Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
                     in the promotion of

     Economic Development and E...
Table of Content


1.      INTRODUCTION......................................................................................
1.       INTRODUCTION

The present report is compiled in the framework of the GTZ research project “Possibilities for
the ...
capacity, appropriate software etc.) as well on the interaction of these. The interactive
character of ICT distinguishes i...
•     Basic telecommunications (telephone, fax, message service);
•     Supporting services (telegrams, money transfer, ph...
enabled development (e-development). Below, brief summaries are given to illustrate efforts
for ICT-for-development (or-e-...
Summarizing the main activities in this field, we distinguish below:

•   The “Global Information and Communication Techno...
OECD also publishes the Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard 200110
     that brings together the latest inte...
also offers (among others) information on Private Sector Development, financial sector
references (microfinance), gender a...
how they work. Certainly, you will find other explanations and additional terms to add, so
consider this just a starting p...
a high response (approx. 2000 users/ month) and is continuously expanding its content and
services.

• Online-training as ...
‘ProMali’ initiative by the National Federation of Malian Artisans and Trades (FNAM) –
assisted by GTZ in this matter – ha...
In BDS, online-training is not yet widely in use, for reasons that need to be further explored
(see chapter 3.2.2 and Anne...
Regional Economic Growth Initiative (USAID). This tools tracks more than 30 commodities in
seven Gobi and two Ulaanbaatar ...
• Commercial BDS: the South African company Mbendi Information Services/Consultants
offers private sector companies assist...
30
 25
 20
 15
 10
  5
  0
        1       2      3      4       5      6       7

1 = no use of ICTs
2 = Internet presenc...
On the other hand, many projects indicate their firm interest for ICTs, for which they stress
the need to get assistance i...
⇒ Knowledge Management and Business Development Services have been mentioned
by 5 projects each, suggesting still largely ...
⇒ A sustainable set-up through local partners and service providers as well as awareness
about the potential benefits of I...
Internet and software technology worth 123 million DM. Young researchers and
    business people can access funding for IT...
•     ICTs and the Private Sector: End-to-End E-Business: the future of e-commerce
      applications developed by highly ...
(information on technology, purchasing channels, customers, product design). On the other
hand, the importance of local la...
The question really is for many practitioners how to get there, in concrete terms, and for
ICTs, how to make best use of m...
promoting ICT-based product development that would benefit a wider group of projects.
Experience from industrialised count...
(c) Elaborate a concept paper for an integrated approach to ICT within ongoing GTZ
projects and programmes in EDEP.

This ...
ANNEX I:          ICT-International/development links

www.developmentgateway.org            Development Gateway Foundatio...
www.sdnp.undp.org                        UNDP/ICTs for Sustainable Development Networking
www.slu.edu/eweb                ...
ANNEX II:        Literature on ICT in Development

ADB (2001): “Towards E-development in Asia and The Pacific: A Strategic...
GTZ (2001): Research on the Market for Internet-based Information Services for Private SMEs, by Taylor Nelson
Sofres for S...
ANNEX III: ICT applications - Country and regional Experience


Keyword           Country/Region Implementing             ...
Urban/Rural
small-scale
producers
Asia/Pacific
ICT policies     Asia/general         ADB                            www.ad...
Gateways       can be searched    Gateway
               under their own
               ‘country
               Gateways’
...
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  1. 1. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the promotion of Economic Development and Employment Promotion - Assessing Experiences and Opportunities – GTZ Abt. 41 Wirtschafts- und Beschäftigungsförderung Susanne Bauer Berlin, den 13.11.2001
  2. 2. Table of Content 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 3 2. INFORMATION- AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) FOR DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................................................... 3 2.1 ICT DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................... 3 2.2 ICT FOR DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW OF PROGRAMMES AND EXPERIENCES ....................... 5 2.2.1 E-Readiness for E-Development: E-Commerce? ......................................................... 5 2.2.2 The Global Information Society: ‘Digital Divides’ and ‘Digital Opportunities’ ............. 6 2.2.3 ICT-Content in Development Gateways ...................................................................... 8 2.2.4 International Labour Organisation: Life at Work in the Information Economy .............. 9 3. ICT-BASED SERVICES IN THE PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION (EDEP).................................................................... 9 3.1 AREAS OF ICT APPLICATIONS (AND HOW THEY WORK) ................................................... 9 3.1.1 Business-related applications .................................................................................. 10 3.1.2 Learning-related applications .................................................................................. 12 3.2 EXPERIENCES WITH ICT APPLICATIONS FOR EDEP........................................................ 13 3.2.1 International and Regional/Country Experience........................................................ 13 3.2.2 GTZ Experience with ICT in EDEP projects ............................................................. 15 3.2.3. Industrialised Countries’ Experience in the Use of ICTs for EDEP ........................ 19 4. THE USER PERSPECTIVE OF SMME FOR ICT-BASED SERVICES................ 21 4.2 CURRENT DEMAND FOR ICT BY SMME ....................................................................... 22 4.3 READINESS TO PAY FOR ICT-BASED SERVICES .............................................................. 22 5. CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................. 23 6. RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................... 24 ANNEX I. ICT-International/development links II. Literature on ICT in Development III. ICT applications - Country and regional Experience
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION The present report is compiled in the framework of the GTZ research project “Possibilities for the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the Promotion of Economic Development and Employment Promotion (EDEP)”.1 The project time frame is 18 months (09/2001 – 06/2003). The project aim is to develop GTZ services with regard to the consultancy of small enterprise promotion organisations aiming at improving their services to small, micro- and medium- sized enterprises (SMME) by enhancing their use of Internet-based ICT. Activities will be launched with three selected partners as well as with a wider group of users and providers (GTZ projects, resource persons, institutions, others) with the aim of developing a respective product ( consulting-, training modules) . In parallel, a second research project focuses on the possibilities of ICTs for new forms of learning and training2. Looking at the two sides of qualification for the use of ICTs, and qualification through the use of ICTs, the research aims at widening the knowledge base of selected education and training institutions in the field of innovative forms of qualification for these areas. The report documents the first step of activities to assess the possibilities of ICTs in the wider context of EDEP along the following questions: • In what areas and how are Internet-based ICTs used for SMME services, in developed as well as in developing countries? • For what kind of Internet-based services and how much are SMME ready to pay? • What is the tangible/effective use for SMME of Internet-/ICT-based services? • Which services are more in demand, and which services are less in demand by SMME? • What are the basic conditions for SMME for the use of Internet-/ICT-based services? • What are the reasons for insufficient use, until present, of the Internet and ICTs by SMME support organisations for the improvement of services? And for the development of fee- based ICT-services? • What competencies are needed to use ICTs in the above sense? 2. INFORMATION- AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) FOR DEVELOPMENT 2.1 ICT Definitions Several approaches are in use in the context of ICT for development. For the purpose of this report, we refer to the following definitions: The German Ministry for Development and Economic Cooperation (BMZ)3 describes ICT as: “…all those technical instruments and set-ups that transform all kinds of information digitally…” through the intelligent linking of hardware, software and transformation nets. ICT capacity depends on the individual components (bandwith, transfer technology, hardware 1 Project Number P.N.2001.9123.9 Contact person: Martina Vahlhaus (Martina.Vahlhaus@gtz.de). 2 Project Number P.N.2001.9122.1 Contact person: Klaus-Dieter Przyklenk (Klaus-Dieter.Przyklenk@gtz.de). 3 Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ): Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) in der Deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Juli 2000
  4. 4. capacity, appropriate software etc.) as well on the interaction of these. The interactive character of ICT distinguishes it from the audio-visual (mass)media, because it is built on an interactive reciprocal exchange of data and information. According to the BMZ analysis, the new way of dealing with information and knowledge through ICT-applications has an impact on the way people and institutions work and function. For developing countries, connectivity is a decisive factor in bridging the digital divide. The Internet, based on the telecommunication infrastructure (fixed nets, mobile/satellites) constitutes the fastest growing technology within ICT. At the same time, the gap between rich and poor countries is even more pronounced with the use of the Internet than it already is with the spread of telephones (number of phones; number of Internet hosts). Affordability is a critical issue here because of high prices due to few providers and slow connections. Accessibility is another factor, because of the form of communication passing through ICT (literacy, language, structure). Currently the BMZ, together with the German members of the G8 DotForce (Genoa Plan of Action for ICT-enabled social and economic development), is preparing for country studies on the ICT sector in Vietnam, Laos, Tanzania, Uganda and Peru4. The UK Department for International Development (DFID)5, in its recent studies on ICTs, adopts a broad coverage of technologies “…used for the collection, processing and transmission of information.” It furthermore identifies four functional areas for ICTs and enterprise operations: • ICTs as an enterprise output; • ICTs as a primary processing technology; • other ICT-related support activities; • ICTs as a secondary processing technology). In a series of handbooks6, an integrated approach to ICTs is adopted by DFID that is information-centered (i.e. “…recognising that the value of ICTs comes from their new abilities to handle information”). This approach should address “…the full range of technologies that handle information – not just digital ICTs but also intermediate (radio, TV, telephone), literate (books, newspapers, manual) and organic (human-based) technologies.” In order for agencies to pursue this approach, they should also “…understand the context that shapes enterprises and their information practices, including their use of ICTs.” For entrepreneurs, ICTs – computers, mobile phones, email and the Internet – are described as a new challenge for the business community, both for those with access to new technologies, and those without. Under the rubrique “basic ICT Jargon”, ICT is defined as “…electronic means of handling digital data.” The definition of ICT services as developed in the context of a field research in the Philippines7 focuses on the types of services found in the market: 4 BMZ/ZEF: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Development – The German Contribution. List of Issues for Country Studies, Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung (ZEF) Bonn, October 2001. 5 O. Wakelin/B. Shadrach: Impact assessment of appropriate and innovative technologies in enterprise development; DFID 2001. Enterprise Development and ICTs: Research on Innovation and Best Practice, draft report, DFID 2001. 6 R. Heeks/R. Duncombe: (1) Information and Communication Technology. A Handbook for Enterpreneurs in Developing Countries; (2) Information, Technology and Small Enterprise: A Handbook for Enterprise Support Agencies. Version1, 2001, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM), University of Manchester, UK. With support from UK DFID. 7 Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development (Brazil 1999): How to be Demand-Led: Lessons for Business Development Service Providers from Information and Communication Services in the Philippines, by A. Overy Miehlbradt, with contributions from Ronald T. Chua.
