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  • Well, in the case of mobile communication technologies, this phrase is true. Our society currently has in place technology that will allow you to communicate with anyone anytime in most major metropolitan areas. Think about it: if you have the need for people to be able to reach you at anytime, then you either buy a cellular phone with 1-800 service or a beeper with coverage for the entire U.S. You can even receive e-mail on your beeper. Additionally, if you have a notebook computer or a personal data assistant (PDA), you can receive e-mail or communicate over networks using built-in modems with cellular capability. however, it is not yet fully realized. While a person can receive e-mail on their beeper or voice data on their cellular phone, they can’t yet send or receive pictures or video. These are the limitations of today’s communication conduits. The limitation isn’t so much about technology as it is about standardization and integration. The transmission of voice and e-mail requires agreement among many parties, including the cellular provider, the phone or beeper manufacturer, the FCC, and probably several others. Since pictures and video are much more resource intensive than e-mail or voice, it is somewhat more difficult to settle on standards for this type of communication. Because of the tremendous profit potential, you can bet that standards will be agreed upon in the near future.

Integration with Existing/Future Mobile Station,Systems and ... Integration with Existing/Future Mobile Station,Systems and ... Presentation Transcript

  • The Future of Mobile Communications Professor Rolando Carrasco BSc(Hons), PhD, CEng, FIEE [email_address] 1 School of Electrical, Electronic and Computing Engineering
  • Research Project 1
    • The Capacity and Throughput Improvement of Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems
    • Dr. Pei Xiao, Research Fellow (three years)
    • Mr. M. K. Khan BEng, MSc, Research Student (2 1/2 years)
    • EPSRC Grant in collaboration with Dr. I. Wassell, Cambridge University and Cambridge Broadband Ltd
  • Network Interface Subscriber Unit Standard 4 Sector Base Station AP AP AP AP 90 ° x 8 ° antenna 23 ° x 23 ° antenna 3 options for user interfaces 100 BaseT 100 BaseT & E1 100 BaseT & 2x POTS VectaStar System Configuration Copyright Cambridge University 3 AP AP AP AP 256 x CPE 256 x CPE 256 x CPE 256 x CPE SDH / ATM Network
  • Research Project 2
    • Space-Time Diversity Coding Combined with Equalisation for MIMO Wireless Channels.
    • Mr. Cameron B Shaw BEng(Hons), MEng (PhD Student), 15 months remaining
    • EPSRC grant in collaboration with Lancaster University (Professor Honary) and MOD (Ministry Of Defence)
  • The world of mobile communications 5
    • Have you ever heard the phrase “the future is here today”? Well, in the case of mobile communication technologies, this phrase is true.
    • However, it is not yet fully realized.
  • Contents
    • Introduction
    • Challenges in the Migration to Future Mobile Systems
    • 2G, 3G and 4G wireless systems
    • Research Challenges:
      • Mobile Stations, Systems, Services
    • Conclusion
  • Introduction (2)
    • 2G Mobile Systems
      • GSM, IS-95 and CDMA one carry speech and low bit rate data
    • 3G Mobile Systems
      • Higher data rate
      • Multi-media systems
      • GPRS
      • IMT 2000
      • Bluetooth
      • WLAN and HiperLAN
      • Developing new standards and hardware
  • 4G Mobile Systems (2006)
    • Access, handoff
    • Location coordination
    • Resource coordination to add new users
    • Support for multicasting and Quality of Service
    • Wireless security and authentication
    • Network failure and backup
    • Pricing and billing
  • The world of mobile communications 9
    • Out of a world population of 6.32 billion people, approximately 1.12 billion, or 1 in 6, have a mobile phone and 71.6% are GSM customers
    • Total Operator revenues for 2006 have been estimated to be over $100 billion for Western Europe
    • China Mobile with over 100 million customers are connecting 2 million new customers each month
    • About 2 billion people in the world have yet to make a phone call and it is likely that when it happens it will be on a mobile phone rather than a fixed line
  • What is Wireless Data?
