Differentiate between the uses of hyphens and dashes.
Use parentheses and italics (or underlines) correctly.
PP 17-1a continued
Objectives PP 17-1b continued
Identify uses for ellipses, brackets, and asterisks.
Place adjacent marks of punctuation in correct order.
Use capital letters with other punctuation marks correctly.
Independent Clauses PP 17-2
Use a semicolon to separate two closely related independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction ( and, or, nor, but ).
Seek constructive criticism of your oral presentations ; maintain a good attitude about negative comments.
Conjunctive Adverbs PP 17-3
Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb such as however, nevertheless, therefore, moreover , and furthermore .
Place the semicolon before the conjunctive adverb. A comma usually follows a conjunctive adverb of two or more syllables.
We use word processing software to design our newsletter ; consequently , we no longer use the services of a graphics artist.
Enumerations and Explanations PP 17-4
Use a semicolon before such introductory expressions as for example (e.g.), that is (i.e.), or namely when they introduce enumerations, explanations, or examples that are not essential to the sentence.
Place a comma after the expressions.
We are changing our Internet sales campaign ; for example , we are sending e-mail messages to our customers.
Series PP 17-5
Use a semicolon to separate items in a series if any of the items already contain commas.
The telephone techniques seminars are in Cleveland, Ohio ; Pensacola, Florida ; Springfield, Illinois ; and Little Rock, Arkansas. We plan on offering PowerPoint workshops on Monday, May 15 ; Wednesday, May 17 ; and Wednesday, May 24.
Introduction to Lists PP 17-6a
Use a colon to introduce lists after expressions such as the following, as follows, these, and thus.
Capitalize the word following the colon when items begin on separate lines in a list.
Your choice of copying method depends on the following factors : 1. Number of copies 2. Budget 3. Deadline 4. Print quality
Introduction to Lists PP 17-6b
Capitalize the word after the colon when two or more complete sentences follow the colon.
continued Before you send an e-mail, ask these questions : Does my subject line describe the message? Have I limited myself to one idea?
Do not capitalize the word after the colon when the material (other than an enumerated list) cannot stand alone or when the material explains the first clause.
The parts of a letter are as follows: inside address, body, and complimentary close.
Incomplete Introductory Clauses PP 17-7
Do not use a colon after an incomplete introductory clause that introduces a list.
The customer service representatives are Humberto Juarez, Sean Kaisi, and Jesse Englert.
Use a colon if the items in the list appear on separate lines.
The customer service representatives are : Humberto Juarez Sean Kaisi Jesse Englert
Illustrations and Explanations PP 17-8
Use a colon before expressions such as namely, for example , or that is when these expressions introduce explanations that are essential to the meaning of the sentence.
Several technology seminars will be offered next week : for example, smart phones, hand-held and palm PCs, and wireless LANs.
Sentence Interruptions PP 17-9
Do not use a colon before a list if another sentence separates the introductory clause and list.
The following letter openings attract readers’ attention. Please let me know if you would like additional information about each opening. Use “you.” Start with a question. Offer words of praise.
Time PP 17-10
Use a colon between the hour and minutes expressed in figures.
Our staff meeting begins at 9 : 15 a.m.
Salutations PP 17-11
Use a colon after the salutation in a business letter with mixed punctuation (a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary close.)
Dear Ms. Emerson :
Do not use a colon with open punctuation (no punctuation after the salutation or complimentary close).
Dear Ms. Emerson
Direct Quotations PP 17-12
Use quotation marks around a direct quotation. A direct quotation includes the exact words spoken or written by someone.
Place periods and commas inside the closing quotation mark.
Heather Estrada said, “ Read your e-mail only when you have the time to respond .” “ Give recipients the main idea in the first paragraph of an e-mail message ,” she said.
Indirect Quotations PP 17-13
Do not use quotation marks in an indirect quotation. The words whether or that often introduce an indirect quotation.
Heather Estrada said that you should read your e-mail only when you have the time to respond.
Separated Quotations PP 17-14
Use two sets of quotation marks when a quotation is separated by intervening expressions such as he said .
Do not capitalize the first word of the second part of the quoted material.
“ Unlike library-based research , ” she said , “the information found at Internet sites may have grammar and punctuation errors . ”
Parts of Published Works PP 17-15
Use quotation marks around the names of articles in newspapers and magazines.
An article entitled “E-mail Etiquette” was in our latest newsletter.
Use quotation marks around the titles of chapters in books.
The title of Chapter 17 is “Business Communication.”
Technical or Unusual Expressions PP 17-16
Use quotation marks around technical or unusual expressions.