  5. 5. • Basic telecommunications (telephone, fax, message service); • Supporting services (telegrams, money transfer, photocopying, typing/word processing); • High End Telecommunications (email, data transfer, Internet access); • Information Services (business information from the Internet and computerized data bases). The United Nations’ Human Development Report 2001 looks at the technological transformation process as part of a new paradigm: the network age. The question of how people can create and use technologies to expand their opportunities is seen as a key factor for the outreach and benefit of these transformations in a globalized world. The links between technology and human development are emphasized in the report, refering to higher levels of education and better-educated people to create conditions that encourage creative thinking and enterprising behaviour. Another key element of transformation is the speed of technological advances, driving down costs and accelerating the means to access and use ICT for economic purposes. 2.2 ICT for Development: A Review of Programmes and Experiences There is a very active and resource-rich set of ICT-for-development initiatives to draw on. According to a recent OECD survey (2001)8, an estimated annual total of US$ 500 million of private and public support goes to ICT-specific programmes. Their impact and relevance for enterprise development, however, has not yet been sufficiently assessed. The overall observed trend, however, seems to indicate an urgent need to concentrate ICT efforts in the following areas: (a) networks and partnerships for ICT solutions; (b) integrated ICT strategies for planned and ongoing EDEP programmes; (c) research to provide evidence on the type of ICT-applications, as well as on good practice cases and the impact of ICT-based services for the private sector (see chapter 3). In order to get a first picture of ICT for Development programmes and concepts in the EDEP framework, the following sub-chapters will provide selected information on ICT activities by a wide range of developing agencies, local partner organisations and the private sector. Annex 1 provides the necessary links to each of the presented programmes. 2.2.1 E-Readiness for E-Development: E-Commerce? Within the broader strategy of 'e-readiness' and 'commerce-readiness', e-commerce is probably the best known and most-referred-to ICT activitiy. For the purpose of this summary, e-commerce activities are not further expanded here, because it is covered by a specific research project ( http://www.gtz.de/e-business), as well as by the extensive list of references and experiences documented by other agencies (see Annex 1). E-readiness, in the meantime, has become a major area for investment by international agencies. Efforts in this direction promote a comprehensive approach towards an electronic- 8 OECD 2001: Impact Assessment of Appropriate and Innovative Technologies in Enterprise Development, DFID 2001 (quoted from Oliver Wakelin/Basheer Shadrach: DFID 2001, see Annex 2, list of documents).
  6. 6. enabled development (e-development). Below, brief summaries are given to illustrate efforts for ICT-for-development (or-e-development): • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB promotes three strategic areas for interventions to "..move quickly and credibly..” towards ICT-for-development9: (1) create an enabling environment; (2) build human resources (ICT-literacy; elearning; awareness programs); (3) develop ICT applications and information content for ADB-supported projects/activities (e.g. poverty reduction, good governance). Complemented by an Action Plan, the ADB strategy looks at implementing its plan in steps, i.e.: - initially undertaking E-readiness assessments in selected member countries (where?); - integrating ICT applications in ADB's activities (projects); - promoting strategic alliances and partnerships with existing ICT initiatives (PPP); - and establishing a Center for learning, information, communication, and knowledge for Asia and the Pacific (dissemination, use of information/ ICT best practices). The ADB Center for Learning will partly be funded by the newly established Japan Fund for Information and Communication Technology (JFICT, approximately US$ 10 million), administered by ADB to support ICT-activities on a grant basis in the following areas: (a) improving the ICT infrastructure and human resources, and (b) helping to establish a center for learning, information communication and knowledge for Asia and the Pacific. • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) UNDP’s “ICT for Development Programme” looks at the potential gains of using ICTs for faster delivery and a more adapted content of technical assistance that reaches out to more people in hitherto unreached/underserviced areas and sectors. The programme assists in awareness raising, increased connectivity (access to information), and human and scial capacity building (training, education). It conducts pilot projects to test feasible ICT- approaches and tools, and it enters partnerships to put more weight into research and infrastructure development. The web site of this programme ( http://www.undp.org/info21/ ) is a 'work-in-progress' resource tool meant to capture activities and trends in the ICT area (UN and non-UN initiatives). It provides useful links and information on UNDP-launched programs such as the Technology Access Community Centers (TACCS, see country example Egypt, chapter 3/Annex3). 2.2.2 The Global Information Society: ‘Digital Divides’ and ‘Digital Opportunities’ The discussion on unequal distribution and society splits in the Global Information Society is a major concern for development agents and developing countries at large. To this end, the G8 initiative established, in November 2000, a Digital Opportunity Task Force (http://www.dotforce.com/). For the German contribution to G8, see chapter 2.1 above. 9 ADB 2001: Toward E-development in Asia and developing ICT applications and promoting their extensive use. The Pacific: A Strategic Approach For ICT" (23 pages, ADB 2001)
  7. 7. Summarizing the main activities in this field, we distinguish below: • The “Global Information and Communication Technologies Group” (www.worldbank.org/ict/ ) a merger of IFC and Worldbank’s telecommumications groups (January 2000), fights digital disparities in a joint effort. One recent initiative is the Summit of the Americas (“Bridging the Digital Divide in the Americas”). The website offers examples for ICT applications (chapter 3). • Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) ( www.gdln.org ), run by the Worldbank-Institute, connects distance learning centers around the world, promoting active information and knowledge sharing based on the latest ICT-based learning tools. Online- training, for example, has been conducted in Latin America (10-weeks course on urban and city management, 1000 participants), interactive video (e.g. video.conference between education policymakers and planners who discuss economic development), electronic classrooms, satellite communications and the Internet. • The “Bridging the Digital Divide” programme by DFID/UK ( www.dfid.gov.uk ) was launched in recognition of the potentials of ICTs to reach development targets for poverty alleviation and enterprise development. It aims to address key barriers to access ICTs that keep a great scepticism among policy makers until present. At enterprise level, the programme sees many opportunities for small entrepreneurs to gain access to timely and valuable information as a key intangible resource (see also DFID country experience, chapter 3). • The “Digital Divide Network” (DDN) (www.digitaldividenetwork.org ) is a non-profit organisation coordinated by the Benton Foundation. Its goal is to look at digital concerns from various perspectives: technology access, literacy and learning, content, and economic development and international issues. The site offers many links to practitioners and experiences. • The “Digital Opportunity Task Force” (www.dotforc.org ) is the institutional set-up of the G8-members, joining forces under the Okinawa Charter on the Global Information Society. The ‘Dotforce’ includes members from the public, private and not-for-profit sectors and participants from developed and developing countries. Its website is a work- in-progress activity that contains all relevant documents and links for ‘digital divide’ activitists and practitioners. UNDP and the Worldbank provide the Secretariat for the ‘Dotforce’. • The OECD “Digital Forum” (www.oecd.org/dac/digitalforum ) was organised in response to the Digital Opportunity Taskforce (see above) in March, 2001, under the theme: Digital Opportunities for Poverty Reduction. Addressing the International Digital Divide”. In its 17 points for consideration, the Forum argues that, for example, the “full range of technologies must be considered – whatever is simple but effective – including posters, newspapers, fixed and mobile telephony, radio, TV, video and audio cassettes, CD-ROM, diskettes in addition to the Internet” (point 7); that “local content and languages are key to gaining the critical mass for success” (point 9); or that “ICTs offer major opportunities for the development of micro-enterprise, via information, improved productivity, increased sales to a larger market, and facilitating micro-finance” (point 11).