    • Paging/short messaging
    • Vehicle tracking and dispatch
    • Transaction processing
    • Warehouse inventory
    • Subscriber information services
    • Wireless remote access to host
    • File transfer to/from laptop,J2ME
    • Wireless Internet access and Video Teleconferencing
    • Browsing on Laptops, PDAs ,Phones
    • Messaging,E-mail,SMS,Fax,Voice,Pager
  • Mobile Computing Systems
    • Future Mobile Systems
      • Personalised Services providing stable system performance and Quality of Service (QoS)
      • Challenges:
        • Mobile Station
        • System(Networks)
        • Service and standards
        • Mobile VCE (, MIRAI and DocoMo
    VCE = Virtual Centre of Excellence in Mobile and Personal Communication 11
  • Mobile Computing Systems
    • Some key features of Future Mobile Systems
      • High usability:
        • Anytime, anywhere and with any technology (all-IP based heterogeneous networks)
      • Support for Multi-media Services at low transmission cost
      • Personalisation(having human characteristics)
      • Integrated Services
  • Everything is IP 13
  • Research Challenges
    • Mobile Station
      • Multimode user terminals(multi-functional,software upgrades)
      • Wireless system discovery(searching for wireless system)
      • Wireless system selection(suitable technology)
    • System
      • Terminal Mobility(to locate and update the locations)
      • Network infrastructure and QoS support
      • Security, performance and complexity
      • Fault tolerance and Survivability
    • Service
      • Multi-operators and billing system
      • Personal mobility
      • New Applications
  • Mobile Stations An ideal software radio system
    • New coding/interleaving/diversity/equalisation/SISO channel/MIMO channels
    • Multicarrier, spread spectrum and antenna solutions
    • Adaptive coding modulation, detection, synchronisation and automatic repeat request
    • Multimedia protocols, new access,timing control and QoS
    • New applications
    • A software radio approach can be used so that the user terminal adapts itself to the wireless
    • interface
    15 Multimode user Terminals: To design a single user terminal that can operate in different wireless networks
  • Technical Challenges
    • Low-Power/Low-Cost Implementations
    • Scarce Radio Spectrum
    • Radio Channel Characteristics
    • - Limits on Signal Coverage
    • - Limits on Data Rates
    • Efficient Network Architectures and Protocols
    • Seamless Internetworking
    • Authentication and Security
  • Radio Environment
    • Path Loss
    • Shadow Fading
    • Multipath
    • Interference
    • Infrared Versus Radio
    • Doppler Spread
  • Link Performance Measures Efficiency
    • Spectral Efficiency
    • - a measure of the data rate per unit bandwidth for a given bit error probability and transmitted power
    • Power Efficiency
    • - a measure of the required received power to achieve a given data rate for a given error probability and bandwidth
    • Throughput/Delay
        • Flat Fading Counter measures
        • - Fade Margin
        • - Diversity
        • - Coding and Interleaving
        • - Adaptive Techniques
        • Delay Spread Counter measures
        • - Equalization
        • - Multicarrier
        • - Spread Spectrum
        • - Antenna Solutions
  • Convolutional ‘outer’ code I ISI Channel I I -1 SISO Equaliser SISO ‘outer’ decoder data Estimated data Turbo Equaliser AWGN Turbo Equalisation 21
  • MIMO Turbo Equalisation Data Model: 2-User, 2-Path, 2-Antenna ( Example) h 11 (1) h 11 (0) h 12 (1) h 12 (0) h 21 (0) h 21 (1) h 22 (0) h 22 (1) User 1 User 2 b 1 ( n ) b 2 ( n ) r 1 ( n ) r 2 ( n ) Space Domain Sampling 22
  • Algebraic-Geometric Codes
    • Algebraic geometry is a powerful tool for constructing codes with good parameters e.g. Hamming distance, code rate and large code length.
    • Very long codes can be constructed by choosing curves containing many points. Reed Solomon codes are constructed from a line, which has less points, and hence they are much shorter than AG codes
    • There is almost no limit to the number of AG codes that can be constructed from a variety of different classes of curve. There are not many Reed Solomon codes.
    • AG codes perform better than Reed Solomon codes for high code rates over smaller finite fields and are suitable for application in mobile communications and storage devices
    • Further investigation is needed into constructing new codes from different classes of curves and the development of low complexity decoding algorithms for future hardware implementation.
