ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)


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ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)

  1. 1. Designing the Research Tool(s)
  2. 2. Designing the Research Tool(s) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Primary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire Construction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Design <ul><li>Primary vs. Secondary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Design <ul><li>Primary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire survey </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Research </li></ul><ul><li>Unpublished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic theses, reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Published </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, magazines, journals, newspapers, internet websites </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Replicates research with same results </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure a significant sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Test what you set out to test </li></ul><ul><li>Think through, design and construct carefully </li></ul>Research Design
  6. 6. Research Design <ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Completely objective </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to tabulate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities or attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure quantitatively </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire survey </li></ul>Types of Primary Research
  8. 8. Focus Group Discussions <ul><li>Can be an important tool for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programme evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing, advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consists of a number of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts between 1 to 2 ½ hours </li></ul><ul><li>Records or observes the session </li></ul>
  9. 9. Focus Group Discussions <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Used for exploratory research </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain data quickly and less costly </li></ul><ul><li>Interact, probe and clarify </li></ul><ul><li>Observe non-verbal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot extrapolate to a larger population </li></ul><ul><li>Affect the thought processes of respondents and researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Collating the information and its interpretation may be difficult </li></ul>
  10. 10. Observation <ul><li>Involves watching or seeing what is happening </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain data through the use of the five senses </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Counting the number of </li></ul><ul><li>buses that run on time </li></ul>
  11. 11. Observational Tally Sheet No. of buses that run on time at specific time intervals Observer _________________________ Date ________ Place _____________________________ Day _________ Time 8 - 8.59 9 - 9.59 10 - 10.59 11 - 11.59 12 - 12.59 13 - 13.59 14 - 14.59 15 - 15.59
  12. 12. Observation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>May be the only method at times </li></ul><ul><li>Generally objective </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to tally and work with </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to those phenomenon observed </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot explain why </li></ul><ul><li>May be influenced by observer bias </li></ul><ul><li>May be expensive and time-consuming </li></ul>
  13. 13. Interviews <ul><li>Used when in-depth understanding is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with other research tools to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the problem, limit the scope etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help interpret unusual findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put data into perspective </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Interviews <ul><li>Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot vary the way the questions are asked </li></ul><ul><li>Can only repeat the question </li></ul><ul><li>Speak in as neutral a tone as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Limit the interviewer bias </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interview </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational in tone </li></ul><ul><li>Informal way of eliciting information </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Job interview </li></ul><ul><li>information to be elicited – qualifications, experience, ability to work with others etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interviews <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively more flexible and adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Permits probing </li></ul><ul><li>Can observe the non-verbal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity can be clarified </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer bias can affect the interviewee’s responses </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to tabulate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questionnaire Survey <ul><li>An orderly list of questions to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommend policies/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest changes </li></ul></ul>Question 1 Question 2 Question 3
  17. 17. Questionnaire Survey <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates researcher’s prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Time and cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Reaches a large number of respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents’ privacy maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to tabulate </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Returns may not be representative </li></ul><ul><li>Answers may not be as desired </li></ul><ul><li>May be invalid and unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming to design and refine </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Questions <ul><li>Open-ended question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In your opinion, how can Resident Committees meet the needs of people living in the neighbourhood? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dichotomous question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only people with degrees should be promoted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree ___ Disagree ___ No opinion ___ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tick the radio station you listen to most frequently : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class 95 FM ____ FM92.4 ____ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>93.8 FM ____ Gold 90FM ____ </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Questions <ul><li>Rating question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you rate the efficiency of this department? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Good Average Fair Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 3 4 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ranking question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank the following subjects in order of preference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1 being the most preferable) : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Statistics __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Finance __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Economics __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial Accounting __________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Sciences __________ </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Questionnaire Construction <ul><li>Be as clear as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to elicit as accurately and quickly as possible from the respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps researchers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommend policies/procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest changes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Example Purpose: To evaluate the effect of training programme on staff morale Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures.
  22. 22. Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 1. How would you rate the present selection procedures used to identify staff for the new training programme? good 1 2 3 4 poor
  23. 23. Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 2. If you gave a rating of either 3 or 4, please indicate your reasons (you may tick more than one option):  it is embarrassing to be nominated  it doesn't identify the people who really need the training  people who might want to attend the course are not able to  others; please elaborate ______________________
  24. 24. Structure of the Questionnaire <ul><li>Be personal and friendly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Show appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Introduce yourself and subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be logical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Provide clear instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Place simple questions first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Categorise questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Make transitions smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Use filter/classification questions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Content of Questions <ul><li>Make questions easy to answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid sensitive or personal questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid asking for difficult information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide realistic options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offer choices that are mutually exclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid multi-topic questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include “don’t know”, “others”, no opinion” categories </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Phrasing of Questions <ul><li>Phrase questions unambiguously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use question words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eg. Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid words with vague meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Eg. Do you drink regularly? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Use objective phrasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase questions concisely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Has it happened to you that over a long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>period of time, when you neither practiced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abstinence nor birth control, you did not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conceive? </li></ul></ul>Phrasing of Questions
  28. 28. <ul><li>Use objective phrasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid leading questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Is Phua Chu Kang your favourite sitcom? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid loaded questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Do you practise good dental hygiene? </li></ul></ul></ul>Phrasing of Questions
  29. 29. Basic Principles <ul><li>Be brief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the questionnaire short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make each question count </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make questionnaire visually appealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use good quality paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use correct grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan for easy tabulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid open-ended questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide range categories </li></ul></ul>