  8. 8. OECD also publishes the Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard 200110 that brings together the latest internationally comparable data on trends in the knowledge-based economy (160 indicators). Among the newly included indicators, the report includes policy issues such as 'international mobility of human capital', skills in the information economy, diffusion of the Internet and electronic commerce. • The “Digital Opportunity Initiative”11 (DOI) (www.opt-init.org ) is a partnership between the UNDP, Accenture (a US$10 billion global management and technology consulting under the Anderson Group) and the Markle Foundation (a not-for-profit philantrophy working on emerging communications media and information technology). DOI has compiled a substantial report on ICT for development ("Creating a Development Dynamic", July 2001) in which it establishes five key differentials for a dynamic ICT-for- development scenario, i.e. infrastructure; human capacity; policy; enterprise; content and applications. The “enterprise” area includes improving access to financial capital, facilitating access to global and local markets, enforcing appropriate tax and property rights regimes, enabling efficient business processes and stimulating domestic demand for ICT. A number of case studies illustrate specific interventions and country approaches (Brazil, Costa, Rica, Estonia, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Tanzania: see chapter 3/Annex 3). The very comprehensive list of consulted documents and relevant web sites constitutes a real resource tool for further study. • The Global Internet Policy Initiative (GIPI) (www.gipiproject.org ) promotes an open and democratic Internet for developing countries (more than 100 offices around the world). It liaises with the UNDP to promote sound Internet and information technology policies that can enhance the opportunities of ICTs. • The Intermediate Technology for Development Group (ITDG) (www.itdg.org ) is a UK- based NGO that has extensive experience with appropriate technology for developing countries. It applies the same approach to ICTs, namely that they should be affordable; built on exísting capabilities; be sustainable. Furthermore, the capability of the users should be considered to enable adaptation to changing circumstances; and the assessment of ICTs’ appropriateness requires understanding of the context of the users. ITDG runs a number of ICT projects exploring the key questions of (a) whether and how the spread of new ICTs could result in the further marginalisation of disadvantaged groups; and (b) whether and how new ICTs can be effectively used by low income, small- scale producers to improve their productivity and competitiveness in market economies. ICT projects have been initiated in Peru, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Sri Lanka and the UK. 2.2.3 ICT-Content in Development Gateways The Worldbank Group (WBG) has invested a serious amount of work in setting-up the “Development Gateway” (www.developmentgateway.org ), offering a comprehensive homepage with many ICT-relevant topics and country information (Country Gateways). It 10 OECD: Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2001 (STI), 145 pages, OECD 2001, 4th edition. OECD: Science, Technology and Industry Outlook. Drivers of Growth: Information Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, special edition 2001 (pdf-file). 11 Creating a Development Dynamic. Final Report of the Digital Opportunity Initiative, July 2001. UNDP, accenture/Markle Foundation.
  9. 9. also offers (among others) information on Private Sector Development, financial sector references (microfinance), gender and development, education and training, besides other topics. Specific topics are entered in the country gateways (e.g. Russia Country Gateway, mentioning the number of documents under each rubrique). Other WBG activities on ICT-for-Development12 focus on e-commerce initiatives (see also country examples, chapter 3); SME policy (SME Gateway for Governments, Donors and NGOs, WB/SME Department); information exchange and SME Knowledge Exchange with regards to project finance (IFC). The Information Technologies for Development (ITD) (www.itd.org ) is a joint Worldbank/WTO project using information technologies to provide developing countries access to sources of information and training (WTO on-line database; new library of distance-learning for trade officials, on-line trade policy forums and briefings, other Internet tools). The web site however, appears not regularly up-dated. 2.2.4 International Labour Organisation: Life at Work in the Information Economy The ILO’s annual World Employment Report 2001 (www.ilo.org ) focuses on “Life at Work in the Information Economy”. This substantial report analyses employment challenges and opportunities with ICT around the world. Shaping the new global economy, it looks at the effects of ICT on businesses, skills profiles and the importance of education, learning and training for jobs and incomes. The exclusive character of ICT is described along the disparity patterns between poor and rich nations, and strategies are laid out for development and poverty alleviation in the context of IT. On the other hand, provided an encouraging policy environment is developed to match a dynamic private sector, ICTs are believed to deliver real tangible benefits to a wide group of users in the developing world. This research was further expanded by ILO’s InFocus Programme on Boosting Employment through Small Enterprise Development (IFP/SEED), so as to look at the potentials and challenges of ICTs for enterprises in developing countries13. While it is acknowledged that not all ICTs will be easily and quickly accessible to all segments of SME, especially not to the micro- and rural-based businesses, the paper explores the roles of the private sector in pushing forward connectivity through commercial infrastructure investments. Low-cost models are discussed to increase affordability, and special emphasis is put on the idea of low-margin, high-volume business models e.g. in the mobile telephony. The scope of innovation is illustrated here by many examples for ICT applications (see chapter 3/Annex 3). 3. ICT-BASED SERVICES IN THE PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION (EDEP) 3.1 Areas of ICT Applications (and how they work) There are many different terms in use for ICT applications, with sometimes flue borders of what is meant by what type of ICT-based service. At the same time, the use of one rubrique (e.g. e-finance) can also cross with another rubrique (e.g. online training), as one uses the other for its service. In the following, we outline in short what the various terms mean, and 12 Worldbank: The Internet and SMEs. A presentation on WBG Internet Activities, WB 2001 (?) 13 ILO: ICTs and Enterprises in Developing Countries: Hype or Opportunity? by Jim Tanburn/Alwyn Didar Singh, SEED Working Paper No. 17, International Labour Organisation (ILO) Geneva, 2001.
  10. 10. how they work. Certainly, you will find other explanations and additional terms to add, so consider this just a starting point. 3.1.1 Business-related applications ICT-based Business Development Services (BDS) – new BDS products and markets based on ICTs are progressively being developed, but there is no systematic overview available to trace these, until present. Under the following sub-headlines we adopted a very wide range of applications that are conducive to business performance, such as: • Business Information Systems (BIS) – BIS include all kinds of general business information (fairs, exhibitions, training, news, international events, contacts with world chambers of commerce and trade organisations), factual and statistical data (e.g. exchange rates, import/export figures, taxes and duties) as well as sector-related/industry information. In general, the information is free of charge. In many cases, if not properly maintained, information gets easily outdated and of low relevance. Often, international facilitating bodies (project-based systems; multilateral agencies) act as direct BIS providers, in some instances even in isolation from national providers (chambers). A more detailed description of BIS is provided by the GTZ-supported Enterprise Information Project (EIP) in Sri Lanka: www.eip.lk 14 . • ICT-Manuals and Toolkits: the new challenge of ICTs for small businesses in developing countries is taken up by various agencies with the aim to enable entrepreneurs and communities to actively and efficiently use these new technologies. For example, “Information and Communication Technology. A Handbook for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries” has been put together with the support from DFID by the UK-based Institute for Development Policy and Management (www.man.ac.uk/idpm/ictsme.htm ). The UNESCO has compiled a ‘Cookbook’15 to establish community-based telecenters (www.unesco.org/images/0012/001230/123004e.pdf ). IFC and the Worldbank Group have launched the SMe-Toolkit website so as “…to provide valuable information resources, facilitate interaction and make transactions accessible to SMEs around the world…” (www.ifc.org/sme/html/sme_e-toolkit.html ). • E-Consulting: this service is often based on a mix of standard packages (e.g. business plan formats; diagnosis tools to download for offline processing) and online consulting (e- mail; video-conferencing) to work with a consultant in an interactive way. Examples for distance consulting services are discussed under www.slu.edu/eweb 16. A private BDS provider in South Africa provides another very good example for the mix of online- and offline-consulting: Mbendi South Africa (www.mbendi.co.za/ ). The GTZ-supported project SMENET Vietnam has developed specialised services like legal advice (Question-and-Answer-Service implemented by a local legal consultancy firm) and business consulting via the Internet (www.smenet.com.vn ). It targets both the BDS provider side (consulting and training centers, support organisations, private consultants etc.) as well as SME owners and potential entrepreneurs for the use of its services. The web site receives 14 EIP, drawing on its experience, also assists other projects, example: ICT based Business Information Services (BIS) in Bangladesh. Appraisal Mission report by U. Gärtner/R. Siriniwasa et.al. (see list of doc), 2001 15 UNESCO: Community Telecentre Cookbook for Africa: Recipes for Self-Sustainability. How to establish a Multi- Purpose Community Telecentre in Africa, by Mike Jensen/Anriette Esterhuysen, UNESCO Paris, 2001. 16 SLU (1998): Distance Consulting: Potentials and Pitfalls in using the Internet to deliver Business Development Services to SMEs, by Jerome A. Katz/Mary Louise Murray, Saint Lous University (SLU), USA/ Donor Committee on Small Enterprise Development, 2000 ( www.ilo.org/public/English/employment/ent/papers/distcon.htm ).
