Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

communication lesson plans


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Communication meets several needs: Physical - POW's die much sooner if they can't communicate. A lack of social relationships jeopardizes physical well-being to the same extent as smoking and high blood pressure. Identity - Communication is the only way we learn who we are. We decide who we are based on how others react to us. Practical - Communication allows us to get others to do what we want. It is also the top factor in helping college graduates find jobs.
  • People usually plan their words carefully before they approach their supervisors, but we all carelessly make comments that would have gone better unsaid. Everyone can see our sour expressions even if we say "Nothing's wrong." Speaking or silent, you provide information to others about your thoughts and feelings. No amount of explanation can erase the impression you have created. Despite the judge's warnings, it's impossible for the jury to "un-receive" a message. The same words and behavior are different each time they are spoken or performed because communication is an ongoing process. Things that work today may not work tomorrow.
  • Saying something is not the same as communicating it. There is no guarantee that the receiver will interpret the message as you intend. Too much talking is often unproductive. Sometimes we make a bad situation worse by going too far. It's better to be silent. When you explain to the parents why the child was suspended, does clear communication solve the problem? You're not born with it. You can develop communication skills.
  • Suppose someone you know repeatedly tells jokes that you find offensive. You could decide to say nothing, figuring the risk is too great ask somebody else to tell him he's offensive hint at your discomfort and hope he notices joke about your friend's insensitivity, hoping humor will soften the blow when you criticize ask him to stop telling the offensive stories demand that he stop
  • Do exercise on stereotyping. Have group members respond to others according to instructions.
  • Chevrolet was baffled when its Nova model did not sell well in Latin American countries. Officials finally realized that in Spanish "no va" means "does not go." McDonalds was embarrassed to learn that in French-Canadian slang, big macs are large breasts. The American okay sign is an obscene gesture in many cultures. Arabs consistently breathe on people when they talk; distance shows shame. Westerners are uncomfortable with silence, but Asian cultures believe remaining quiet is the proper state when there is nothing to be said. Eye Contact - whites look away from a partner while speaking, but look at him while listening. Blacks do the opposite, looking at their companion more when talking and less when listening. This causes problems because we tend to measure paying attention by eye contact. A Southerner whose talkative, high-touch style seems normal at home is viewed as pushy and arrogant in the North.
  • In a study, a random sampling of men were asked to rank themselves on their ability to get along with others. Defying mathematics, they all put themselves in the top half of the population. 60% rated themselves in the top 10% and 25% believed they were in the top 1%. 60% said they were in the top quarter in athletic abilities. You might blame a bad working situation on the boss instead of looking for other factors beyond her control (economy, new management, new regulations). You're bothered by your principal's mispronunciation of a frequently used word. If you were in his place, you'd want someone to bring it to your attention. You tell him, but he doesn't appreciate it.
  • It's a tool to help you understand others accurately instead of assuming that your first interpretation is correct.
  • Language changes according to the way it is used. It consists of symbols which have meaning only because we all agree on what they mean. Phonological - sound The words "champagne, double, occasion" all have the same meaning in French and in English, but they don't sound the same. "magic" - Greek "tornado" - Spanish "umbrella" - Italian "golf" - Dutch Syntactic - the way symbols are put together. For example, every English word needs a vowel. This is not true in other languages. English sentences generally have Subject/verb pattern. "Have you the cookies brought?" would be acceptable in German, but not English. Semantic - what the symbols mean - so we know who we will encounter when we enter that door marked "Women" or "Men." Semantic rules give us literal definitions, denotations. Pragmatic rules govern how we interpret the message, especially important when the language has so many idiomatic expressions. What do we mean by "See you later"? "Dress up"? "That's cool"? People for whom English is not the first language have most difficulty understanding idiomatic expressions. Mistakes, while often funny, are sometimes deadly. We still argue about the wisdom of using the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. In retrospect, we know that the bomb did not cause Japan to surrender; they had already asked for peace. Why didn't they accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration in summer of 1945 instead of waiting until after the bombs had been dropped in August? Probably because of a mistake involving the use of only one word. By spring of 1945, Japan was desperate: industry was shut down, millions were homeless, food was running out. The government had decided to surrender, to accept the terms offered, and negotiations were underway. Not wanting to hinder negotiations, in a press conference on July 28, the Premier said the government was holding to a policy of "mokusatsu" - meaning that there was no comment now, but something significant was pending. However, the word "mokusatsu" can also mean "to ignore" and this is the meaning that was translated into English. Tokyo radio flashed it to America and the bomb was dropped on August 6 because of the belief that Japan had refused to accept the agreement.
