ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)
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ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)

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    ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s) ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s) Presentation Transcript

    • Designing the Research Tool(s)
    • Designing the Research Tool(s)
      • Research Design
      • Types of Primary Research
      • Questionnaire Construction
    • Research Design
      • Primary vs. Secondary Research
      • Reliability and Validity
      • Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data
    • Research Design
      • Primary Research
      • Focus groups
      • Interview
      • Observation
      • Questionnaire survey
      • Secondary Research
      • Unpublished
        • Academic theses, reports
      • Published
        • Books, magazines, journals, newspapers, internet websites
      • Reliability
      • Replicates research with same results
      • Ensure a significant sample size
      • Validity
      • Test what you set out to test
      • Think through, design and construct carefully
      Research Design
    • Research Design
      • Quantitative Data
      • Completely objective
      • Easy to tabulate
        • Discrete
        • continuous
      • Qualitative Data
      • Qualities or attributes
      • Difficult to measure quantitatively
      • Focus groups
      • Observation
      • Interview
      • Questionnaire survey
      Types of Primary Research
    • Focus Group Discussions
      • Can be an important tool for
        • programme evaluation
        • Marketing, advertising
        • Policy-making
        • communication
      • Consists of a number of individuals
      • Lasts between 1 to 2 ½ hours
      • Records or observes the session
    • Focus Group Discussions
      • Advantages
      • Used for exploratory research
      • Obtain data quickly and less costly
      • Interact, probe and clarify
      • Observe non-verbal behaviour
      • Disadvantages
      • Cannot extrapolate to a larger population
      • Affect the thought processes of respondents and researcher
      • Collating the information and its interpretation may be difficult
    • Observation
      • Involves watching or seeing what is happening
      • Obtain data through the use of the five senses
      • Example :
      • Counting the number of
      • buses that run on time
    • Observational Tally Sheet No. of buses that run on time at specific time intervals Observer _________________________ Date ________ Place _____________________________ Day _________ Time 8 - 8.59 9 - 9.59 10 - 10.59 11 - 11.59 12 - 12.59 13 - 13.59 14 - 14.59 15 - 15.59
    • Observation
      • Advantages
      • May be the only method at times
      • Generally objective
      • Easy to tally and work with
      • Disadvantages
      • Limited to those phenomenon observed
      • Cannot explain why
      • May be influenced by observer bias
      • May be expensive and time-consuming
    • Interviews
      • Used when in-depth understanding is needed
      • Can be used with other research tools to
        • Supplement information
        • Clarify the problem, limit the scope etc.
        • Help interpret unusual findings
        • Put data into perspective
    • Interviews
      • Structured Interview
      • Cannot vary the way the questions are asked
      • Can only repeat the question
      • Speak in as neutral a tone as possible
      • Purpose: Limit the interviewer bias
      • Unstructured interview
      • Conversational in tone
      • Informal way of eliciting information
      • Example: Job interview
      • information to be elicited – qualifications, experience, ability to work with others etc.
    • Interviews
      • Advantages
      • Relatively more flexible and adaptable
      • Permits probing
      • Can observe the non-verbal behaviour
      • Ambiguity can be clarified
      • Disadvantages
      • Interviewer bias can affect the interviewee’s responses
      • Time-consuming and expensive
      • Difficult to tabulate
    • Questionnaire Survey
      • An orderly list of questions to
        • obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc.
        • provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way
      • Helps researchers
        • make decisions
        • improve products
        • recommend policies/procedures
        • suggest changes
      Question 1 Question 2 Question 3
    • Questionnaire Survey
      • Advantages
      • Eliminates researcher’s prejudices
      • Time and cost effective
      • Reaches a large number of respondents
      • Respondents’ privacy maintained
      • Easy to tabulate
      • Disadvantages
      • Returns may not be representative
      • Answers may not be as desired
      • May be invalid and unreliable
      • Time-consuming to design and refine
    • Types of Questions
      • Open-ended question
        • In your opinion, how can Resident Committees meet the needs of people living in the neighbourhood?
      • Dichotomous question
        • Only people with degrees should be promoted.
        • Agree ___ Disagree ___ No opinion ___
      • Multiple-choice question
        • Tick the radio station you listen to most frequently :
        • Class 95 FM ____ FM92.4 ____
        • 93.8 FM ____ Gold 90FM ____
    • Types of Questions
      • Rating question
        • How do you rate the efficiency of this department?
        • Excellent Good Average Fair Poor
        • 2 3 4 5
      • Ranking question
        • Rank the following subjects in order of preference.
        • (1 being the most preferable) :
        • Applied Statistics __________
        • Business Finance __________
        • International Economics __________
        • Managerial Accounting __________
        • Management Sciences __________
    • Questionnaire Construction
      • Be as clear as possible
      • Designed to elicit as accurately and quickly as possible from the respondent
        • obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc.
        • provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way
      • Helps researchers
        • make decisions
        • improve products
        • recommend policies/procedures
        • suggest changes
    • Example Purpose: To evaluate the effect of training programme on staff morale Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures.
    • Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 1. How would you rate the present selection procedures used to identify staff for the new training programme? good 1 2 3 4 poor
    • Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 2. If you gave a rating of either 3 or 4, please indicate your reasons (you may tick more than one option):  it is embarrassing to be nominated  it doesn't identify the people who really need the training  people who might want to attend the course are not able to  others; please elaborate ______________________
    • Structure of the Questionnaire
      • Be personal and friendly
        • – Show appreciation
        • – Introduce yourself and subject
      • Be logical
        • – Provide clear instructions
        • – Place simple questions first
        • – Categorise questions
        • – Make transitions smooth
        • – Use filter/classification questions
    • Content of Questions
      • Make questions easy to answer
        • Avoid sensitive or personal questions
        • Avoid asking for difficult information
      • Provide realistic options
        • offer choices that are mutually exclusive
        • avoid multi-topic questions
        • include “don’t know”, “others”, no opinion” categories
    • Phrasing of Questions
      • Phrase questions unambiguously
        • Use question words
      • Eg. Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
        • Avoid words with vague meanings
      • Eg. Do you drink regularly?
      • Use objective phrasing
        • Phrase questions concisely
        • Eg. Has it happened to you that over a long
        • period of time, when you neither practiced
        • abstinence nor birth control, you did not
        • conceive?
      Phrasing of Questions
      • Use objective phrasing
        • Avoid leading questions
          • Eg. Is Phua Chu Kang your favourite sitcom?
        • Avoid loaded questions
          • Eg. Do you practise good dental hygiene?
      Phrasing of Questions
    • Basic Principles
      • Be brief
        • Keep the questionnaire short
        • Make each question count
      • Be professional
        • Make questionnaire visually appealing
        • Use good quality paper
        • Use correct grammar
      • Plan for easy tabulation
        • Avoid open-ended questions
        • Provide range categories