  11. 11. a high response (approx. 2000 users/ month) and is continuously expanding its content and services. • Online-training as part of the BDS service range is discussed below (see learning- related applications). • Electronic Marketplaces (B2B/e-commerce) – also referred to as portals (or sites with a search engine customized to a specific topic or user group). These marketplaces offer information on products, technologies etc. with the aim to sell. Partly, they are built as member-based sites with restricted access on a fee-basis. Horizontal marketplaces (offering products/services to a broad range of companies, with comparatively low entrance barriers) are differentiated from vertical marketplaces that organise offer along the vertical value chain of a particluar industry segment (high entrance barriers, e.g. electronics). Transaction fees still are the major source of income for e-marketplaces. (For more information on e- commerce, see www.gtz.de/e-business/ ). • E-finance: the world of development finance is hooked to the net and uses ICTs in its various forms: online courses through the Internet Training Center for Microfinance (PlaNet University OnLine), offline offers on CD-ROM (Planet Finance CD-ROM) and information on field activities worldwide. (For more information on e-finance, see www.planetbank.org ). One GTZ project in Thailand is already using online training on risk management (BAAC project, GTZ Thailand, contact: microfin@loxinfo.co.th ). • Knowledge Management: although this has become a real buzz word for business as well as for development and support organisations, ICT-based knowledge management can be considered a very tangible BDS if it is handled in an appropriate way. The lack of knowledge management creates annual losses of some 15 billion dollars in the German economy, for example17. The effective and efficient use of knowledge is a strategic function in any enterprise, enabling the right people at the right time to access appropriate information for delivering a task, grasping an opportunity or, eventually, creating something new. The abundance of literature in the academic sphere indicates the importance of the matter. For this presentation, however, we limit ourselves to suggest the online-training on knowledge management offered on the Global Campus 21 of the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG), in cooperation with the German Foundation for International Development (DSE). The demo version gives an idea on how the subject can be handled online in a training/consultancy context for business development: www.gc21.ibt.time4you.de . Furthermore, the documentation of the “Swiss Meeting on Global Knowledge Sharing and Information and Communication Technologies”18 provides useful material, see under www.deza.admin.ch • Fundraising and Networks on the Internet: this rubrique refers to the idea of membership-based organisations or associations to use the Internet for fundraising. The 17 R. Eisele, German Confederation of Small and Medium-sized enterprises (BVMW); Knowledge Management and E-commerce in SMEs: Legal Aspects and Information Networking Platform, in:New Economy – A New Opportunity for Africa? Challenges for Development Cooperation, 11/2000, Conference, Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft Köln 2000. 18 Helvetas: Knowledge – A Core Resource for Development. Swiss Meeting on Global Knowledge Sharing and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), ed. Katarina Thumheer, May 2001
  12. 12. ‘ProMali’ initiative by the National Federation of Malian Artisans and Trades (FNAM) – assisted by GTZ in this matter – has identified several options to create new sources of income via the Internet. Currently, web-page production and hosting of web pages for Malian companies, NGOs, institutions etc. has become a real new activity that demand only little technical infrastructure (PC/Internet connection; printer and scanner; Web page creation software). For more information, see www.mali.org 3.1.2 Learning-related applications • E-learning, in general terms, requires users (learners, participants) to access a computer and get online. The major advantage is time and cost on the user side, disadvantages are often assigned to the comparatively low impact or quality of e-learning. For the provider of e- learning, this means that a thorough methodology, design and content management are required to reach satisfactory results. The multitude of concepts and approaches is impressive, both in developed as well as in developing parts of the world.19 Applications range from virtual universities to distance learning to cyberschools and learning portals, integrating classroom-based learning situations and online case studies, to quote only some possibilities. Examples can be traced from various sources (see also country experience, Annex 3). A first go at e-learning could be for example the search engine: www.mapnp.org/library/trng_dev/methods/on_line.htm Secondly, a number of agencies engage in e-learning initiatives with a view to use ICTs for the purpose of education in a transforming environment. To this end, the GTZ has commissioned a parallel research project on e-learning that closely cooperates with in the EDEP approach to ICT-based services (introduced in chapter 1). Again, the examples listed hereunder can only give some initial orientation for this very active field of governmental, professional and commercial providers: The OECD20 ( www.oecd.org/bookshop/ ) has explored the highly relevant area of public- private-partnerships needed for managing costs and grasping the complexity of ICT applications in the sphere of education. It looks at e-learning developments respectively in the school and the higher education sector in terms of market prospects and partnership creation in different OECD countries. The Worldbank Global Development Learning Network (www.gdln.org ) has established a worldwide exchange of learning activities (se also chapter 2.2.2 and country examples, Annex 3). • ICT-based-training: similar to e-learning of which it is part, ICT-based training is usually referred to as online training structured along a sequence of learning modules offered via the Internet and/or with offline versions (download possibilities; CD-ROM). The way it is organised depends on the target group (educational level, demand), the cost and time factor (who pays for what?) and the users (level of participation in team work/communication). 19 The Power of the Internet for Learning: Moving from Promise to Practice. Report of the Web-based Education Commission, USA, December 2000 20 OECD (2001): E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, available in English and French from the OECD Online Bookshop (OECD Code 962001061P1), or as PDF E-book.
  13. 13. In BDS, online-training is not yet widely in use, for reasons that need to be further explored (see chapter 3.2.2 and Annex 3/Country experience). The use of ICT in classroom-training has been mentioned by one project in Nigeria (GTZ-SME project), assisting the local chamber in running the first ICT-based enterprise courses for bankers, consultants, expanding entrepreneurs, based on the CEFE methodology. All materials are done and distributed via a network of computers, there are no printed handouts. At the end of the course, participants get a CD-ROM with movies, handouts, e-books, web sites, exercises etc. To get a taste of some documented material at this point, reference is also made to the Vietnam/SMENET website mentioned already for e-consulting (www.smenet.com.vn ). SMENET offers several online training guides on business issues (e.g. accounting, costing, diagnosis tools, new product development). • Interactive CD-ROMs: one recent example is a new product by CEFE International: “The perfect CEFE Facilitator”21). The development of this material has taken a very demanding conceptual input by CEFE experts and training product developers. The concept takes the facilitator (user of the CD-ROM) through various real-life training situations in which different options are presented for facilitation. The advantage of this product is that it can be used over and again, at one’s individual pace and rhythm, referring to difficult situations and exploring new possibilities each time. The CD-ROM can also be used in group training with facilitators which makes it a powerful asset to classroom learning. 3.2 Experiences with ICT applications for EDEP 3.2.1 International and Regional/Country Experience Best Practice and Impact Assessment: DFID as one of the leading ICT actors for development criticises the lack of tangible information on best practice and impact assessment of appropriate and innovative technologies in enterprise development. In its recent publications on this topic (see Annex 2 List of Documents), DFID also addresses the question of methodology to be applied, opting for a combination of qualitative, quantitative and participatory methods to assess the link between ICTs, enterprise development and the reduction of poverty. Country Experience: An enormous number of ICT applications can be traced at country level. The present report cannot describe these in detail, neither does it claim to present a complete coverage of cases relevant for EDEP. However, for easy reference, applications that we came across during the search are listed by country, area of application (keyword), implementing organisation and reference (Annex 3). For illustration of some applications, the following examples show how wide the possibilities are: • The ICT Stories Project run by the Information for Development Programme InfoDev/Worldbank Group (www.infodev.org ) provides detailed case studies on ICT applications. One interesting example is the Market Watch tool for Mongolia’s animal husbandry industries, a multi-media price information and analysis service by the Gobi 21 GTZ/CEFE (2001): The perfect CEFE Facilitator. An interactive CD-ROM, available on purchase from CEFE International (CEFE: Competency-based Economies - Formation of Enterprise, see: www.gtz.de/cefe/).
  14. 14. Regional Economic Growth Initiative (USAID). This tools tracks more than 30 commodities in seven Gobi and two Ulaanbaatar markets on twice-weekly, monthly and quarterly basis. Herders and traders as well as local wool processing factories, banks and other institutions use the Market Watch. It is broadcasted nationally and regionally by radio stations and it is accessible via the Internet. So far, the service is free, but a recent market study has identified that users are willing and able to pay for the service which is now being transformed into a for-profit enterprise by 2003. • DFID in its best practice examples22 describes mostly rural and poverty oriented applications, among them the Honey Bee Network in India, collecting data on appropriate technology and encouraging remote access to online multimedia databases. It thereby fosters product innovation built on local indigenous knowledge. The InfoDes project in Peru is described as a customized information data base on trade and business issues for people in rural areas, gaining access to the Internet (internet access tours) and to information hitherto not known to them. In Zimbabwe, the InfoBus system is a fully mobile set-up working as information resource centres designed by ITDG for small-scale entrepreneurs and manufacturers. • DOI, to give another example, has collected national ICT approaches (Brazil, Costa Rica, Estonia, India, Malaysia, South Africa, Tanzania) as well as case studies for evidence on impact. One such case is (besides the repeatedly described village pay phones story of Grameen Bangladesh, and the case of Pride Africa on Scaling Micro-Finance) the Infocentros Telecenter Model in El Salvador (based on an in-depth case study prepared by the World Resource Institute). In view of the fact that less than one percent of the population in El Salvador uses the Internet, this franchising model aims to build 100 telecenters (at US$ 80,000 per center) within 2 years (end of 2002). Profitability should be reached within 27 months. Besides the infrastructure aspect, its strategy is to build an 'infostructure' of local content, ICT-based training and e-commerce. • The IFC refers to two major web-enabled info-mediaries, MeetChina.com (www.MeetChina.com ) and MeetVietnam.com (www.MeetVietnam.com ) that is has helped to establish. Both provide e-platforms for SME links to industries (B2B-approach). • Employment-creating ICT jobs: electronic conversion is an important provider of jobs especially in Asia – the work entails the transformation of text data into digital information, often done by unskilled labour for big text volumes (libraries, data bases etc.). In Cambodia, for example, the initiative “Follow your Dream” provides ITC-based jobs for physically handicapped people (for more information, contact Ms. Ulrike Roesler, GTZ Thailand, at ITID/ESCAP Bangkok). • Private-sector association and non-governmental activities include ICT-services run by local chambers, often with support from donors via international chambers. In Egypt, the German-Arab Chamber of Industry and Commerce has built a marketplace for Middle Eastern and European industries and services to meet clients (www.metrace.com ). It lists over 10,000 companies and provides ICT-expertise on a fee-basis. Another interesting example is provided by the Federation of Cambodian Rice Millers Associations, supported by the non-governmental group “Enterprise Development Cambodia”. Having trained regional staff and having equipped each provincial association office with a computer, it now links remote rice mills through the Internet (Khmer- and English-language Web site www.rice- cambodia.net ) for information exchange and international marketing. 22 DFID (20001): Impact Assessment of Appropriate and Innovative ICTs in Enterprise Development, op.cit., p.5 -
