Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. The Role of Culture Cross-Cultural Communication Chapters 7, Hodgetts, Luthans and Doh, International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior , 6 th edition (New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2006) Adapted from PowerPoint slides by R. Dennis Middlemist, Professor of Management, Colorado State University Mark McKenna BUS 162 (6), International and Comparative Management San Jose State University
  2. 2. Communication Process and Verbal Communication Styles <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of transferring meanings from sender to receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context is information that surrounds a communication and helps convey the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are often highly coded and implicit in high-context societies, such as Japan and many Arab countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message is explicit and the speaker says precisely what he or she means in low-context societies such as the United States and Canada </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Explicit and Implicit Communication Germans Swiss Germans Scandinavians North Americans French English Italians Latin Americans Arabs Japanese Adapted from Figure 7–1: Explicit/Implicit Communication: An International Comparison High-context/implicit communication cultures Low-context/explicit communication cultures
  4. 4. Phases of Multicultural Development Table 7–1 Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Adapted from Table 7–1: Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Indirect vs. direct Indirect Direct Implicit messages Explicit messages Collective, high context Individualistic, low context Succinct vs. elaborate Elaborate High quantity of talk Moderate uncertainty avoidance, high context Exacting Moderate amount of talk Low uncertainty avoidance, low context Succinct Low amount of talk High uncertainty avoidance, high context Cultures in Which Major Interaction Focus Characteristic It Verbal Style Variation and Content Is Found
  5. 5. Phases of Multicultural Development Table 7–1 Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Adapted from Table 7–1: Major Characteristics of Verbal Styles Cultures in Which Major Interaction Focus Characteristic It Verbal Style Variation and Content Is Found Contextual vs. personal Contextual Focus is on the speaker and role relationships High power distance, collective, high context Personal Focus is on the speaker and personal relationships Low power distance, individualistic, low context Affective vs. instrumental Affective Language is process oriented and receiver focused Collective, high context Instrumental Language is goal oriented and sender focused Individualistic, low context
  6. 6. Summary of Verbal Styles Australia Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental Canada Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental Denmark Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental England Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental Sweden Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental United States Direct Exacting Personal Instrumental Japan Indirect Succinct Contextual Affective Korea Indirect Succinct Contextual Affective Egypt Indirect Elaborate Contextual Affective Saudi Arabia Indirect Elaborate Contextual Affective
  7. 7. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of communication through body movement and facial expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chromatics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of color to communicate messages </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Chronemics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monochronic time schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Things are done in a linear fashion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manager addresses Issue A first and then moves on to Issue B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time schedules are very important and time is viewed as something that can be controlled and should be used wisely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polychronic time schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People tend to do several things at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules are subordinated to personal relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of the way that people use physical space to convey messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate distance is used for very confidential communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal distance is used for talking with family and close friends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social distance is used to handle most business transactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public distance is used when calling across the room or giving a talk to a group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Space in the U.S. Adapted from Figure 7–3: Personal Space Categories for Those in the United States Intimate distance 18” Personal distance 18” to 4’ Social distance 4’ to 8’ Public distance 8’ to 10’
  11. 11. Achieving Communication Effectiveness <ul><li>Improve feedback systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two basic types of feedback systems between home office and affiliates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (e.g., face-to-face meetings, telephone conversations and personalized e-mail) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal (e.g., reports, budgets, and plans) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Language training </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural training </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility and cooperation </li></ul>

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