  • Identity - different names have different connotations. Some names are attractive (Michael, John, Wendy) while others are less likable (Percival, Gertrude, Alfreda). We change our names as we grow older (Johnny becomes John) and want to be taken seriously. Women who are called Betsy or Susie are treated with less respect than they deserve. Consider "Sandy" O'Connor or "Jan" Reno. Studies show that women who took their husband's name placed most importance on relationships, not self-interest. Women who choose "Ms." are more achievement oriented than others. Affiliation - We adapt our speech to match those with whom we want to identify or attract. Notice principals who use slang and poor grammar in an attempt to have students identify with them. We choose vocabulary, for example, to help us fit in. We also use language to distinguish ourselves from those we don't wish to identify with. We use formal language and professional jargon when we want to establish credibility with a parent, for example. Clues to identification: "These" (those) people need our help. "It's not bad" vs. "It's good." "Jack and Jill" (Jill and Jack) are my friends. Power - Language allows us to influence others. "Excuse me, sir. I hate to say this, but I ...uh...I guess I won't be able to turn in the assignment on time. I had a personal emergency was just impossible to finish it by today. I'll have it on your desk on Monday, Okay?" OR "I won't be able to turn in the assignment on time. I had a personal emergency and it was impossible to finish it by today. I'll have it on your desk Monday." Examples of powerless language: I'm kinda disappointed I guess I'd like to Well, we could try this idea I wish you would - er - try to be on time Excuse me, sir It's about time to change, isn't it? A combination of powerful and polite speech is most effective: "Would you mind retyping this letter?" will probably work better than "Retype this" even though boss and secretary know it's not just a request. First Names - In the South, we have a tendency to call each other by firs names very quickly. The person who is referred to by his first name has less power than the one who is NOT. For example, I called my principal "Mr. Helms" but he called me "Gayle."
  • Language that is too abstract is often misleading.
  • "I" language clearly identifies the speaker as the source of a message. People who use "it" statements avoid responsibility for ownership of a message in an unconscious attempt to avoid taking a position.
  • These statements are a strategy for wrapping the speaker's real (but unpleasant) message between more pleasant ideas, but the goal becomes confused. If the meaning has to be clear, don't use "but" statements.
  • "You" language implies that the speaker is qualified to judge the target - not an idea that most listeners are willing to accept, even when the evaluation is correct. The same concept applies, even when "you" isn't used: "That was a stupid joke" - "your jokes are stupid"
  • Benefits of "I" language: Others are more likely to accept your message when you're not judgmental. "I" statements are just as honest as "you" statements, but they are kinder. "I" statements deliver more information than "you" messages. The other person doesn't have to guess what's bothering you. "I get too angry to use 'I' language." Then it's smarter to keep quiet until you've thought about the consequences of what you might say than to blurt out something you'll regret later. "That's not the way I talk." It's only awkward until you become more comfortable using it.
  • "We" statements imply that the issue is the concern and responsibility of both people.
  • Men describe same-sex conversations as something they like; women describe them as something they need. Women empathize; men advise. Men interrupt to assert their own experiences or point of view; women interrupt to offer support. Men swear more than women; women ask more questions than do men. Men interrupt women more often than women interrupt men. In larger groups, men talk more; in smaller settings, women talk more. Females who speak tentatively are actually more influential with men than those who use more powerful speech.
  • We stammer, blush, sweat without meaning to do so.
  • "Okay" gesture is negative in other cultures. Americans conduct business at a distance of about four feet. People from the Middle East stand much closer. Direct eye contact is not appropriate for Asians, indians, Pakistanis, and northern Europeans.
  • Repeating - nodding your head when you say "yes," pointing when you give directions Substituting - shrugging your shoulders to mean "I don't know" Complementing - scratching your head when you're thinking, hanging your head when you're embarrassed Accenting - pointing when you criticize Regulating - pausing when you want somebody else to speak Contradicting - trying not to appear nervous during a job interview. Audiences put more emphasis on nonverbal cues than on words to decide whether speakers are honest.