  15. 15. • Commercial BDS: the South African company Mbendi Information Services/Consultants offers private sector companies assistance in developing their own internet strategy. A handbook on how to draw up a “Corporate Internet Strategy” as well as a number of useful case studies and examples help in doing a proper assessment for ICT applications at firm level (www.mbendi.co.za ). 3.2.2 GTZ Experience with ICT in EDEP projects The GTZ has a number of ongoing research projects and pilot activities to promote the use of ICTs in partner countries. Also, in-house competencies for the use of ICTs are being built-up so as to strengthen the service capacity of GTZ technical departments At EDEP project level, the e-commerce project has already been referred to at several instances. This project also cooperates with four partner countries and projects on ICT-based activities (Argentine, El Salvador, Vietnam). In addition, a recent assessment by GTZ on new ICTs in the context of rural development in Peru23 highlights the possibilities and the interests of project partners as well as a number of interesting pilot experiences (telecentres, ICT-based schools and training initiatives, agricultural information system etc., see also Annex 3). The assessment presented herewith represents the first in a series of research activities planned in the framework of EDEP. Based on a short questionnaire sent out to all EDEP projects24 in August 2001, a survey was compiled with a view to assess the current use of ICTs, and to get an idea of potential ICT applications for further development. In line with the overall research task as introduced in chapter 1, the questions captured the following aspects: (1) the use of ICT by project partners (Internet presence; access to information; clients’ reach; use of ICT for product development; online services; other); (2) potential areas of intervention for the use of ICTs (in the short- and medium term); (3) basic conditions for the effective use of ICT in the project context; (4) demand by small, micro and medium-sized enterprises (SMME) or by users of training institutions (which products/services are most in demand, which less, and for what services are clients ready to pay?); (5) knowledge of other donors in EDEP, using ICTs (and if so, how?). The return of project answers (approximately one third of all projects replied) provides sufficient ground for a preliminary analysis: among the 31 responding projects, SME development projects take the larger share (19 of 31), followed by vocational training projects (8), financial systems (1) and self-help organisations (1). Two of 31 answers could not be validated, unfortunately. The synthesis presented in the tables (table 1-3, below) reflects a grouping and summary of answers with more than one element per answer provided by a single respondent. From a methodological point of view, this is due to the open-question approach which allowed for a variety of ideas and qualitative responses rather than assessing the answers along a simplified multiple choice pattern. You will therefore find more than 100% per question group. Looking at the use of the Internet and ICT-based services until present, the following can be observed (see table 1): 23 GTZ (2001): Potentiale der neuen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien als Instrument der Ländlichen Entwicklung in Peru. Bericht über Erfahrungsauswertung, von Peter Wolf, Februar 2001. 24 There are at present approx. 100 projects active in EDEP with GTZ support
  16. 16. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 = no use of ICTs 2 = Internet presence 3 = Access to information 4 = Clients' Reach 5 = Product Development 6 = Online BDS 7 = e-learning Table 1: ICT in use by GTZ – EDEP projects and partners ⇒ Internet use and presence: almost all partner organisations effectively use the Internet and are present with their own Web sites. ⇒ Access to information: projects/partner organisations use the Internet for access to information. Sometimes, in case of difficulties in infrastructure and Internet access, projects act as intermediaries by searching, selecting and compiling the information on CD-ROM for easy use by local partners. ⇒ Clients' reach: ICTs are used by projects/partner organisations to keep in touch with clients. This, however, is mostly limited to email exchange. There is little experience with question/answer services, mailing lists or online chats, according to the project answers. ⇒ Product Development: partners start using ICTs for product development, but on a very modest scale until present. ⇒ Online BDS (online-training/-consulting) have already been introduced by a few projects as new service areas. ⇒ E-learning has not yet reached a significant scale. This is partly due to the small number of projects in this assessment for which this topic is of particular relevance (i.e. vocational training projects). At the same time, it is worthwhile highlighting that in the area of ICT- potentials, e-learning tools get a high score (see below, table 2). As an overall observation, the importance of the Internet and the use of ICTs has not yet gained sufficient attention at project level. As a consequence, the knowledge base for practical experience and best practice cases of ICTs is weak, accompanied sometimes by a diffuse attitude of scepticism by GTZ project staff who express their doubts concerning the usefulness of ICT activities at a larger scale.
  17. 17. On the other hand, many projects indicate their firm interest for ICTs, for which they stress the need to get assistance in order to be able to explore the possibilities for using ICTs with, for and by their partner organisations. Therefore, further training on ICTs for BDS is suggested for the staff of projects and partners (see also chapter 5/ recommendations). Looking at the potentials of ICT, the projects have come up with very many important ideas and suggestions as shown in table 2 below: 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 = Access to Information 2 = Knowledge Management 3 = Learning Tool/e-learning 4 = Networking&Info-Sharing 5 = Business Development Services 6 = Electronic Commerce 7 = Technology Transfer 8 = Marketing 9 = ICT-based jobs Tab. 2: Potentials for ICT Use ⇒ Access to Information hits the highest score in the view of project partners, followed by the potential for ICTs as learning tools, including e-learning. Projects stress the fact that they consider these areas still under-utilized, despite the relatively advanced situation of hardware/IT equipment in a good number of projects (see below, table 3 including ‘hardware’). ⇒ Networking & Info-Sharing as well as Electronic Commerce were mentioned as high potentials by about 30% of the respondents each. This is hardly surprising for e-commerce which is a high interest subject especially for partner organizations such as chambers. The theme of information sharing and networking came up more with respondents from self-help organizations and multiple partner structures. At the same time, the relatively modest overall response for these two areas acknowledges the complex preconditions to be fulfilled before entering these areas. ⇒ Marketing has received a promising position as well for the use of ICTs in the context of EDEP, be it for the promotion of BDS (including news/events sections on web sites), or for attracting new clients and introducing fee-based services on or via the Internet.
  18. 18. ⇒ Knowledge Management and Business Development Services have been mentioned by 5 projects each, suggesting still largely unexplored set of ICT-based activities for the future. ⇒ Technology Transfer was brought in by only one project as a future area for ICTs. Another project highlighted the potential for ICT-based jobs which had already occurred outside the project (see chapter 3.2.1 Country Experience: Employment-creating ICT jobs). 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 = Hardware/Server/Net 2 = Sustainable Set-Up (Local Partner; provider) 3 = Qualified Human Resources/ICT culture 4 = Simple Access (open systems; local language) 5 = Client-focused/local acceptance/affordability 6 = policy environment 7 = awareness Table 3: Basic Conditions for ICT Use A third area of investigation addressed by the questionnaire was the basic framework conditions needed for the use of ICTs in the project context. Here, the respondents highlighted the following criteria for success or respectively the problem areas (table 3): ⇒ hardware/server/net: obviously, this entry figures very high among respondents (40% of the answers), referring to the necessary infrastructure for ICT-based services. Interestingly enough, this is however not as high a priority as qualified human resources (HR) and a good ICT culture, both being mentioned either in parallel or as one (HR) enabling the other (cultural readiness through ICT-qualified staff). ⇒ simple access and a client-focused approach are considered important for introducing ICTs in the developing context by about 25 % of the interviewees each. This includes the design of ICT-based structures as 'open systems' (making the flow of information as wide and unrestricted as possible, as opposed to closed systems in an organizational set-up, for example the Intranet); the use of local language and local context to lower the entry barrier for the application of ICTs; and the aspect of affordability that appears crucial for very small and micro-enterprises - as one respondent from Zambia put it: "affordability is of the essence".
  19. 19. ⇒ A sustainable set-up through local partners and service providers as well as awareness about the potential benefits of ICTs are judged essential prerequisites for the introduction and the long-term use of ICT-based services in EDEP by approximately 10% of the repondents. ⇒ A conducive policy environment was added by one project partner, indicating problems about the free flow of information and the restriction of Internet service providers (providers; Internet coffee shops). However, this does not seem to be a major concern in other countries and projects In summary, the results of the questionnaire indicate a high interest by projects and partner organisations to work with ICTs, promote the use of ICTs and broaden the service range for EDEP. It also confirms the urgent need for conceptualisation, guidance and training on ICTs for project staff and partner organisations. 3.2.3. Industrialised Countries’ Experience in the Use of ICTs for EDEP The relevance of ICTs in and for developing countries has been further accelerated by the speed of innovation and the spread of ICT use in the developed world. The policy concerns to narrow the digital divide in the era of globalisation are now being accentuated by a call for concrete action in the field of economic and employment promotion. It is acknowledged that the basic framework conditions do not allow for a simple copy-and-paste strategy of successful ICT-concepts and instruments implemented in industrialised countries. Nevertheless, a selection of some interesting information and successful experiences presented hereunder will give a taste of what is worth to be known and considered when designing ICTs-for-development in the EDEP context: • Internet Users and ICT Facilities in Industrialised Countries: recent figures for the USA and Switzerland show a high density of fixed telephone lines (70/72 per 100 inhabitants), mobile phones (37/67 per 100 inhabitants), hardware (60/57 per 100 inhabitants) and Internet access (48/36 per 100 inhabitants)25. The use of ICTs in SMEs is described high as well for some areas (e.g. use of email: USA 85%; CH 70%; use of Internet to get information: USA 60%; CH 50%. In other areas, SME in developed countries are also still in the process of establishing ICT-based services (e.g. e- commerce/selling products over the Internet: USA 20%; CH 10%; own company web site: USA 60%; CH 45%). There are approximately 500 million internet users worldwide (60% outside the USA). The number of users will more than double by the year 2005. The highest growth rate of internet users in the next decade will probably take place in South America and the Asia Pacific region, according to the same source quoted here (Mellow GmbH Switzerland, for Swisscontact). • Government support for business development services: Germany has a long tradition in promoting and subsidising business development services for SMEs. In the field of ICTs, the German Ministry for Education and Research (Bundesminsiterium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF), for example, has launched a research initiative on 25 source: Mellow GmbH Switzerland: the Role of ICT in SME Promotion. A Study on ICT in Indonesia and Sri Lanka, commissioned by Swisscontact, November 2001.
