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Chapter 14 Proposals and Formal Reports Mary Ellen Guffey,  Business Communication:  Process and Product , 5e  Copyright ©...
Writing Proposals
<ul><li>Proposals are written offers to solve problems, provide services, or sell equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>An RFP is a...
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why the proposal is being made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a pe...
<ul><li>Background, Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the significance of the proposal and its goals or purposes. </li...
Writing Proposals <ul><li>Proposal, Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present your plan for solving the problem. </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the specific credentials and expertise of the key personnel for the project...
<ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itemize costs carefully. Proposals are contracts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present ...
<ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for approval. Make it easy to reply. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
<ul><li>Copy of RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract or summary </li></ul><ul><li>Title ...
<ul><li>Copy of RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract or summary </li></ul><ul><li>Title ...
Creating Business Plans <ul><li>A business plan is a form of proposal that </li></ul><ul><li>Helps secure funding and </li...
Components in Typical Business Plans <ul><li>Letter of transmittal and/or executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>Table of con...
Business Plan Basics: Questions to Ask <ul><li>What is you company’s mission? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes your concept be...
Preparing Formal Reports
<ul><li>Analyze the report problem and purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a problem question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Anticipate the audience and the issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider primary and secondary audiences. (What do th...
<ul><li>Prepare a work plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include problem and purpose statements.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desc...
<ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search secondary sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather primary data. </li>...
<ul><li>Document data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare note cards or separate sheets citing all references (author, d...
<ul><li>Interpret and organize the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the collected data in tables, grids, or outlines tha...
<ul><li>Prepare the graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations – but  only  if they ser...
<ul><li>Compose the first draft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the first draft at a computer. Use appropriate headings as wel...
<ul><li>Revise and proofread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise to eliminate wordiness, ambiguity, and redundancy.  </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Evaluate the product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, “Will this report achieve its purpose”? </li></ul></ul><u...
Formal Report Components
<ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance the following lines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the report in...
<ul><li>Letter or memo of transmittal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announce the topic and explain who authorized it. </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the re...
<ul><li>List of illustrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a list of tables, illustrations, or figures. </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Executive summary or abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the report purpose, findings, conclusions, and recom...
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the problem motivating the report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe ...
<ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss, analyze, and interpret the research findings or proposed solution to the probl...
<ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain what the findings mean in relation to the problem. <...
<ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include items of interest to some, but not all, readers, such as data-gathering too...
<ul><li>References and bibliography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If footnotes are not provided, list all references in a section ...
<ul><li>Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </l...
<ul><li>Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </l...
End
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    1. 1. Chapter 14 Proposals and Formal Reports Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product , 5e Copyright © 2006
    2. 2. Writing Proposals
    3. 3. <ul><li>Proposals are written offers to solve problems, provide services, or sell equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>An RFP is a request for proposal. </li></ul>Writing Proposals
    4. 4. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why the proposal is being made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a persuasive “hook.” Suggest excellent results, low cost, or exclusive resources. Identify a problem or name a key issue or benefit. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
    5. 5. <ul><li>Background, Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the significance of the proposal and its goals or purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For unsolicited proposals, convince the reader that a problem exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For solicited proposals, show that you fully understand the problem and its ramifications. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
    6. 6. Writing Proposals <ul><li>Proposal, Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present your plan for solving the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe implementation and evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline a schedule showing dates. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the specific credentials and expertise of the key personnel for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show that your support staff and resources are superior to those of the competition. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
    8. 8. <ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itemize costs carefully. Proposals are contracts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a deadline for the bid figures. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
    9. 9. <ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for approval. Make it easy to reply. </li></ul></ul>Writing Proposals
    10. 10. <ul><li>Copy of RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract or summary </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background, problem, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Generally appearing in formal proposals </li></ul>Components in Formal and Informal Proposals
    11. 11. <ul><li>Copy of RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract or summary </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background, problem, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Generally optional in informal proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Generally appearing in informal proposals </li></ul>Components in Formal and Informal Proposals
    12. 12. Creating Business Plans <ul><li>A business plan is a form of proposal that </li></ul><ul><li>Helps secure funding and </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a detailed road map for a new business to follow </li></ul>
    13. 13. Components in Typical Business Plans <ul><li>Letter of transmittal and/or executive summary </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Company description </li></ul><ul><li>Product/service description </li></ul><ul><li>Market analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Operations and management </li></ul><ul><li>Financial analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Appendixes </li></ul>