  • Algebraic-Geometric Codes
    • Hermitian curves can be used to construct very long codes:
    • Example: C ( x,y ) = x 5 + y 4 + y , defined over GF(16) gives codes 64 symbols long. A Reed Solomon code over GF(16) is only 15 symbols long
  • Construction of LDPC codes for Application with Broadband Communication Systems 25
    • LPDC codes are a class of Block codes that perform very close to Shannon limit.
    • Uses efficient encoding and iterative decoding schemes to achieve low latency .
    • Highly parallel nature and low complexity of decoding algorithm results in fast iterative decoding and less complex Hardware architecture.
    • Better performance using equalisation techniques in dispersive MIMO/SISO ISI fading channels.
    • Performance is drastically improved by concatenating with Space time Codes
    • Suitable for high data rate applications.
  • SUI-3 LDPC-QPSK With SRK Equalisation 26
  • Broadband Fixed Wireless Access (BFWA) systems
    • Aim of BFWA is to deliver broadband data services to homes and businesses in a flexible and efficient manner.
    • Main driver is to provide Internet access for applications such as E-mail, web-browsing, file downloading and transfer, audio and video services over Internet.
    • In BFWA systems, radio signal travels via multipath from transmitter to receiver antennas. Multipath propagation causes intersymbol interference and degrade the system performance.
    • Turbo equalization is a powerful technique to remove the effect of intersymbol interference.
  • Comparison of different equalisation schemes in BFWA systems 28
  • MIMO Channels for BFWA Systems
    • Use MIMO space-time coding to increase the capacity of BFWA system.
    • Signals from different antennas can be separated through orthogonal design, such as Alamouti algorithm.
    • When used over frequency selective channels, a channel equalizer has to be used at the receiver along with the space-time decoder.
    • STBC can be applied in conjunction with OFDM which converts the frequency selective channel into a set of independent parallel frequency-flat subchannels. The Alamouti scheme is then applied to each subcarrier.
  • Space-Time Ring Trellis Coded Modulation
    • The uncorrelated fading channels are used to provide diversity
    • Very good results can be obtained with just 2 tx & 2 rx antennas.
    • Higher coding gains achieved and error floors removed by using higher state codes.
    • Higher coding gains are achieved and error floors removed by using higher state codes.
    • Cannot fully recover vehicular channel data. Equalisation is needed.
    30 Tx1 Tx2 r 1 (x) r 2 (x) g 11 (x) g 22 (x) g 12 (x) g 21 (x) ST-Ring TCM Decoder
  • Maximum a-posteriori Turbo Equalisation
    • Realistic channel models are created to properly test the mobile communication systems.
    • Indoor, pedestrian and vehicular scenarios are simulated based on actual measured results from urban mobile radio channels.
    • Over realistic channels (such as the urban mobile channel) the intersymbol interference produced needs mitigation to improve performance.
    • The goal of equalisation is the cancellation of the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI), or equivalently the flattening of the radio channel’s frequency response
    • Turbo equalisation combines decoding and equalisation by converting the channel into a type of ‘code’ which can then be iteratively decoded with a symbol-by-symbol decoder.
    31 5 10 15 20 25 30 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0
  • Mobile Station Via PC server Via smart card OTA Scanning… Available Systems Way to download Software Wireless system discovery 32 Via PDA
    • To discover available wireless systems by processing the signals sent from different wireless
    • systems (different access protocols)
    Via Memory card WLAN UMTS CDMA GPRS GSM
  • Mobile Station
      • Wireless System Selection: Selection of the most suitable technology for a particular service
      • We can choose any available wireless device for each particular
      • communication session (fit to user QoS requirements)
      • Right network selection can ensure the QoS required by each Session Initiation
      • Protocol (SIP) messages.
      • Adequate knowledge of each network is required before a selection is made
      • Location information of the source mobile nodes, available networks of both
      • mobile nodes and user preference are all taken into account in the selection
      • when a mobile node makes a call to another mobile node
  • System Terminal Mobility Location Management The system tracks and locates a mobile terminal for possible connection
    • To locate and update the locations of the terminals in various
    • systems
    • Location Management: Information about the roaming terminals
    • such as original and current located cells, authentication
    • information and QoS
    • Service Mobility: Keep same service while mobile
    34 Terminal moves between subnets
  • System
    • Enhanced Mobile IPv6 Schemes
    Figure shows an example of horizontal and vertical handoff UMTS coverage GSM coverage WLAN coverage Vertical handoff Horizontal handoff 35
    • Main problems: - handover performance
    • - handover failure due to lack of resources
    • - authentication of redirection
  • System Problems
    • Real-Time Multimedia Services that are highly time-sensitive
    • It is unacceptable if the MIPv6 handoff process significantly
    • degrades system performance.
