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Communication383MG.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. HRT 383 Communication: Groups & Teams
  • 2. Thank You to…
    • Noel Cullen, author of Life Beyond the Line
    • Gary Yukl, author of Leadership in Organizations
    • Carol Roberts, presenter of Keys to Powerful Writing and Interviewing Appreciatively
    • Robert Woods and Judy King, authors of Quality Leadership and Management in the Hospitality Industry
  • 3. Works Cited
    • Brownell, Judi. 1987. Listening: The toughest management skill. The Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly , February 1987: 65-71.
    • Decker, Bert. 1992. You’ve got to be believed to be heard: Reach the first brain to communicate in business and life. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
    • Decker, Bert. 1996. The art of communicating: Achieving interpersonal impact in business. Revised edition. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Learning.
    • www.Quotegarden.com : Listening. Accessed 10/31/03.
  • 4. HRT 383 Learning Objective
    • Understand the process of communication and its impact on a system. Identify techniques of effective communication and factors that act as barriers.
      • What processes?
      • What system?
      • What is a barrier?
      • What is effective communication?
  • 5. Common Definitions
    • Communicate : to give, share, impart, reveal; to have something in common with another; to succeed in conveying one’s meaning to others
    • Communication : transmission, imparting; giving of information or messages
    • Communicating : system of transmitting messages
  • 6. The Basic Process of Communication
    • Sender has a message
    • Sender decides how to express the message
    • The sender gets the message to a receiver
    • Receiver hears, sees and/or reads, and interprets
    • Receiver responds with feedback
      • Action / Reaction
      • Questions / Comments
    • Sender gets a message from the receiver
  • 7. RKR as a Set of Systems
    • Recognize the restaurant as a set of systems and subsystems; analyze the system’s interrelationships. Be able to diagnose system breakdowns and prescribe changes.
      • RKR is a set of systems
      • A basic subsystem of RKR is
        • HOH
        • FOH
      • Communication is one subsystem
  • 8. Communication: Subsystem Examples
    • Hostess/Host ↔ Guest
    • Manager ↔ Guest
    • Server ↔ Guest
    • Server ↔ Expo
    • Expo ↔ Line
    • Manager ↔ Staff (HOH, FOH, All)
    • Manager ↔ Manager
  • 9. Some Possible Barriers
    • LANGUAGE BARRIER
      • avoid long words, jargon, local dialect
    • HABIT BARRIER
      • don’t do everything the same
    • DISTRACTION BARRIER
      • try to remove them or make allowances
    • MISUNDERSTANDING BARRIER
      • slow down and double check.
  • 10. Other Barriers: These May Cause Conflict
    • Lack of true dialogue : get to know people, then facts!
    • Confusion : unclear terms, goals, or objectives
    • Perception : interpretation based on past experiences (perception is their reality)
    • Emotions : confusing facts with feelings (messages get out of proportion or context)
    • Egos : can cloud judgment; may affect what is said and what is heard
    • Feedback is not allowed or ignored : the communication loop can not / does not close
  • 11. What is effective communication?
    • How would you define?
    • How do you know?
    • When is it not?
  • 12. Why is communication important?
    • Developing KSAs
      • General Educations
      • Major Course
      • Work
      • Where else?
    • With whom?
      • Dyad
      • Group
      • Team
      • Organization
        • Internal
        • External
    • In what way?
      • Verbal & Non-Verbal
        • Formal presentations
        • Formal conversation
          • Discussion
          • Debate
          • Dialogue
        • Informal conversation
        • Interpersonal relationships
      • Written Communication
        • Professional
        • Personal
  • 13. Verbal Communication: Key Points - Discussion
    • KEEP TO THE POINT
      • be as precise as possible
    • KEEP IT SIMPLE
      • use easy words
    • SAY OR WRITE WHAT YOU MEAN
      • there will still be questions
    • PLAN YOUR CAMPAIGN
      • choose best time, mode (e.g. one-on-one vs. group)
  • 14. Verbal Communication: Key Points - Dialogue
    • KEEP THE FOCUS ON OTHERS
      • Your role is to listen without judgment
    • WHEN YOU SPEAK, ASK QUESTIONS
      • Your role is to know more
    • DIALOGUE BEFORE “DISCUSSING”
      • Know the feelings before dealing with the facts
    • REQUIRES THINKING AHEAD
      • Choose best time for both; have the proper mind-set
  • 15.
    • Whether formal or informal:
    • Build rapport with others
    • Listen actively
    • Ask good questions
    • Paraphrase sincerely
    Verbal Communication: Other Aspects
  • 16. Verbal Communication: Rapport
    • Being in sync with other people,
    • verbally and non-verbally,
    • so they are comfortable
    • and have trust and confidence in you
  • 17. Verbal Communication: Active Listening
    • Be engaged
    • Truly hear and process the message
    • Avoid distractions
    • More detail to follow…
  • 18. Verbal Communication: Good Questions
    • Show sincere interest
    • Deliver questions with “life”
    • Types of questions:
      • Positive questions (The way you ask)
      • Behavioral questions (How would you…)
      • Situational questions (In this situation…)
      • Probing questions (Elaborate/clarify)
  • 19. Verbal Communication: Paraphrasing
    • Listen carefully
    • Determine what the message means to you
    • Restate the message in your own words to show the meaning you received from the message
    • This is not about your opinion or interpretation – it’s about what they said!