  20. 20. Internet and software technology worth 123 million DM. Young researchers and business people can access funding for IT-development projects in order to open new markets for ICT-based products and services. One special area of interest looks at innovative applications and user-friendly services (inter-activity, simple access). For more information, see the Ministry's web site under www.bmbf.de. The German Ministry for Economy (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft, BMWi) has established an Online-Academy for Business Start-Ups and young entrepreneurs. In cooperation with a German business journal (Focus), the web site contains relevant information on all start-up phases up to financing the business (checklists, addresses, sample contracts etc.). For more information, see www.focus.de/existenzgruendung). Some regional initiatives in Germany promote e-business for SME. One example is the Land Brandenburg that provides financial assistance to SME for the use of ICTs in marketing regional products and services, and for the use of electronic communication at business level (for more information, see www.Brandenburg.de/land/mw/kp-inter.htm). Reaching out to the Government, a very recent initiative on e-learning has been launched under the "Initiative D21", involving some 300 private companies in Germany. The aim is an increased cooperation between the private sector, policy actors and public administration in order to join forces that help advance the new information society. Reduced costs could represent up to 30 percent of current expenditure for continuous education and training, according to the D21-initiative. This would mean potential savings of up to 5 billion DM annually, and time reduction for learning of approximately 20 percent, if e-learning was introduced in a more coherent way. For more information, see www.initiatived21.de. • Specialised ICT-Products by Local Research Institutes: the Gesellschaft für angewandte Kommunalforschung mbH (GEFAK, Germany, Company for applied research in local government affairs), is already known to a number of GTZ projects applying GEFAK's main ICT-product, the KWIS software, in developing countries. KWIS for Windows is described by GEFAK as a "multi-purpose tool for all requirements of enterprise and economic promotion". It contains a data base tool for the compilation, processing and presentation of relevant data, as well as a supporting tool for the management of promotion projects related to enterprises or economic regions. It can also be used for communication (data exchange, Internet), or as a working tool for day-to-day operations. For more information on the experience with KWIS applied in GTZ/EDEP projects, please contact Martina Vahlhaus (email: Martina.Vahlhaus@gtz.de). GEFAK's web site is at www.gefak.de. The University of Mannheim, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (Institute for Medium- Sized Enterprise/Small Business Research), has developed competencies in the field of e-commerce that it believes to be of relevance also in the context of developing countries, especially in terms of employee training and electronic market places (Internet portals, bidding procedures, auctions, catalogues). As one example for application, the web site www.newtron.net/(mp/componet) can be viewed. Currently, the Institute works with 15 pilot companies on sector-specific ICT applications for e-commerce. It cooperates closely with the Marketing department of Mannheim University, and with the e- commerce-center of the regional chamber (IHK Rhein-Neckar). Project outputs will include curricula for e-commerce and training-of.trainers for e-commerce consultants. For more information, please contact Martina Vahlhaus (email: Martina.Vahlhaus@gtz.de). The Institute's web site is at www.ifm.uni-mannheim.de.
  21. 21. • ICTs and the Private Sector: End-to-End E-Business: the future of e-commerce applications developed by highly specialised ICT-providers is now framed as "End-to- End E-Business"26 that can be divided into three phases: - phase 1: ICTs cover PR and marketing; the applications are e-marketing and brochureware; - phase 2::ICTs cover sales and services (applications: e-commerce; front-of-pipe- solutions). In this phase, success depends on the "4-C-concept" of contact (market; positioning; marketing mix; user interests); content (added value in service features and application features; corporate information, product information, promotion); commerce (product data, product presentation, product information; logistics; payment); and customer service (customer response; online support/help desk; local services; after sales). - phase 3: ICT covers the complete value chain; this is called 'End-to-End-Business', fully integrating all company processes including supply chain management with suppliers and customers. It is assumed that most small businesses in developing countries will find it difficult reaching phase two, given the resources available (scope) and the size of companies and commerce (scale). Another example is the DIALEGO Online Market Research GmbH, a 1999 German start-up company that uses Internet and multimedia for market research. The company sells services under the heading 'market research in and about the Internet', and produces software and hardware systems for online-research (SMAN system). For more information on this and other IT-business pioneers in Nordrhein-Westfalia, the regional Centre for Innovation and Technology (ZENIT, Zentrum für Innovation und Technik in NRW) has produced success stories that can be searched at www.zenit.de27 4. THE USER PERSPECTIVE OF SMME FOR ICT-BASED SERVICES 4.1 Needs, Uses and Benefits of ICTs by SMME The need and demand side of SMME for ICT-based services has been put into focus by a number of research and pilot projects in recent years. The studies discuss cultural, social, geographical and language criteria, they distinguish between the size of enterprises, and they look at customer behaviour in relation to delivery mechanisms. ICT/BDS-studies have been commissioned by GTZ projects in Bangladesh, Macedonia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam, among others (see Annex 2, list of documents, and Annex 3 for country examples). The Macedonian example shows that traditional sources of information are still mainly being used by SME today (press, TV, business friends, informal networks). In addition, supply-oriented business support agencies offer their services including ICT-based information, but there still seems to be a wide gap between needs perceived and services provided (mostly free of charge). In Vietnam, according to SMENET, an estimated number of 60 000 SMEs have access to the Internet, the readiness for the use of ICT-based services is therefore deemed high 26 source: Pixelpark AG Germany: Die Zukunft des Internet: End-to-End E-Business. Powerpoint Presentation 2001, for internal use only (Pixelpark AG, Berlin, Germany, web site: www.pixelpark.de). 27 ZENIT, Zentrum für Innovation und Technik in NRW: Start-Ups in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Business-Pioniere und ihre Erfolgsstories. Jungunternehmer aus dem "GO!"-Pool motivieren zur Selbständigkeit.
  22. 22. (information on technology, purchasing channels, customers, product design). On the other hand, the importance of local language and local content is an impeding factor for the quick development of quality-services. Also, this number has to be put into perspective with only 1 per cent of local businesses to have e-mail addresses, as indicated by another source28. Drawing from these and other examples, some uncertainty seems to govern the needs- discussion on: - how to produce added value through the use of ICTs at enterprise level? - how to measure impact so that satisfaction of needs could be demonstrated? - whether the need for ICT-based services and applications is more pronounced in terms of profit increases or in terms of cost-cutting prospects? This unclear picture is fully understandable given the lack of data at micro-level, e.g. on the evidence of ICT use and its impact for business growth. On the other hand, the 'digital divide' and 'digital opportunities' initiatives presented above show a clear picture of the correlation between highly developed infrastructures and wealth creation through the Internet - and vice versa. It is therefore important to produce data that would demonstrate the positive effect of ICTs on the user side of small businesses in developing countries. 4.2 Current Demand for ICT by SMME On the demand side for ICTs and ICT-based services, the question on what type of ICT- based services would be potentially in demand by what type of SMME has not been sufficiently well addressed by many projects. A survey done by ILO/FIT on MSE demand for business services in Ghana mentions a number of ICT-based services for which a high degree of awareness can be assessed (e.g. business communication centres, telephone boots/phone cards, advertising, mobile phones)29. Other examples refer to the demand in human resource development to upgrade competencies for ICTs at business level as well as in business support organisations. The CDG training programme on Information Technology in African Business30 reflects this demand. 4.3 Readiness to pay for ICT-based services Most research indicates a basic readiness by MSE to pay for BDS including ICT-based services. This has also been confirmed by the GTZ survey presented in this report (chapter 3). In reality, however, the prevailing supply-orientation of government - or donor-related MSE support services still works in contradiction to the development of fee-based service markets along the not so new paradigm of BDS delivery. This has been extensively discussed and reviewed under the Guiding Principles for BDS by the Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development31. 28 ILO/SEED (2001): ICTs and Enterprises in Developing Countries…op.cit., p.8. 29 ILO/FIT (2001): MSE Demand for Commercial Non-Financial Business Services in Ghana, by Sandeep Ghosh/Aly Miehlbradt, based on a quantitative survey on 400 MSEs done by a local consultancy firm. 30 CDG (2001): Information Technology in African Business (IT@AB), a training programme offered by the Carl Duisber Gesellschaft (CDG) in Germany for African multiplier institutions involved in IT and SME business training in the SADC region (www.cdg.de or www.it-ab.net). 31 www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ent/papers/guide.htm, and http://training.itcilo.it/bdsseminar