    • New handoff decision policies and new handoff algorithms.
    • The terminal moves from one cell to another (two different
    • wireless systems e.g. WLAN and GSM).
  • System
    • To integrate the existing non-IP-based and IP-based systems
    • Non-IP-based systems (voice delivery) e.g. GSM, CDMA2000
    • and UMTS
    • IP-based systems (data services) e.g. 802.11 WLAN and
    • HiperLAN, 802.16/802.20
    • Problems : Integration, QoS guarantee for end-to-end
    • time-sensitive (3GPP)
    Network Infrastructure and QoS Support 37
  • System
    • The heterogeneity of wireless networks complicates the security
    • issues
    • 2G/3G have been widely studied
    • The key concern in security designs for 4G networks is flexibility.
    • The key sizes and encryption and decryption algorithms of
    • existing schemes are also fixed.
    • Reconfigurable security mechanisms are needed (Tiny SESAME)
    • Modifications in existing security schemes may be applicable to
    • heterogeneous systems
    Security 38
  • Mobile Station – GSM Functional Architecture Interface to other networks Transition to ISDN, PDN, PSTN Radio Interface MS MS MS BTS-BSC Interface Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) Operation Subsystem (OSS) Points of reference Radio Subsystem 39 BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC HLR VLR AuC OMC MSC EIR
  • System
    • Reliability, availability and survivability of the network
    • A cellular wireless access network is typically designed as a tree-like topology
    • that has several levels (device, cell, switch and network levels)
    • Problems: Any level fails (hardware/software), all levels below will be affected
    • Consideration, power consumption, user mobility, QoS management, security,
    • system capacity and link error rates of many different wireless networks.
    • The first is to use hierarchical cellular network systems
    • The second is to use collocated or overlapping heterogeneous wireless network
    Fault Tolerance and Survivability: To minimise the failures and Their potential impacts in any level of tree-like topology 40
  • Services
    • Multiple Operators and Billing System
    • More comprehensive billing and accounting systems are needed (different types of
    • services)
    • Multiple service providers
    • Operators need to design new business architecture, accounting processes and
    • accounting data maintenance.
    • Future Wireless Networks support multimedia communications, which consists of
    • different media components with possibly different charging units
    • This adds difficulty to the task of designing a good charging scheme for all customers
    • Scalability, flexibility, stability, accuracy and usability
  • Services
    • The movement of users instead of users’ terminals and involves the provision of
    • personal communication and personalised operating environments
    Personal Mobility: different terminals, same address 42
  • Services
    • Mobile-agent based infrastructure is one widely studied
    • (Agent Support for Personal Mobility)
    • Agents act as intermediaries between the user and the
    • Internet
    Personal Mobility 43
  • Application
    • Mobile computing in a Fieldwork Environment Ecologists, archaeologists, computer scientists and engineers
    • Communication and Ad Hoc Networking in the field, prevent disaster, reduce crime and terrorism
    • Health and Education
    • E-Commerce, E-Business, E-Government
    • Partnership Universities
    • Entertainment, games, smart home
  • Improving the way we work 45
    • The way and means that people use to communicate is changing
    • People need the ability to work anywhere, anytime, anyplace
    • Best Value, being effective and efficient
    • Work is an activity not a building or place
  • Conclusions
    • In this presentation research challenges in the emigration to future networks are studied and described
    • The challenges are grouped into three aspects: Mobile Station, System and Service
    • Wireless technologies used to decrease crime and prevent emergency disasters and terrorism
  • Conclusions
    • The challenges were identified, such as multicarrier user terminals, wireless system discovery, terminal mobility, QoS support and business opportunities
    • Mobile communication impact in urban/rural areas
    • Project of Innovation for job creation using wireless technologies