    • Your Goal: “I hear, I understand, I care”
  • 20. Verbal Communication: Sincere Paraphrasing
    • This is NOT “What I hear you saying is…”
    • State in your own words your understanding of what another person says or feels
      • You feel that…
      • You mean that…
      • You think that…
      • As I understand it…
    • Is that right?
  • 21. Non-Verbal Communication
    • Bert Decker’s book is titled “You’ve got to be believed to be heard” for a reason!
    • He discussed factors
      • Eye factors
      • Energy factors
    • What do you see?
  • 22. “ I never saw a person who could cram so small an idea into so many words.” Abraham Lincoln From Quotegarden.com Written Communication
  • 23. What?
    • Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm.
    • Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
  • 24. Written Communication: The Goal in Business
    • Be Clear
    • &
    • Be Concise
  • 25. Written Communication: Hints
    • Cut unnecessary words
      • Few in number Few
      • Serve to make reductions in Reduce
    • Use short and powerful words
      • Of the 701 words in Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, 505 are one-syllable and 122 are two-syllable
      • Think about the word “house”
  • 26. Written Communication: Hints
    • Do not overuse
      • That, would, was
      • Very, quite
    • Avoid redundant adverbs and adjectives
      • The radio blared loudly
      • He clenched his teeth tightly
  • 27. Written Communication: Hints
    • Prune out qualifiers
      • Pretty much, kind of, sort of
      • A bit, a little, rather
    • Use the active voice – avoid passive voice
      • This paper was written by me vs. I wrote the paper (passive = 7 words; active = 4 words)
      • The manager was hesitant to approve vs. The manager hesitated to approve
  • 28. Written Communication: Hints
    • Paragraphs - Topic Sentence
      • Clear, concise paragraphs are expected
      • One topic per paragraph; in the lead sentence
      • Other sentences offer supporting points: illustrate, explain, clarify
      • Final sentence is the spring board to the next paragraph
    • When writing, consider the audience
      • Who are they?
      • What are their needs?
      • What are their expectations and preferences?
  • 29. Listening Actively: The Receiver’s Challenge "Wisdom is the reward you get for a lifetime of listening when you'd have preferred to talk." - Doug Larson
  • 30. Listening
    • The most challenging of all communication skills
      • Requires focus
      • Requires practice
    • Different degrees
      • Passive at one end of the scale
      • Deeply involved – “Active Listening” – at the other
    • Different Ways
      • Fact (Discussion or Debate)
      • Feeling (Debate or Dialogue)
      • You’ve Got to be Believed to be Heard, pg. 190-192
  • 31. Maslow’s Four Stages of Learning
    • Unconscious Incompetence
      • We don’t know what we don’t know
    • Conscious Incompetence
      • We know what we don’t know
    • Conscious Competence
      • We work at what we don’t know
    • Unconscious Competence
      • We don’t have to think about knowing it
        • The Art of Communicating, pg. 48-49
  • 32. The Typical Executive
    • Spends 80% of his or her time communicating
    • Of that time:
      • Listening 45%
      • Speaking 30%
      • Reading 16%
      • Writing 9%
      • You’ve Got to be Believed to be Heard, pg. 191
  • 33. Listening Capacity
    • We use only about ¼ of our listening capacity
    • Listening capacity is difficult to measure
    • Even without using quantifiable measures, what if each of us doubled our individual listening capacity?
      • You’ve Got to be Believed to be Heard, pg. 191
  • 34. Brownell’s Model
    • HURIED
      • H earing
      • U nderstanding
      • R emembering
      • I nterpreting
      • E valuating
      • Listening: The Toughest Management Skill, pg. 65-66
  • 35. H earing
    • Essential Actions:
      • Concentrate on what the speaker is saying
      • Allow the entire message to be delivered without interruption
    • Sender and receiver must be comfortable with silence
    • Avoid Distractions
    • “ It’s about them, not you!”
      • Listening: The Toughest Management Skill, pg. 66-67
  • 36. Something to ponder…
    • Speaking: 130-160 words per minute
    • We can process aural information at a rate of up to 700 words per minute
    • On average, we listen three times faster than most people talk
    • What can we do with that unused mental time?
      • Listening: The Toughest Management Skill, pg. 66-67
  • 37. Effective Team Communication
    • An effective team accomplishes their shared goals
    • Building an effective team involves, among other things:
      • Establishing and maintaining mutual trust
      • A feeling of membership – “ sense of belonging”
      • Sharing or roles and responsibilities
      • Mutual ownership and accountability
      • Developing camaraderie
    • In part, these are aided by effective communication
  • 38. In Closing…
    • “ The most important thing in communication
    • is to hear what isn't being said.”
    • Peter F. Drucker
      • from Quotegarden.com