  • Body orientation - the degree to which we face toward or away from someone. Posture - watch how your audience sits to see whether they are listening. Gestures are often very clear. Be aware of facial expressions – even if you keep your mouth shut.
  • Do listening exercises, depending on time left: Following Directions Listening for Details Thinking while Listening Two Heads Are Better than One
  • Hearing - physiological, influenced by background noise Attending - the process of filtering out some messages and focusing on others Understanding - making sense of a message Responding - giving observable feedback to the speaker Remembering - ability to recall information. Research suggests that people remember only about half of what they hear immediately after hearing it. Within 8 hours, the 50% remembered drops to about 35%.
  • Pseudolistening - an imitation of the real thing Stage-hogging - trying to turn the conversation to themselves instead of showing interest in the speaker. For example, "I had a terrible weekend.." "You think your weekend was bad - you should have been where I was." Interruptions are stage-hogging. Selective listening - responding only to the parts that interest them Insulated listening - failing to hear or acknowledge anything they don't want to know Defensive listening - taking innocent comments as personal attacks Ambushing - listening carefully to collect information they'll use to attack what you say Insensitive listening - not looking beyond the literal words to understand the meaning of a message
  • Given the onslaught of messages, our attention wanders. Personal concerns are of more immediate importance to us than the messages others are sending. We're capable of understanding speech at rates up to 600 words per minute, but the average person speaks between 100 and 150 words per minute. Listening effectively increases heart rate, respiration, and body temperature, just like physical exercise does. Distractions and hearing problems are abundant. We assume that we already know what a speaker is going to say or that his thoughts are too complex or too simple. We often have more to gain by speaking than by listening. Listening is a skill that we are not taught.
  • Paraphrasing: restating in your own words the message you think the speaker has sent. Exercise: Before discussing paraphrasing, demonstrate with a principal and an irate parent. I'll be the parent. My daughter has received a grade I don't think she deserves. I can't be reasoned with. Then use paraphrasing to moderate the discussion.
  • What do you want your audience to do as a result of your presentation? What do they already know about your subject? Are they interested? Are they hostile? Do you know enough about your topic? Do you have too many major points? How is the meeting or presentation to be organized? Who else is speaking?
  • The purpose of the media is to sell newspapers or air time. The reporter is not concerned with making you look good or supporting the goals of education in general. They care about what people read and what they watch. Do not answer questions if you don’t have the information at hand. The deadlines of the press should be of no concern to you. You, as an employee of the school system, are not simply making statements. You are delivering public records. Do not “guess” or invent information.
  • Use transitions to avoid answering leading questions like “ Why do you think there is a drug problem at your school?” “ Are you surprised that your teacher attacked that student?” “ What can you tell us about you’re the illegal players on your team?” Close the interview with something like, “Our major concern is to give you accurate information in a timely manner. If we accumulate more facts, we will distribute them as reasonably soon as we can.”
  • Transcript

    • 1. Communications
      • Introduction
      • Language
      • Nonverbal Communication
      • Listening
      • Public Communication
    • 2. Factors in Securing Professional Employment
      • 1. Oral Communication
      • 2. Listening Ability
      • 3. Enthusiasm
      • 4. Written skills
      • 5. Technical Competence
      • 6. Appearance
      • 7. Poise
      • 8. Work Experience
      • 9. Resume
      • 10. Specific Degrees Held
    • 3. Communication Principles
      • Communication can be intentional or unintentional.
      • It is impossible NOT to communicate.
      • Communication is irreversible.
      • Communication is unrepeatable.
    • 4. Communication Misconceptions
      • Meanings are not in words.
      • More communication is not always better.
      • Communication will not solve all problems.
      • Communication is not a natural ability.
    • 5. Characteristics of Competent Communicators
      • A wide range of behaviors
      • Ability to choose the most appropriate behavior
      • Skill at performing behaviors
      • Commitment
      • Perspective
      • Self-Monitoring
    • 6. Self-Monitoring
    • 7. Perception
      • “ I am not what I think I am. I am not what you think I am. I am what I think you think I am.” Bleiberg and Leubling
    • 8. Stereotyping
      • Women are _________________.
      • Men are ____________________.
      • Hispanics are ________________.
      • Teenagers are _______________.
      • Dancers are _________________.
