracking down files </li></ul><ul><li>existing staff lack skills needed to develop efficient records systems </li></ul><ul><li>Problems often result from lack of understanding of the role of records and their overall cost and a serious lack of training ie the ‘anyone can file’ syndrome </li></ul>
  • 23. Records management <ul><li>..the field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records , including processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records </li></ul><ul><li>AS ISO 15489 – 2002, Part 1 </li></ul>
  • 24. Records life cycle (1) <ul><li>Records management monitors records throughout their life cycle ie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Records creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that creation of records is properly authorised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting up effective filing systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procuring filing equipment and supplies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25. Records life cycle (2) <ul><li>Records retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to minimise retrieval times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming more complex as organisations store greater quantities of records in increasingly diverse formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Records maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of vital records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records disposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Records costs <ul><li>Following breakdown was suggested for paper records systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space of active and inactive records 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture and equipment 5% </li></ul></ul>Would you expect this breakdown to change with the trend towards electronic records?
  • 27. Reducing records costs <ul><li>Reduce down time by cutting down retrieval times etc </li></ul><ul><li>Centralise records services for cross departmental records and staff with trained staff </li></ul><ul><li>Consider electronic records management to reduce cost of supplies (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce number of files in active storage and transfer to less expensive inactive stroage </li></ul><ul><li>Consider micro imaging of inactive/archival records </li></ul><ul><li>Check disposition schedules to ensure no files are being held unnecessarily </li></ul><ul><li>Limit creation of files to what is necessary </li></ul>
  • 28. Reprographics <ul><li>..the copying of information and records </li></ul><ul><li>Historical development of reprographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handwritten copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicating machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photocopier technology </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Reprographic problems <ul><li>Reprographic costs can be problematic for the administrative manager eg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of unauthorised copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate use of machine (failure to use back to back copying) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper wastage because of poor maintenance of the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of copyright </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Reprographics and Copyright <ul><li>Copyright Act (1968) provides protection by law for authors or makers of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, films, sound recordings, broadcasts and published editions of work </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright protection becomes automatic as soon as material has been written or taped </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright remains in effect for 50 years after work is produced or the author’s death whichever is the latest </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibits work being reproduced unless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Act (1968) contains permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright owner or publisher gives permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An insubstantial amount is reproduced (fair dealing) </li></ul></ul>COPYRIGHT ACT 1968
  • 31. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations WARNING A copyright owner is entitled to take legal action against a person who infringes his copyright. Unless otherwise permitted by the Copyright Act, 1968, unauthorised copying of a work in which copyright subsists may infringe the copyright in that work. Where making a copy of a work is a fair dealing under Section 40 of the Copyright Act, 1968, making that copy is not an infringement of the copyright in the work. It is a fiar dealing to make a copy, for the purpose of research or study, of one or more articles on the same subject matter in periodicals, publications or, in the case of any other work, of a reasonable portion of a work. In a case of a published work that is of not less than 10 pages and is not an artistic work, 10% of the total number of pages, or one chapter, is a reasonable portion. More extensive copying may constitute fair dealing of the purpose of research or study. To determine whether it does, it is necessary to have regard to the criteria set out in Sub-section 40 (2) of the Copyright Act, 1968.
  • 32. Some features of photocopiers <ul><li>Enlargement/reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Autofeed </li></ul><ul><li>Collating </li></ul><ul><li>Duplexing </li></ul><ul><li>Colour copying </li></ul><ul><li>Edge erase </li></ul><ul><li>Stapling </li></ul>
  • 33. Reducing reprographic costs <ul><li>Select most suitable process for job to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of highly competitive market for equipment and maintenance agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor usage through key, access codes or similar devices </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage personal copying </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage global emails instead of multi copies of interoffice memos </li></ul><ul><li>Provide well structured manuals to reduce wastage </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage electronic document management to reduce need for multiple file copies </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure all employees are familiar withy provisions of Copyright Act to avoid breaches of copyright </li></ul>

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