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Communications  Our last class
Why is communication important? <ul><li>It’s what we humans do. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications makes us human </li><...
OK, so what is it?
What is Communication <ul><li>A process of acting on Information </li></ul><ul><li>An action process </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
 
Listening
Listening is a complex activity that is learned
Myths about Listening <ul><li>Related to Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is t...
Listening on Three Levels <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves receiving, translating and understanding the mess...
Empathizing <ul><ul><li>Includes hearing and analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets at the emotional content of the mes...
Barriers to Effective Listening <ul><li>Anything at all that distracts </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudging - I know what he’s goi...
Active Listening Involves <ul><li>Stop what you are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the non verbal cues that identify fee...
Language and Words <ul><li>One of the things that make us human </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create our world  </li></ul><...
Non Verbal Communications
Importance of non verbal communications <ul><li>We communicate non verbally --- like it or not! </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions...
Frequency of Non Verbal Communication <ul><li>7% of the emotional meaning of a message is verbal </li></ul><ul><li>People ...
Functional  <ul><li>Emphasizes meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated in a context </li></ul>
Structural <ul><li>Dealing with the management of space to facilitate communications </li></ul>
Non Verbal Communication  <ul><li>Kinesic Behavior-Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Postures, movements, eye contact,...
Kinesic Behavior-Functional <ul><li>Emblems – gestures that replace spoken messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shhh </li></ul><...
Communicating with your eyes <ul><li>Performs four functions in communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – look away...
Proximic Behavior <ul><li>The way we use space </li></ul><ul><li>Communications are facilitated when distance is comfortab...
Proximic Behavior <ul><li>Territoriality and Personal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resident advantage- </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Personal Space varies culturally and ethnically <ul><li>Saudi Arabia  for example, you might find yourself almost nose to ...
Proximic Behavior <ul><ul><li>Group Spatial Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociopetal-encourages contact </li></ul...
Spatial Ecology <ul><li>Who you have eye contact with determines who you talk to  </li></ul><ul><li>People who are more ce...
Informal communications <ul><li>MBWA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No formal agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make friends </li><...
Workplace Communications
Information Model <ul><li>Reduces time to solve problems by making information universally available and ubiquitous. </li>...
Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Individual Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudging and Rehearsing </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Organizational  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and power differences </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Overcoming Barriers <ul><li>Active listening </li></ul><ul><li>Developing appropriate organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Crea...
That’s the class!!  I hope you have enjoyed it and that you will go out and change the world.  Good luck on the final!
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Communications

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Transcript of "Communications"