We found a “bazillion” grammar errors on that Web page. The “downtime” for the intranet exceeded two hours.
Special Effect Words PP 17-17
Use quotation marks around slang words or special effect words and phrases.
We offer “freebies” for ordering from our Web page. Jane needs “hand holding” whenever she learns new software.
Instructions PP 17-18
Use quotation marks to highlight instructions introduced by the words signed, entitled, marked, labeled, and headed .
Capitalize the first letter of the word or phrase.
I immediately opened the envelope marked “Confidential.” Use the red file folder labeled “Urgent.”
Quotation Marks With Other Marks of Punctuation PP 17-19a
Place a question mark or exclamation point inside the closing quotation mark when the question mark or exclamation point applies only to the quoted material.
The manager asked, “Did you respond to Craig’s e-mail message ?” “ Cool !” exclaimed Kristie when she found out that she did not have to work on Saturday.
Quotation Marks With Other Marks of Punctuation PP 17-19b
Place a question mark or exclamation point outside the closing quotation mark when the exclamation point or question mark applies to the entire sentence.
Are you positive that she said, “Overnight packages must leave by 3 p.m., not 4 p.m.” ? continued
Quotation Marks With Other Marks of Punctuation PP 17-19c
Place semicolons and colons after the closing quotation mark.
Alexia explained, “E-mail is not available today because of network maintenance” ; however, many of us still tried to send e-mail messages. continued
Contractions PP 17-20 Use an apostrophe to show the omission of a letter or letters in a contraction.
Possessives PP 17-21
Use an apostrophe and s ( ’s ) to form the possessive of a singular noun.
Jean’s report manager’s e-mail
Use an apostrophe and s ( ’s ) to form the possessive of an irregular plural noun.
women’s speeches children’s perceptions
Use an apostrophe to form the possessive of a regular plural noun that ends in s .
employees’ hours proofreaders’ marks
Plurals PP 17-22
Do not use an apostrophe to form the plurals of words from other parts of speech used as nouns unless the word would be easily misread.
The pros and cons of sending e-mail depend upon the circumstances. His use of numerous so’s during his speech was distracting.
Lowercase Letters and Abbreviations PP 17-23 Add an apostrophe and s ( ’s ) to form the plurals of lowercase letters and abbreviations with letters. The apostrophe is used so that the resulting plurals are not confused with other words. Crossing t’s and dotting i’s three letter a’s
Numbers PP 17-24
Add an s to form the plurals of numbers expressed in figures.
Do not add an apostrophe and s (’s) .
in the 1950s size 12s several 7s Form 1040s
Capital Letters and Abbreviations PP 17-25
Use an apostrophe and s (’s) to form the plurals of the capital letters A, I, M, and U to avoid misunderstandings in meaning.
Do not add an apostrophe and s (’s) to form the plurals of other capital letters.
four Ns two Js
Do not add an apostrophe with abbreviations that end with capital letters.
CPAs HMOs PCs M.A.s
Quotations Within Quoted Material PP 17-26
Use apostrophes (single quotation marks) around a quotation within a quotation.
Place the period inside the closing apostrophe.
My supervisor explained, “The newsletter design should have sufficient ‘ white space .’”
Compound Numbers PP 17-27
Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine .
Twenty-five applicants applied for the technical writing position. Three hundred thirty-five orders arrived after the long holiday weekend.
Fractions PP 17-28
Use a hyphen to separate the numerator (top number in a fraction) from the denominator (bottom number) of a fraction written in words.
Two-thirds of the report One-quarter of the employees
Compound Adjectives PP 17-29
Use a hyphen in a compound adjective (two or more words) that precedes a noun. In most situations, do not hyphenate a compound adjective that follows the noun modified.
We hired a well-known expert on business communication to lead the seminar next week. The expert on business communication is well known .
Number and Nouns PP 17-30
Use a hyphen in an adjective consisting of a number and a noun that precedes the noun modified.
one-hour presentation six-year study 15-year phase
Suspending Hyphens PP 17-31 When two or more hyphenated adjectives have a common element and this element is shown only with the last term, use a suspending hyphen after each of the incomplete adjectives to show a relationship with the last term. knowledge- and service-oriented positions short- and long-term analysis three- or four-minute wait
Compound Nouns PP 17-32 Do not hyphenate well-known compound nouns acting as adjectives. If the compound noun does not appear as one word or as a hyphenated word in a dictionary, assume the word is written as two words. high school graduate real estate agent public relations expert
Adverbs PP 17-33
Do not place a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly that is combined with a present or past participle.
a quickly written report a richly deserved award a perfectly delivered speech a carefully documented Web page
Self Prefixes PP 17-34
Use a hyphen after the word self when it acts as a prefix.