      • Politicians are ________________.
      • People with AIDS are __________.
    • 9. Cultural Differences
      • Language
      • Nonverbal behaviors
      • Beliefs about talk and silence
      • Eye contact
      • Proximity
    • 10. Accuracy or Inaccuracy?
      • We judge ourselves more charitably than others.
      • We cling to first impressions.
      • We assume others are similar to us.
      • We are influenced by the obvious.
    • 11. Perception Checking to Prevent Misunderstandings
      • Describe the behavior.
      • Suggest possible interpretations of the behavior.
      • Request clarification about how to interpret the behavior.
      • “ You said you really liked the job I did,
      • But something in your voice made me think you may not be happy with it.
      • How do you really feel about my work?”
    • 12.  
    • 13. Language is
      • Symbolic
      • Subjective
      • Rule-governed
      • Phonological Rules (sound)
      • Syntactic Rules (arrangement)
      • Semantic Rules (meaning)
      • Pragmatic Rules (interpretation by context)
    • 14. Messages take on different meanings.
      • “ Let’s get together later.”
      • “ You look really pretty today.”
      • What does it mean if your friend says it?
      • What does it mean if your boss says it?
    • 15. Impact of Language
      • Identity
      • Affiliation
      • Power
    • 16. Abuse of Language
      • “Family Catches Fire Just in Time.”
      • “20 Year Friendship Ends at Altar.”
      • “We never do anything fun anymore.”
      • “You need to have a better attitude.”
      • “These (those) people need our help.”
      • “It’s not bad .” “It’s good.”
    • 17. Taking Responsibility for It
      • “ I’m worried when you’re late.”
      • “ I’m glad to see you.”
      • “ I’m bored in the class.”
      • “ It bothers me when you’re late.”
      • “ It’s nice to see you.”
      • “ It’s a boring class.”
    • 18. Taking Responsibility for But
      • “ You’re really a great person…….
      • “ You’ve done good work for us………
      • “ This paper has some good ideas…..
      • BUT I think we should stop seeing each other.”
      • BUT we’re going to have to let you go.”
      • BUT I’m giving it a D because it’s late.”
    • 19. “I” vs. “You”
      • “ You’re always late.”
      • “ You need to have more discipline in your classroom.”
      • “ When you aren’t here by 7:30, I have to leave my duty station to cover yours.”
      • “ When you don’t have a tardy policy, I have a hard time dealing with your referrals.”
    • 20. Three Parts to the “I” Statement
      • Describe the behavior: “When you don’t turn in your grades on time...
      • Describe your feelings about it: “I can’t meet the deadline for data processing…
      • Describe the consequences for you: “and our student report cards will be late to parents.”
    • 21. “We” vs. “You”
      • “ You need to be more organized.”
      • “ You shouldn’t be wasting time on that activity.”
      • “ You don’t have control of your classroom.”
      • “ We need to work on a format for your daily lesson plans.”
      • “ I would like to see us focus more on the SS Standards.”
      • “ We need to figure out how to manage your difficult students.”
    • 22. Three Bad Habits
      • Fact/Opinion Confusion
      • Fact/Inference Confusion
      • Emotive Language
      • I’m casual.
      • You’re a little careless.
      • He’s a slob.
    • 23. Gender and Communication
    • 24. Gender and Language
      • Content: Women discuss relationships; men discuss events.
      • Reasons: Women use conversation to nurture; men use conversation to accomplish the job at hand.
      • Style: Women use questions and justifiers; men use directives and interruptions.
    • 25. Nonverbal Communication
      • No matter what we do, we give off information about ourselves.
      • Nonverbal communication makes up 60-90% of our messages.
    • 26. Unintentional behaviors differ from deliberate ones.
    • 27. Nonverbal communication is culture-bound.
    • 28. Nonverbal communication serves many functions.
      • Repeats
      • Substitutes
      • Complements
      • Accents
      • Regulates
      • Contradicts
    • 29. Types of Nonverbal Communication
      • Body orientation
      • Posture
      • Gestures
      • Facial expressions
      • Vocal tones
      • Touch
      • Physical attractiveness
      • Clothing
      • Proxemics
      • Territoriality
    • 30. Nonverbal communication is ambiguous.
    • 31. Deception
      • Young people are better at uncovering lies than older people are.