  1. 1. Communications Our last class
  2. 2. Why is communication important? <ul><li>It’s what we humans do. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications makes us human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the process of management, we communicate when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We organize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We lead </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. OK, so what is it?
  4. 4. What is Communication <ul><li>A process of acting on Information </li></ul><ul><li>An action process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is transferred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes feedback within a context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and Non Verbal interaction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Listening
  6. 7. Listening is a complex activity that is learned
  7. 8. Myths about Listening <ul><li>Related to Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is the same as hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker is responsible for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Means agreeing </li></ul>
  8. 9. Listening on Three Levels <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves receiving, translating and understanding the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves translating non verbal cues to comprehend the message as intended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing is included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferring the intent of the speaker-what did he really mean-and the context in which communication is taking place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirming responses and asking questions helps with this </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Empathizing <ul><ul><li>Includes hearing and analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets at the emotional content of the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing the world through the eyes of the other person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Relationships breed trust </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Barriers to Effective Listening <ul><li>Anything at all that distracts </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudging - I know what he’s going to say-mind goes on vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsing - As soon as he stops talking this is what I’ll say. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Active Listening Involves <ul><li>Stop what you are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the non verbal cues that identify feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Match verbal and non verbal cues to decipher content and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Ask confirming questions </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase content to insure you understand </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase feelings to understand what is being felt </li></ul>
  12. 13. Language and Words <ul><li>One of the things that make us human </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create our world </li></ul><ul><li>Tools by which people make sense of other people’s world </li></ul><ul><li>Act as boundaries to group communications - double filters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affecting group climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make people defensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift attention towards personal goal of protection and away from the group goal, reducing productivity </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Non Verbal Communications
  14. 15. Importance of non verbal communications <ul><li>We communicate non verbally --- like it or not! </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions and feeling generally are communicated non verbally. </li></ul><ul><li>Non verbal communication is more believable. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Frequency of Non Verbal Communication <ul><li>7% of the emotional meaning of a message is verbal </li></ul><ul><li>People use non-verbal communication far more than verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise on Page 157 </li></ul>
  16. 17. Functional <ul><li>Emphasizes meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated in a context </li></ul>
  17. 18. Structural <ul><li>Dealing with the management of space to facilitate communications </li></ul>
  18. 19. Non Verbal Communication <ul><li>Kinesic Behavior-Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Postures, movements, eye contact, facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paralinguistic Qualities-Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal tone e.g. pitch, volume,rate, intonation, use of silence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxemic Behavior-Structural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial and distance orientations </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Kinesic Behavior-Functional <ul><li>Emblems – gestures that replace spoken messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shhh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitch hikers thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check your watch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illustrators – add meaning to verbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pound the desk for emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affect Display – demonstrates feelings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slouch means bored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact, facial expression, raised hand that regulates the flow of the conversation. Can I talk now? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self Adapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous habits that help adapt to environment.-holding a pencil </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Communicating with your eyes <ul><li>Performs four functions in communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – look away to clear thoughts, or keep from being distracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring – allows modifying message based on reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory – open or close communication gate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive – helps express emotions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Proximic Behavior <ul><li>The way we use space </li></ul><ul><li>Communications are facilitated when distance is comfortable </li></ul>
  22. 23. Proximic Behavior <ul><li>Territoriality and Personal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resident advantage- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>space you own-home court advantage- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perform better in your space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mark our territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Space – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological outline around you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expands and contracts to meet social needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four categories that have implications for group behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate Distance(0 to 8 inches ) Body contact and intimate relationship. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal distance (1 ½ to 4 feet) typical interaction for friends, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social distance (4 to 12 feet) out of touch range – used for casual contact with strangers and business functions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public distance (12 feet and beyond ) formal encounters, speeches, platform presentations, classrooms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Personal Space varies culturally and ethnically <ul><li>Saudi Arabia for example, you might find yourself almost nose to nose with a business associate because their social space equates to our intimate space. </li></ul><ul><li>If, on the other hand, you were visiting a friend in the Netherlands , you would find the roles reversed, you would be doing the chasing because their personal space equates to our social space. </li></ul><ul><li>We Americans tend to pull in our elbows and knees and try not to touch or even look at one another while riding the bus. In Japan , a country with a population half the size of the United States cramed into an area half the size of California, subway passengers are literally pushed into the cars until not even one more person will fit. You cannot help but be pressed against someone else's sweaty body. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Proximic Behavior <ul><ul><li>Group Spatial Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociopetal-encourages contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociofugal-discourages discourse and communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The way people arrange themselves in small groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders and dominent people sit at the ends of rectangular tables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential leaders are in positions with the most eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Spatial Ecology <ul><li>Who you have eye contact with determines who you talk to </li></ul><ul><li>People who are more centrally located receive more messages </li></ul><ul><li>You speak to people across from you </li></ul><ul><li>People who sit at the corners of a table contribute less </li></ul>
  26. 27. Informal communications <ul><li>MBWA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No formal agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe what is going on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Links all employees in all directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70-90% of information is accurate </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Workplace Communications
  28. 29. Information Model <ul><li>Reduces time to solve problems by making information universally available and ubiquitous. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows teams to work at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Eastman and Mallach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode 0=no sharing of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode 1= Stand alone systems, some hardware sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode 2= Management puts information where it deems it will be needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode 3= anybody puts anything in the system for anyone to read and use. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Individual Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudging and Rehearsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting the wrong channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent cues – verbal /non verbal </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and power differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Overcoming Barriers <ul><li>Active listening </li></ul><ul><li>Developing appropriate organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Create appropriate climate </li></ul>
  32. 33. That’s the class!! I hope you have enjoyed it and that you will go out and change the world. Good luck on the final!
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