Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Chapter 6 Communication
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 6 Communication

1,483

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,483
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
80
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER SIX Communication
  • 2. Communication in Negotiation <ul><li>Communication processes, both verbal and nonverbal, are critical to achieving negotiation goals and to resolving conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation is a process of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation is a context for communication subtleties that influence processes and outcomes </li></ul>
  • 3. What Is Communicated during Negotiation? <ul><li>Offers, counteroffers, and motives </li></ul><ul><li>Information about alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Information about outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Social accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations of mitigating circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations of exonerating circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing explanations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication about process </li></ul>
  • 4. How People Communicate in Negotiation <ul><li>Selection of a communication channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is experienced differently when it occurs through different channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People negotiate through a variety of communication media – by phone, in writing and increasingly through electronic channels or virtual negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social presence distinguishes one communication channel from another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the ability of a channel to carry and convey subtle social cues from sender to receiver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. How People Communicate <ul><li>Use of language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical level (proposals, offers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic level (semantics, syntax, style) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting body position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbally encouraging or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discouraging what the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>says </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Communication skills <ul><li>Active listening </li></ul><ul><li>Skillful questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing </li></ul><ul><li>Sending clear </li></ul><ul><li>messages </li></ul>
  • 7. How to Improve Communication in Negotiation <ul><li>Use of questions: two basic categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause attention or prepare the other person’s thinking for further questions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“May I ask you a question?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>getting information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“How much will this cost?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generating thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Do you have any suggestions for improving this?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. How to Improve Communication in Negotiation <ul><li>Use of questions: two basic categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmanageable questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause difficulty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Where did you get that dumb idea?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>give information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Didn’t you know we couldn’t afford this?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bring the discussion to a false conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Don’t you think we have talked about this enough?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. SKILLFUL QUESTIONING <ul><li>General – most open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s on your mind? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you tell me about this situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opinion Seeking – open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think would be fair? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is most important to you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your reaction to my proposal? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact Finding – somewhat open </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who needs to approve this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When is the deadline? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where, What, When, How? </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. SKILLFUL QUESTIONING <ul><li>Narrow Direct or Forced Choice – mostly closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you tell me before it happened? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you be there before 5 o’clock? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you accept my version of the agreement w/o any changes? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leading – closed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isn’t it true that there is no alternative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t you say that it would be done without fail by Tuesday? </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. How to Improve Communication <ul><li>Listening: three major forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive listening: Receiving the message while providing no feedback to the sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledgment: Receivers nod their heads, maintain eye contact, or interject responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active listening: Receivers restate or paraphrase the sender’s message in their own language </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. L istening is Important and Powerful <ul><li>• Good listening is helpful in and of itself </li></ul><ul><li>• Builds trust and rapport </li></ul><ul><li>• Deescalates/calms </li></ul><ul><li>• Creates clarity </li></ul><ul><li>• Listening is a precursor to problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>• Feels like a “gift”--everyone wants to be heard </li></ul>
  • 13. What’s “Active” About It? <ul><li>• Requires work and concentration </li></ul><ul><li>• Two-way </li></ul>
  • 14. Three ways of looking at Active Listening <ul><li>– Set of skills (e.g. open-ended questions) </li></ul><ul><li>– Ability to focus/concentrate -- focused on all aspects of speaker’s communication, setting aside my own issues for the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>– Attitudes (ideally): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• I care what this person has to say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• I’m sincerely curious about how this person sees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• I’m willing to withhold judgment and accept this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person’s reactions, perceptions, feelings as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legitimate. </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Active Listening Skills <ul><li>• Get the Story </li></ul><ul><li>• Probe / Clarify Meanings </li></ul><ul><li>• Listen for Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>• Summarize </li></ul><ul><li>• Value Silence </li></ul>
  • 16. PARAPHRASING <ul><li>Focuses on the experience of the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets speaker know s/he has been heard and understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver makes sure s/he gets it right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives the speaker an opportunity to access the message and to modify it </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. REFRAMING <ul><li>Redirecting, limiting, or shaping the perception of a message so that it is more constructive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message may have negative dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May contains threat, insult or offensive language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose a positive interpretation </li></ul>
  • 18. REFRAMING-Examples: <ul><li>Reframing position to interest </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing a judgment to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing a blame to a need </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing a past to a future </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing an individual problem to a shared problem </li></ul>
  • 19. SENDING CLEAR MESSAGES <ul><li>Negotiators need to make sure they are understood </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace abstract concepts with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concrete descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send I messages instead of You . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept personal responsibility for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpretation. Avoid placing blame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and putting others on the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defensive. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. How to Improve Communication in Negotiation <ul><li>Role reversal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiators understand the other party’s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that he or she is understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiators realize that increasing understanding does not necessarily lead to easy resolution of the conflict </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Special Communication Considerations at the Close of Negotiations <ul><li>Avoiding fatal mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping track of what you expect to happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically guarding yourself against self-serving expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing the lessons from feedback for similar decisions in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving closure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid surrendering important information needlessly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrain from making “dumb remarks” </li></ul></ul>

×