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Chapter 1: The New Workplace
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Chapter 1: The New Workplace


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  • 1. Chapter 1: The New Workplace Copyright 2007. Based on Organizational Behavior & Management, An Integrated Skills Approach by Ramon J. Aldag and Loren W. Kuzuhara (2002), on slides prepared by the authors and Southwestern Thomson Learning, and on work by John Kevin Doyle.
  • 2. Characteristics of New Work World The New World of Work Complex Ambiguous Changing Diverse Global
  • 3. Today’s Organizations
    • Hierarchies are flatter.
    • Deadlines are shorter.
    • Teams are everywhere.
    • Employees must manage themselves.
    • Managers must lead and vision.
    • Technology is transforming the nature, pace, and possibilities of work.
  • 4. Demands of the Modern Workplace Demands of the modern workplace Attention to ethical behavior Flexibility Creativity Cooperation Political savvy Proactivity Speed
  • 5. Management Skills and Company Success
    • Management is most significant determiner of company profitability.
    • Management weaknesses are the primary cause of insolvencies.
    • Many studies of large and small firms point to management skills as critical to firm success.
  • 6. Critical Skills Across Business Functions
    • Strategic thinking, effective communication, and leadership are required even of finance staff.
    • More technology will require IT workers to communicate more effectively and articulately.
    • Communication, diplomacy, and problem solving skills will grow in importance.
  • 7. Skills Training
    • Employees identify key competencies or critical skills to develop.
    • Employees must take responsibility for developing those critical skills on an ongoing basis, and talk with their supervisors to develop an individual development plan.
    • Employees’ job security is grounded in what they know and the value they can create around themselves.
  • 8. Status of Skills Training
    • 98% of firms reported that skills training reaped significant economic benefits for the firm.
    • Only 21% of companies could identify where employees want to be in terms of skill development in a year;
    • 58% of managers had received no leadership training, 72% had received no training on giving feedback on performance, and 87% had received no training in stress management.
  • 9. The Need for Management Skills The need for management skills Managerial skills and life success Managerial skills and hiring Managerial skills in the new workplace
  • 10. Managerial Skills and Hiring
    • Companies are hiring for skills, including management skills.
    • A GAO report recommends: “Hire, develop, and retain employees according to competencies. Identify the competencies – knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors – needed to achieve high performance of mission and goals, and build and sustain the organization’s talent pool through recruiting, hiring, development, and retention policies targeted at building and sustaining those competencies.”
  • 11. Sixteen Basic Skills
    • Knowing How to Learn
    • Reading
    • Writing
    • Mathematics
    • Listening
    • Oral Communication
    • Problem Solving
    • Creative Thinking
    • Self-Confidence
    • Motivational Goal Setting
    • Leadership
    • Interpersonal Skills
    • Negotiation
    • Teamwork
    • Organizational Effectiveness
    • Personal and Career Development
  • 12. Ranking of HR Managers’ Perceptions of Criteria for Evaluating Business Graduates
  • 13. How Many Employers?
    • The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the average 22-year-old college graduate will have more than eight different employers before he or she reaches the age of 32.
    • That is a change of employers every 15 months.
  • 14. Managerial Skills in the New Work Environment Managerial skills and career success Entrepreneurship Growth in manage- ment positions Downsizing and delayering Hiring for the second job Self-managed work teams Job enrichment and empowerment
  • 15. Managerial Skills Sets
    • Technical skills include knowledge about methods, processes, and techniques needed to carry out specialized activity, ability to use related tools and equipment. Dealing with things .
    • Human skills deal with human behavior and interpersonal processes, communication, cooperation, and social sensitivity. Dealing with people .
    • Conceptual skills include analytical ability, creativity, efficiency in problem solving, and ability to recognize opportunities and potential problems. Dealing with concepts .
  • 16. Management Skills Needed for Success by Organizational Level Top-Level Managers Middle-Level Managers First-Level Managers Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Human Human Human Technical Technical Technical
  • 17. School vs. Business
  • 18. The Knowing-Doing Gap
    • Simply knowing – recognizing or understanding what to do to manage an organization – is not enough for an individual to become a successful manager.