    14. 14. Business Plan Basics: Questions to Ask <ul><li>What is you company’s mission? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes your concept better than that of the competition? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your management team able to implement the business plan? </li></ul><ul><li>What monetary, human, physical, and technical resources do you need? </li></ul><ul><li>Do your financial projections make sense? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Preparing Formal Reports
    16. 16. <ul><li>Analyze the report problem and purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a problem question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are customers satisfied with our service? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a purpose statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of this report is to investigate customer satisfaction and to recommend areas for improvement . </li></ul></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    17. 17. <ul><li>Anticipate the audience and the issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider primary and secondary audiences. (What do they already know? What do they need to know?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the major problem into subproblems for investigation. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    18. 18. <ul><li>Prepare a work plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include problem and purpose statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe sources and methods of collecting data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a project outline and work schedule. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    19. 19. <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search secondary sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather primary data. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    20. 20. <ul><li>Document data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare note cards or separate sheets citing all references (author, date, source, page, and quotation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use one documentation format consistently. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    21. 21. <ul><li>Interpret and organize the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the collected data in tables, grids, or outlines that help you visualize relationships and interpret meanings. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    22. 22. <ul><li>Prepare the graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations – but only if they serve a function. Use graphics to clarify, condense, simplify, or emphasize your data. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    23. 23. <ul><li>Compose the first draft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the first draft at a computer. Use appropriate headings as well as transitional expressions to guide the reader. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    24. 24. <ul><li>Revise and proofread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise to eliminate wordiness, ambiguity, and redundancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for ways to improve readability, such as using bulleted or numbered lists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proofread three times: (1) word or sentence meaning, (2) grammar and mechanics, and (3) formatting. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    25. 25. <ul><li>Evaluate the product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, “Will this report achieve its purpose”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage feedback so that you can improve future reports. </li></ul></ul>Preparing Formal Reports
    26. 26. Formal Report Components
    27. 27. <ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance the following lines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the report in all caps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver’s name, title, and organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s name, title, and organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date submitted </li></ul></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    28. 28. <ul><li>Letter or memo of transmittal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announce the topic and explain who authorized it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly describe the project and preview the conclusions – if the reader is supportive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close by expressing appreciation for the assignment, suggesting follow-up actions, acknowledging the help of others, and offering to answer questions. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    29. 29. <ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect page numbers and headings with dots. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    30. 30. <ul><li>List of illustrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include a list of tables, illustrations, or figures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the list on the same page as the table of contents if possible. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    31. 31. <ul><li>Executive summary or abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the report purpose, findings, conclusions, and recommendations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gauge the length of the summary by the length of the report and by the organization’s practices. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    32. 32. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the problem motivating the report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the problem’s background and significance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the scope and limitations of the report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider reviewing relevant literature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider describing data sources, methods, and key terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close by previewing the report’s organization. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    33. 33. <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss, analyze, and interpret the research findings or proposed solution to the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the findings in logical segments that follow your outline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clear, descriptive headings. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    34. 34. <ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain what the findings mean in relation to the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make enumerated recommendations, if requested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest actions for solving the problem. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    35. 35. <ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include items of interest to some, but not all, readers, such as data-gathering tools like questionnaires. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    36. 36. <ul><li>References and bibliography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If footnotes are not provided, list all references in a section called “Notes,” “Works Cited,” or “References.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optionally, include a bibliography showing all the works cited (and perhaps consulted) arranged alphabetically. </li></ul></ul>Formal Report Components
    37. 37. <ul><li>Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary or abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Generally appearing in formal reports </li></ul>Components in Formal and Informal Reports
    38. 38. <ul><li>Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary or abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Generally optional in informal reports </li></ul><ul><li>Generally appearing in informal reports </li></ul>Components in Formal and Informal Reports
    39. 39. End
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