  23. 23. The question really is for many practitioners how to get there, in concrete terms, and for ICTs, how to make best use of modern technology and the Internet and go for commercialisation and profit provision at the same time? It appears that ICTs for SME development and EDEP in partner countries as well as in industrialised countries are still mainly provided on a subsidized basis. The scope for introducing relevant business services via the Internet and/or by designing pragmatic solutions to overcome the deficiency side of infrastructure has not yet been well grasped by service providers and accompanying projects. In addition, the role of private sector investment in developing countries has not yet received the attention of venture capital agents that it would have deserved. Therefore, in summary, the readiness to pay for services can be assumed for ICT-based services as well as for any other business service based on client demand. Affordability of these services is certainly a crucial point here, but it cannot be used to argue against ICTs for very much longer. Low-cost innovative solutions have been demonstrated in many different ways (see country examples, Annex 3), and the rapid cost reductions in the use of the Internet (with an enormous mushrooming of Internet Cafés in even remote places of this world) speak for themselves. 5. CONCLUSIONS There is growing attention by governments, development agents and service providers that ICTs can play a decisively positive role for private sector development in developing countries. Recent initiatives such as the G8 Action Plan consider the bridging of digital divides and the fostering of digital opportunities a priority in future research and project activities. The knowledge base for ICTs in the field of economic development and employment promotion (EDEP) is rich and varied, providing a very wide range of possible applications and real country experience. This is true both for ICT-applications by international and regional agencies as well as for a number of GTZ projects and the respective partner organisations. The GTZ survey showed not only a good response and high interest in the ICT subject, but it also revealed new ideas for potential areas of ICT applications in EDEP projects. The answers do not provide, however, sufficient basis for identifying or choosing potential areas at this stage (see recommendations). At the same time, it is worth considering the basic conditions to be fulfilled in order to use ICTs efficiently for product development, and in the project context. At present, there is still insufficient use of ICTs by projects and agencies for the delivery and the improvement of Business Development Services (BDS). Despite the above mentioned general interest in ICTs, factors of uncertainty, too little exposure to good practice cases and insufficient technical awareness obviously keep expectations low. As a consequence, project staff - at least from a GTZ internal perspective - has not yet been very self-initiative or entrepreneurial in putting the ICT-issue on top of the agenda, neither is it being regarded as an integrating and cross-cutting theme for development work. The user perspective regarding need and demand for ICT-based services has been validated by an increasing number of projects - especially in the field of private sector promotion - over the past one to two years. This gives scope for joining forces with some of these projects in
  24. 24. promoting ICT-based product development that would benefit a wider group of projects. Experience from industrialised countries can contribute and facilitate access to tools and information on ICT-applications. Finally, the need for awareness raising and ICT-training has become evident from the answers provided by project staff and partner organisations. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the above conclusions, it is recommended to proceed with the research project by undertaking the following steps: (a) conduct a technical workshop on ICT-based Business Development Services for SMEs in developed and in developing countries. Intended Outputs: - overview on ICT-based applications and services for SME (the present report could serve as discussion paper); - demonstration of selected ICT applications (2 German, 2 project examples); - selection of pilot countries and types of ICT-based services to be developed in these countries (in total: 3). This step can only be taken on a participatory basis that involves the active projects in the selection. Location: GTZ Eschborn Duration: one full day Timing: between January - February, 2002 Participants: • resource persons from the German private sector, research institutions, and consulting companies (GEFAK; IT-Pro/Spelleken; IFM/Universität Mannheim; ZEF Bonn; Dialego Marktforschung; ZENIT NRW; BMWi; BMBF; regionale/Landesbehörden etc.). • GTZ project staff from EDEP projects in selected partner countries - excluding countries already covered under the e-commerce research project (J. Prey). Preferably, contacts should be made with those projects that responded to the questionnaire and that have indicated their interest in the subject. Among those, the selection of 3 - 4 projects could be based on the state of advancement on ICT-knowledge (e.g. projects that have already conducted ICT/BDS studies such as PSP Macedonia; EIP Sri Lanka or Bangladesh; projects using KWIS). • GTZ headquarter staff (P+E, OE 4111: not more than 3 - 4 participants). • In addition, resource persons from high-potential countries with accelerated ICT-development (e.g. Brazil; Estonia) could be invited if contacts and resources allow for. Practical steps: consultant of this report (S. Bauer) can join either as resource person, or as facilitator to the workshop (workshop preparation; documentation etc.: 5 - 6 work days suggested, depending on workshop content and outline to be agreed upon). (b) Prepare for assignment of short-term consultants (based on the workshop results for selection of countries and services to be developed); possible field missions in March/April 2002. Intended outputs: - new products developed for ICT-based BDS (conceptual design and test run for applications); - increased knowledge on the feasibility of ICT-based BDS.
  25. 25. (c) Elaborate a concept paper for an integrated approach to ICT within ongoing GTZ projects and programmes in EDEP. This could also be in follow-up to the workshop, and should be done in parallel to (b). Intended outputs: - dissemination of the workshop outputs to a wider group of projects beyond the selected pilot areas; - increased awareness of project staff on the importance of ICTs and the range of possibilities for their application and integration at project level; - increased integration of ICTs within ongoing GTZ projects. (d) Design a training module on ICT-based BDS for GTZ project staff and partners, in the form of an online course provided on a fee-basis. Intended outputs: - qualified human resources/project staff on ICT-application in the SME context; - test application of a training module delivered via the Internet to project staff (cost consideration; staff time for training inputs reduced). Practical steps to consider: - the experience of CDG/Denkmodell on course design and training delivery should be tapped (for more information, have a look at the demo versions on Knowledge Management and Consultancy as a Professional Option: ongoing, until November 27, 2001). - As background material for the design of this course, the various ICT/BDS studies commissioned by GTZ-projects and other programmes mentioned in this report could be explored in more detail. - A course outline can be prepared by the consultant of this report (S. Bauer: 3 work days suggested).
  26. 26. ANNEX I: ICT-International/development links www.developmentgateway.org Development Gateway Foundation (Worldbank) www.dfid.gov.uk Department for International Development (DFID), Enterprise Development Department www.die-gdi.de Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) (German Development Institute: GDI) www.digitaldividenetwork.org Digital Divide Network (DDN) www.un.org/esa/coordination/ecosoc/itforum/ UN Economic and Social Council/ IT Forum www.gdln.org Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) (Worldbank Initiative) www.gdln.org/online-resources.html GDLN Online Resources www.gipiproject.org Global Internet Policy Initiative (GIPI) www.gtz.de/e-business/ German Technical Cooperation agency (GTZ) (research project on e-business) www.iadb.org/ict4dev/index.cfm Inter-American Development Bank www.ids.ac.uk/ids Institute for Development Studies (IDS) www.ifc.org/sme/html/ebusiness.html International Finance Corporation (IFC; Worldbank Group) hereunder: SME Toolkit www.ilo.org World Employment Report 2001: Life at work in the Information Economy (ILO) www.imfundo.org/resource/resourcebank.htm (resource bank and knowledge bank, DFID programmes) www.infodev.org Global Multi-Donor Grant Program on Information Development (start: 1995), managed by the Worldbank (see also entry to “The ICT Stories project”) www.itd.org Information Technologies for Development (ITD) www.itdg.org/html/icts/ Intermediate Technology for Development Group (ITDG) www.itu.int/ITU-D/ecdc/ International Telecommunication Union ECDC: Electronic Commerce for Developing Countries www.man.ac.uk/idpm/ictsme.htm Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM), University of Manchester (see also: www.dfid.gov.uk ) www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) www.opt-init.org Digital Opportunity Initiative (DOI)
  27. 27. www.sdnp.undp.org UNDP/ICTs for Sustainable Development Networking www.slu.edu/eweb South Lousiana University (SLU), USA (on: e-consulting) www.undp.org/info21/index5.htm United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Info21 “IT for development” programme. www.unescap.org/escap_work/ict/index.html United Nations Economic and Social Commission forAsia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) www.unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001230/123004e.pdf UNESCO (Cookbook Telecenters) www.unrisd.org/infotech/links/orgs.htm United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (information on donors that are active in ICTs) www.worldbank.org/knowledgebank/ Worldbank
