ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)
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ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s)

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ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s) ES2002 Report - Designing Research Tool(s) Presentation Transcript

  • Designing the Research Tool(s)
  • Designing the Research Tool(s)
    • Research Design
    • Types of Primary Research
    • Questionnaire Construction
  • Research Design
    • Primary vs. Secondary Research
    • Reliability and Validity
    • Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data
  • Research Design
    • Primary Research
    • Focus groups
    • Interview
    • Observation
    • Questionnaire survey
    • Secondary Research
    • Unpublished
      • Academic theses, reports
    • Published
      • Books, magazines, journals, newspapers, internet websites
    • Reliability
    • Replicates research with same results
    • Ensure a significant sample size
    • Validity
    • Test what you set out to test
    • Think through, design and construct carefully
    Research Design
  • Research Design
    • Quantitative Data
    • Completely objective
    • Easy to tabulate
      • Discrete
      • continuous
    • Qualitative Data
    • Qualities or attributes
    • Difficult to measure quantitatively
    • Focus groups
    • Observation
    • Interview
    • Questionnaire survey
    Types of Primary Research
  • Focus Group Discussions
    • Can be an important tool for
      • programme evaluation
      • Marketing, advertising
      • Policy-making
      • communication
    • Consists of a number of individuals
    • Lasts between 1 to 2 ½ hours
    • Records or observes the session
  • Focus Group Discussions
    • Advantages
    • Used for exploratory research
    • Obtain data quickly and less costly
    • Interact, probe and clarify
    • Observe non-verbal behaviour
    • Disadvantages
    • Cannot extrapolate to a larger population
    • Affect the thought processes of respondents and researcher
    • Collating the information and its interpretation may be difficult
  • Observation
    • Involves watching or seeing what is happening
    • Obtain data through the use of the five senses
    • Example :
    • Counting the number of
    • buses that run on time
  • Observational Tally Sheet No. of buses that run on time at specific time intervals Observer _________________________ Date ________ Place _____________________________ Day _________ Time 8 - 8.59 9 - 9.59 10 - 10.59 11 - 11.59 12 - 12.59 13 - 13.59 14 - 14.59 15 - 15.59
  • Observation
    • Advantages
    • May be the only method at times
    • Generally objective
    • Easy to tally and work with
    • Disadvantages
    • Limited to those phenomenon observed
    • Cannot explain why
    • May be influenced by observer bias
    • May be expensive and time-consuming
  • Interviews
    • Used when in-depth understanding is needed
    • Can be used with other research tools to
      • Supplement information
      • Clarify the problem, limit the scope etc.
      • Help interpret unusual findings
      • Put data into perspective
  • Interviews
    • Structured Interview
    • Cannot vary the way the questions are asked
    • Can only repeat the question
    • Speak in as neutral a tone as possible
    • Purpose: Limit the interviewer bias
    • Unstructured interview
    • Conversational in tone
    • Informal way of eliciting information
    • Example: Job interview
    • information to be elicited – qualifications, experience, ability to work with others etc.
  • Interviews
    • Advantages
    • Relatively more flexible and adaptable
    • Permits probing
    • Can observe the non-verbal behaviour
    • Ambiguity can be clarified
    • Disadvantages
    • Interviewer bias can affect the interviewee’s responses
    • Time-consuming and expensive
    • Difficult to tabulate
  • Questionnaire Survey
    • An orderly list of questions to
      • obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc.
      • provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way
    • Helps researchers
      • make decisions
      • improve products
      • recommend policies/procedures
      • suggest changes
    Question 1 Question 2 Question 3
  • Questionnaire Survey
    • Advantages
    • Eliminates researcher’s prejudices
    • Time and cost effective
    • Reaches a large number of respondents
    • Respondents’ privacy maintained
    • Easy to tabulate
    • Disadvantages
    • Returns may not be representative
    • Answers may not be as desired
    • May be invalid and unreliable
    • Time-consuming to design and refine
  • Types of Questions
    • Open-ended question
      • In your opinion, how can Resident Committees meet the needs of people living in the neighbourhood?
    • Dichotomous question
      • Only people with degrees should be promoted.
      • Agree ___ Disagree ___ No opinion ___
    • Multiple-choice question
      • Tick the radio station you listen to most frequently :
      • Class 95 FM ____ FM92.4 ____
      • 93.8 FM ____ Gold 90FM ____
  • Types of Questions
    • Rating question
      • How do you rate the efficiency of this department?
      • Excellent Good Average Fair Poor
      • 2 3 4 5
    • Ranking question
      • Rank the following subjects in order of preference.
      • (1 being the most preferable) :
      • Applied Statistics __________
      • Business Finance __________
      • International Economics __________
      • Managerial Accounting __________
      • Management Sciences __________
  • Questionnaire Construction
    • Be as clear as possible
    • Designed to elicit as accurately and quickly as possible from the respondent
      • obtain facts, opinions, attitudes etc.
      • provide answers to how and why people think or behave in a certain way
    • Helps researchers
      • make decisions
      • improve products
      • recommend policies/procedures
      • suggest changes
  • Example Purpose: To evaluate the effect of training programme on staff morale Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures.
  • Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 1. How would you rate the present selection procedures used to identify staff for the new training programme? good 1 2 3 4 poor
  • Hypothesis: Workers are dissatisfied with the selection procedures. 2. If you gave a rating of either 3 or 4, please indicate your reasons (you may tick more than one option):  it is embarrassing to be nominated  it doesn't identify the people who really need the training  people who might want to attend the course are not able to  others; please elaborate ______________________
  • Structure of the Questionnaire
    • Be personal and friendly
      • – Show appreciation
      • – Introduce yourself and subject
    • Be logical
      • – Provide clear instructions
      • – Place simple questions first
      • – Categorise questions
      • – Make transitions smooth
      • – Use filter/classification questions
  • Content of Questions
    • Make questions easy to answer
      • Avoid sensitive or personal questions
      • Avoid asking for difficult information
    • Provide realistic options
      • offer choices that are mutually exclusive
      • avoid multi-topic questions
      • include “don’t know”, “others”, no opinion” categories
  • Phrasing of Questions
    • Phrase questions unambiguously
      • Use question words
    • Eg. Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
      • Avoid words with vague meanings
    • Eg. Do you drink regularly?
    • Use objective phrasing
      • Phrase questions concisely
      • Eg. Has it happened to you that over a long
      • period of time, when you neither practiced
      • abstinence nor birth control, you did not
      • conceive?
    Phrasing of Questions
    • Use objective phrasing
      • Avoid leading questions
        • Eg. Is Phua Chu Kang your favourite sitcom?
      • Avoid loaded questions
        • Eg. Do you practise good dental hygiene?
    Phrasing of Questions
  • Basic Principles
    • Be brief
      • Keep the questionnaire short
      • Make each question count
    • Be professional
      • Make questionnaire visually appealing
      • Use good quality paper
      • Use correct grammar
    • Plan for easy tabulation
      • Avoid open-ended questions
      • Provide range categories