      • Women are more accurate than men at detecting lying; however, women are more likely to fall for the deception of intimate partners than are men.
      • We are more likely to be deceived by those we know well.
    • 32. When our nonverbal communication contradicts our verbal communication, the nonverbal messages are more powerful. “What you do speaks so loud that the world can’t hear what you say.”
    • 33. Dangerous Mistakes
      • Criminals select victims on the basis of the vulnerability shown in their posture.
      • A tense posture indicates lack of power.
      • Children, poor listeners, and people with low intellects do not understand sarcasm.
      • Touch boosts compliance.
      • We are more likely to obey people dressed in a high-status manner.
    • 34. ………continued
      • Students are more responsive to teachers who reduce the distance between themselves and their classes.
      • We grant people with higher status more personal “territory.”
      • Low-status people must never make more important people wait.
    • 35. We spend more time listening than participating in any other form of communication.
    • 36. Elements of Listening
      • Hearing
      • Attending
      • Understanding
      • Responding
      • Remembering
    • 37. “ Everybody’s talkin’ at me - I don’t hear a word they’re sayin’ - Only the echoes of my mind.”
    • 38. Types of Nonlistening
      • Pseudolistening
      • Stage-hogging
      • Selective listening
      • Insulated listening
      • Defensive listening
      • Ambushing
      • Insensitive listening
    • 39. Who’s listening?
      • 20% are thinking about sex.
      • 20% are reminiscing about something.
      • 20% are paying attention, but only 12% are listening actively.
      • The rest are worrying, daydreaming, thinking about lunch or religion.
    • 40. Devil’s Dictionary - by Ambrose Bierce
      • Bore - a person who talks when you wish him to listen
      • Conversation - a fair for the display of the minor mental commodities, each exhibitor being too intent upon arrangement of his own wares to observe those of his neighbor.
      • Egoist - a person of low taste, more interested in himself than in me
      • Heaven - a place where the wicked cease from troubling you with talk of their personal affairs, and the good listen with attention while you expound your own.
    • 41. Why don’t we listen?
      • Message overload
      • Preoccupation
      • Rapid thought
      • Effort
      • External noise
      • Hearing problems
      • Faulty assumptions
      • Lack of apparent advantages
      • Lack of training
    • 42. How can we listen better?
      • Talk less.
      • Get rid of distractions.
      • Don’t judge prematurely.
      • Look for key ideas.
      • Ask questions.
      • Paraphrase.
    • 43. Public Presentations
      • Content (what you say)
      • Delivery (how you say it)
      • Media (what they say you said)
    • 44. Before you begin, you should know…….
      • Your purpose
      • Your audience
      • Your subject
      • Your objective (in 25 words or less)
      • Three major points
      • How much time you have to speak
      • How the program is arranged
    • 45. What should be written?
      • Objective
      • Main points in outline form
      • Opening
      • Closing
      • Do not write out your entire speech.
      • Do not read your speech.
      • Use notes if necessary.
      • Practice!!!!!!!
    • 46. Effective Delivery
      • Use simple words
      • Don’t use lots of numbers
      • Maintain eye contact
      • Don’t memorize
      • Gesture and move naturally
      • Channel nervous energy into enthusiasm
    • 47. Dealing with the Media
      • Know who you’re dealing with.
      • Ask for time if you need it.
      • Don’t say anything you don’t want to see in print.
      • If you don’t know the answer, say so.
    • 48. Transition Techniques
      • Step I: Take the question, let the questioner finish, and do not interrupt.
      • Step II: Use a transition phrase to revert to your own agenda:
        • “ Our main concern is…”
        • “ Our top priority is…”
        • What we are focused on is…”
        • Close the interview.
    • 49. Use transitions to
      • Avoid giving personal opinions.
      • Avoid hypothetical statements.
      • Avoid interpreting facts beyond your area of expertise.
      • Avoid leading questions that detract from your public record or the integrity of your message.
    • 50. Other Good Advice
      • Don’t do interviews in your private office.
      • Treat phone interviews just like formal interviews.
      • Tape your interview if the situation is controversial.
    • 51. Never……………..
      • Say “no comment.”
      • Provide inaccurate information.
      • Speak “off the record.”
      • Volunteer unnecessary information.
    • 52. Always………..
      • Be brief.
      • Be confident.
      • Be positive.