  28. 28. ANNEX II: Literature on ICT in Development ADB (2001): “Towards E-development in Asia and The Pacific: A Strategic Approach For ICT". Asian Development Bank (ADB) 2001. Allafrica (link) (2001): "Ghana - Rapid Growth in the Internet Use despite Cost Constraints", Accra Mail, October 2, 2001, by Kwami Ahiabenu BMZ (2000): Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) in der Deutschen Entwicklungs- zusammenarbeit, Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, Juli 2000 BMZ/ZEF (2001): Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for Development – The German Contribution. List of Issues for Country Studies, Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung (ZEF Bonn), October 2001. CDG/SERCOTEC (1999): Aprendizaje Institutional: Asesoría Empresarial y Planificación de Proyectos Asociativos, CD_ROM, Servicio de Cooperacion Tecnica (SERCOTEC) Chile CDG (2000): New Economy – A New Opportunity for Africa? Challenges for Development Cooperation, berlin, November 14 – 15, 2000, Conference Documentation. Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft e.V. (CDG) Köln. (therein, for example: R. Eisele, German Confederation of Small and Medium-sized enterprises (BVMW): Knowledge Management and E-Commerce in SMEs: Legal Aspects and Information Networking Platform). CDG (2001): Information Technology in African Business. International Training and Cooperation Initiative. CDG Köln. DIE (2001): Eine globale IKT-Kompetenzoffensive zur Überwindung der digitalen Kluft zwischen Nord und Süd. Analysen und Stellungnahmen, 2/2001, Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) Bonn. DIE (2000): Stamm, A. et al.: Ansatzpunkte für nachholende Technologieentwicklung in den fortgeschrittenen Ländern Lateinamerikas: das Beispiel der Softwareindustrie von Argentinien, 2000, DIE Bonn. DFID/IDPM (2001): Richard Heeks/Richard Duncombe: (1) Information and Communication Technology. A Handbook for Enterpreneurs in Developing Countries; (2) Information, Technology and Small Enterprise: A Handbook for Enterprise Support Agencies. Version1, 2001, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM), University of Manchester, UK. With support from UK DFID. DFID (2001): Oliver Wakelin/Basheer Shadrach: Impact Assessment of Appropriate and Innovative Technologies in Enterprise Development, DFID 2001 DFID (2001): Enterprise Development and ICTs: Research on Innovation and Best Practice. Strategy Paper by the Enterprise Development Department of DFID (draft report), 2001. DOI (2001): Creating a Development Dynamic: Final Report of the Digital Opportunbity Initiative, July 2001. EU (2000): Le développement d’Internet dans les pays méditerranéens et la coopération avec l’union européenne. EU (2001): Bericht über Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) und Entwicklungsländer (2000/2327 (INI), Europäisches Parlament, Ausschuß für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Berichterstatter Lone Dybkjaer, 30. Mai 2001 Frankfurter Rundschau (2001): Die Globalisierung bietet Entwicklungsländern enorme Chancen. Beitrag von Siegmar Mosdorf, 18.10.2001 (p. 7) GTZ (2000): ICT-based Business Information for regional Economies. Contribution to the BDS Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam, by the team of the Sri Lankan-German Enterprise Information Project (EIP), Sri Lanka (Udo Gärtner, Rashanith Siriwansa). GTZ (2001): Analysis of Information Demand and Supply for the Business Sector in Macedonia, with recommendations to Build an Internet based Information System. Final report by Edwin Brunner, with asssistance from Saso Risteski, Aleksandar Karaev, Skopje, April 2001 (on behalf of Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Macedonia, commissioned by GTZ under the Private Sector Promotion Project (PSP)
  29. 29. GTZ (2001): Research on the Market for Internet-based Information Services for Private SMEs, by Taylor Nelson Sofres for SMENET Vietnam, commissioned by GTZ under the Promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises (GTZ-VCA). GTZ (2001): ICT-based Business Information Services (BIS) in Bangladesh (based on the proposal “Information Centre and Data Bank” submitted by the FBCCI), Appraisal Mission report, by Udo Gärtner, Roshanjith Siriniwasa, Martina Vahlhaus, Shafiquer Rahman. GTZ/CEFE (2001): The perfect CEFE Faciitator. Interactive CD-ROM, available in English/Spanish, CEFE International, GTZ Eschborn 2001. Helvetas (2001): Knowledge – A Core Resource for Development. Swiss Meeting on Global Knowledge Sharing and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), ed. Katarina Thumheer, May 2001 IDS (2001): E-Commerce: Accelerator of Development? IDS Policy Briefing, issue 14/September 2001, Institute for Development Studies. ILO (2001): World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy (371 pp.). ILO (2001): ICTs and Enterprises in developing Countries: Hype or Opportunity?, by Jim Tanburn and Alwyn Didar Singh, SEED Working Paper No. 17, International Labour Organisation (ILO) Geneva, 2001. Le Monde (2001): Le Web à la rescousse des entrepreneurs. Le Monde Interactif, 24 Octobre 2001 (p.6) OECD (2001): Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2001 (STI), 145 pages, OECD 2001, 4th edition. OECD (2001): Science, Technology and Industry Outlook. Drivers of Growth: Information Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, special edition 2001 (pdf-file). SLU (2000): Distance Consulting: Potentials and Pitfalls in using the Internet to deliver Business Development Services to SMEs, by Jerome A. Katz, Saint Lous University (SLU), USA 2000 (ppt presentation). SWISSCONTACT (2001): The role of ICT in SME promotion (case studies Sri Lanka and Indonesia), for Swisscontact by Mellows GmbH Switzerland, November 2001 UN (2001): United Nations Human Development Report 2001 (chapter 2: Today’s technological transformations – creating the network age), U.N. New York, 2001, p. 27 - .. UNDP/DOI (2001): see DOI publication “Creating a Development Dynamic (…)”. UNESCO (2001): Community Telecentre Cookbook for Africa: Recipes for Self-Sustainability. How to establish a Multi-Purpose Community Telecentre in Africa, by Mike Jensen/Anriette Esterhuysen, UNESCO Paris, 2001. US Government (2000): The Power of the Internet for Learning: Moving from Promise to Practice. Report of the Web-based Education Commission, USA, December 2000 ZEF (2001): see BMZ/ZEF (2001) – above.
  30. 30. ANNEX III: ICT applications - Country and regional Experience Keyword Country/Region Implementing link Organisation Africa/Middle East Ecofarming Africa/general Network for Ecofrming in www.necofa.org Network Africa Africa, sponsered by DSE online- Africa/general German Development www.dse-gis.de coaching Foundation (DSE) www.dse.zd (geographical Information system) Partnership Africa/general Partnership for ICTs in www.bellanet.org/partners/aisi/aisi.htm for ICT in Africa (PICTA), African Africa Information Society Initiative (AISI) IT in African Africa/general Carl Duisberg www.cdg.de or Business Gesellschaft (CDG) www.it-ab.net (training) ICT for Africa/general Project implemented www.itd.org/issues/init_0.htm Development: Trade&Development Wiring Up Centre (ITD), for Africa WTO/World Bank ICT for Africa/general ETradeAFRica www.etafr.com Growth Technology Egypt TACC (Technology Access www.tacc.egnet.net Community Center) Growth in Ghana Allafrica www.allafrica.com/stories/html/ or Internet Use www.sdnp.undp.org/perl/news/articles Rural radio & Mali FAO www.fao.org internet Digital Divide/ Niger Worldspace Foundation www.worldspace.org/ or Community www.infodev.org (ICT Stories Project) Information Centre Internet for Nigeria Global Technology www.globaltechcorps.org/projects.html Universities Corps Internet South Africa Mbendi Information www.mbendi.co.za strategy Services/Consultants Women’s Net South Africa Women’s Net, part of the www.womensnet.org.za Association for Progressive Communications’ Africa regional Programme (APC-Africa-Women) Online Southern Africa Southern African Non- www.sn.apc.org development Governmental Information Organisation Network Service (SangoNet) Digital Video South Africa Global Technology www.globaltechcorps.org/projects.html Broadcasting Corps (training for journalists) National ICT Tanzania, South Digital Opportunity www.opt-init.org approaches Africa Initiative (UNDP etal) ISP/PoP Uganda African Technology Forum www.afritechforum.com or www.source.co.ug Resource Southern Africa, Intermediate Technology www.itdg.org/html/icts/ Centre; ICTs Zimbabwe for Development Group
  31. 31. Urban/Rural small-scale producers Asia/Pacific ICT policies Asia/general ADB www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/ICT/ ICT Funding Japan/ADB JFICT (Japan Fund for www.jfict.org Information & Communication Technology ICT Inventory Asia/UNESCAP ESCAP www.unescap.org/escap_work/ict/index.html countries Information Cambodia Federation of Cambodian www.rice-cambodia.com exchange Rice Millers Associations &marketing ICT Case Indonesia & Sri SWISSCONTACT, studies www.mellow-e-business.ch Studies Lanka done by Mellow GmbH National ICT India, Malaysia Digital Opportunity www.opt-init.org approaches Initiative (UNDP etal) Simple India Simputer Trust (non-profit) www.simputer.org/simputer or inexpensive www.csa.iisc.ernet.in/ mobile PC IT/PC for slum India Indian Government www.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/default.stm children IT India – Bangalore Bangalore IT (local www.bangaloreit.com Government page) ICT & training Vietnam IFC/ Mekong Project www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ent/papers/ola.htm product Development Facility/ development Open Learning Agency (OLA) Latin America Low-Cost Brazil Benton Foundation www.cg.org.br Computers (Computador Popular) Internet Brazil Emarketer Consulting www.emarketer.com Access Dicas de Brazil www.vencer-rs.com.br Marketing National ICT Brazil, Costa Rica Digital Opportunity www.opt-init.org approaches Initiative (UNDP etal) Information Peru Intermediate Technology www.itdg.org/html/icts/ Systems for for Development Group Rural Development (InfoDes) Eastern Europe/CIS countries National ICT Eustonia Digital Opportunity www.opt-init.org approaches Initiative (UNDP etal) Internet Mongolia Soros Foundation www.soros.org.mn/information/internet/ Program Price Mongolia Gobi Regional Growth www.gbn.mn or under Information Initiative, USAID www.infodev.org (ICT Stories Project) Services Other/International Women and “It’s a Woman’s Mediametrix www.mediametrix.com WWW World Wide Web” Worldwide “Half a billion WashingtonPost www.washtech.com/news/media/ or Online Survey People online” www.newsbyte.com ICTs for Global Program InfoDev – Worldbank www.infodev.org Development (hereunder: related Initiatives: links to 21 major ICT programs worldwide) ICT Country Many countries Worldbank/Development www.developmentgateway.org
  32. 32. Gateways can be searched Gateway under their own ‘country Gateways’ UN- “UN Inter-Agency UNDP - Enterprise www.undp.org/edu/ interagency- Resource Guide Development Unit SME for Small development Enterprise Development” (online guide)

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