    • Knowledge management efforts emphasize technology and the exchange of codified information and not how the information can be used to make better decisions to enhance work-unit or organizational effectiveness.
  • 19. Bridging the Knowing-Doing Gap
    • Why before how: Philosophy is important. Make sure that all members of an org-anization understand and are committed to the way of thinking about how to achieve given business objectives.
    • Knowing comes from doing and teaching others how. Teaching through apprentice-ships, coaching and mentoring helps organ-ization members how to “do the right things.”
  • 20. Bridging the Knowing-Doing Gap: Ready-Fire-Aim
    • Action comes before plans and concepts. The key is to focus on the bottom line of taking action and to ensure that talking about what to do is always coupled with specific actions.
    • There is no doing without mistakes. Organ-izations that bridge the knowing-doing gap are able to learn and become smarter based on their successes and failures in the market-place.
  • 21. Bridging the Knowing-Doing Gap
    • Measure what matters and what can help turn knowledge into action. Management should identify a handful of critical measures of success for the organization and track them on an ongoing basis.
    • What leaders do, how they spend their time, and how they allocate resources, matters.
  • 22. The Social Learning Perspective Pre- assessment Conceptual learning, modeling Conceptual & behavioral practice Life application
  • 23. Steps in the “4 A’s” of Skill Learning
    • Skills Assessment Get baseline measures on important skills and to foster interest in those skills.
    • Skills Awareness Discuss important background material, such as why the topic is important, key approaches to mastering the skill, and other relevant information.
    • Skills Attainment Through a variety of experiential methods, you develop the skill.
    • Skills Application Life application, such as using the skills in case analyses, life situations, and field projects.
  • 24. Mastering Management Skills Take baseline (pre-test) measures of the target skills Master content that supports the application of the target skills Practice the application of the target skills in an exercise or case study Obtain developmental feedback regarding the target skills Practice the application of the target skills in an organizational context Take post-test measures of the target skills
  • 25. Global Perspective: Skills in the Global Labor Market
    • Firms and their management are becoming increasingly global.
    • A record number of foreign CEOs are now running major U.S. companies.
    • The number of international assignments is expected to accelerate in the next five years.
    • Many people fail in international assignments, and almost half say they would not work abroad again.
    • This all suggests that employees often lack the skills needed to succeed in international positions.
  • 26. The Management Skills Framework
    • The management skills framework focuses on human and conceptual skills.
    • We classify the skills as primarily:
      • personal – self-management and critical thinking.
      • interpersonal – communicating and resolving conflict.
      • managerial – leading, motivating, managing teams, strategic planning, and creating a positive work culture.
    • The framework also considers three levels of effectiveness – employee, work unit, and organizational.
  • 27. Management Skills Framework O r g a n i z a t i o n M a n a g e r Organizational effectiveness Work unit effectiveness Employee effectiveness Managerial skills Interpersonal skills Personal skills
  • 28. Action Planning and Implementation
    • Action planning refers to the process through which a manager formulates the specific steps that will be taken to address business problems and challenges.
    • The action plan becomes a blueprint or roadmap for actual implementation.
    • Guidelines for developing and implementing effective action plans include:
      • The process must be systematic and actively managed.
      • Action planning requires a “layering” approach in which action steps are translated into specific supporting actions in relation to each employee who will be involved in implementation.
      • There must be ongoing and systematic evaluation of the results achieved after implementation of the action plan.
  • 29. Action Planning and Implementation Identify key problems Define objectives associated with solving the key problems Identify key measures of success for each objective Work with employees to formulate action steps to achieve each objective Assign implementation responsibility for each action step to a specific employee Clarify the role of each employee in supporting the implementation of the plan Provide management support (e.g., direction, budget, training) for employees Evaluate the results of implementing the action steps against your initial objectives Modify the objectives or action steps based on your evaluation