Use a dash to indicate a break or a change of thought in a sentence.
Using e-mail—we have our own internal system—saves us communication time.
Use a dash to set off a parenthetical comment or an afterthought from the rest of the sentence.
If he insists on a meeting—and I hope that he will not—please let me know.
Repetitions and Reminders/Summary Words PP 17-38
Use a dash to set off repetitious statements or to emphasize a reminder.
The next meeting—Friday, January 6, at 9 a.m.—is mandatory for all employees.
Use a dash before the words these, they, any, all, and each when these words are used as subjects to summarize a preceding list.
E-mail, memos, letters, and reports—these are the most frequently used methods of written communication.
Nonessential Material PP 17-39
Use parentheses to set off nonessential material that is not intended to be part of the main statement.
Do not capitalize the first word of material within the parentheses if the material is a short complete sentence.
These new computers (we ordered them two months ago) are for those employees who design Web pages.
Capitalize the first word of material within the parentheses if the sentence is lengthy.
These new computers are for those employees who design Web pages. (The computers are a Pentium class with 64 Megs of RAM with Windows NT.)
Lists PP 17-40
Use parentheses around numbers or letters that identify a list of items in the text copy.
These strategies help combat information overload: (1) avoid chasing Web links, (2) learn efficient ways to search online, and (3) restrict your computer time.
Outlines PP 17-41
Use parentheses for sections of an outline.
I. PRESENTING WITH POWERPOINT
A. Create a Presentation
1. Select a background layout
a. Add a logo
(1) Change the Slide Master
(a) Insert graphics
(b) Insert text
(2) Change the default format
Nonessential References and Directions/Explanations PP 17-42
Use parentheses to enclose a nonessential reference or set of directions.
This article discusses the research on voice mail (Figures 2, 3, and 4).
Use parentheses to enclose explanatory words or phrases.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) updates U.S. copyright law for the digital age.
Numbers in Formal Documents PP 17-43
Use parentheses around figures that follow amounts written in words in legal or formal business documents.
According to our lease agreement, the price of the digital copy machine is five thousand five hundred dollars ($5,500).
Definitions and Word Emphasis PP 17-44
Use italics to identify words that are being defined or highlighted.
His speech contained so many you knows that I became distracted from his message. The term return on assets describes the comparison of net income with assets.
Published Materials PP 17-45
Use italics to identify complete published works such as titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets.
Use italics for titles of movies, plays, television and radio series, paintings, and sculptures.
The Business Communication Quarterly provides reviews of business communication literature. I found the definition of that computer term in The Washington Post.
Omissions PP 17-46a
Use ellipsis marks to indicate omissions in quoted material.
Use three spaced periods to designate omissions at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence.
Use four spaced periods (or other ending punctuation) at the end of a sentence.
Do not use more or fewer periods.
Omissions PP 17-46a Examples continued Elizabeth claims, “The telephone is . . . the most important means of communication.” Elizabeth claims, “The telephone is definitely increasing in use and is still the most important means of communication . . . . In our workshop, we will learn valuable techniques for improving our telephone techniques.”
Displays PP 17-47
Use ellipsis marks to highlight specific points. Advertising displays often include ellipsis marks to identify points that the advertisers wish to emphasize.
Consider these exciting color printer projects: . . . Business cards . . . Gift tags . . . Custom folders
Errors PP 17-48
Insert the word sic in brackets immediately after a misspelled word, grammatical error, or factual error made by the person quoted. Sic means “ so ” or “ thus ” and points out that the error was not made by the present writer but was present in the original version.
We were amused when we read, “This report has been thoroughly proofread and contains no mispelings [sic].” She wrote in her e-mail, “I discovered an excellent grammer [sic] book.”
Parenthetical Expressions Within Parentheses PP 17-49
Use brackets to enclose a parenthetical expression within a statement that is already within parentheses.
Place the shorter parenthetical expression in brackets, and place the longer parenthetical statement in parentheses.
(Read Chapter 13 [writing tips] before attending the workshop.)
The Asterisk PP 17-50 The main purpose of the asterisk (*) is to refer the reader to another location for more detailed explanation or reference.
Use an asterisk to indicate that a footnote or explanation appears in a table or at the bottom of the page.
Place an asterisk after a comma, semicolon, colon, or period.
Over 90 percent of the executives surveyed spend more than an hour a day on the telephone.*