Use periods correctly at the end of declarative and imperative sentences, courteous requests, and indirect questions.
Identify miscellaneous uses of the period.
Use commas correctly between items in a series and in compound sentences.
Use commas correctly with independent adjectives.
PP 16-1a continued
Objectives PP 16-1b continued
Use commas correctly to set off appositive and parenthetical expressions.
Use commas correctly with introductory expressions.
Use commas correctly with nonrestrictive clauses.
Identify miscellaneous uses of the comma.
Declarative Sentences PP 16-2
Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence.
Rick finds job openings on the Internet . Sara’s final interview with the company is on Friday .
Imperative Sentences PP 16-3
Use a period at the end of a sentence that indicates a command or a strong suggestion.
Proofread your cover letter carefully . Fill out the job application within 24 hours .
Courteous Requests PP 16-4
Use a period at the end of a sentence that makes a courteous request.
Will you please call the applicants to tell them that the position is filled . May I have the phone numbers of your last three supervisors .
Indirect Questions PP 16-5
Use a period after an indirect question.
I wonder whether Bob applied for the accounts payable position . Jamey asked how I posted my résumé on the Internet .
Decimal Points PP 16-6
Use a period to separate dollars and cents.
$5 . 59 $178 . 25 $14,382 . 38
Do not place a period after a dollar amount if there are no cents involved.
$5 $802 $78,455
Use a period as a decimal point to express whole numbers and fractional amounts.
0 . 008 0 . 09 5 . 2 29 . 5
Abbreviated Words and Measurements PP 16-7a
Use a period at the end of an abbreviated word.
assn . association asst . assistant bldg . building intl . international mfg . manufacturing pd . paid
Abbreviated Words and Measurements PP 16-7b
Do not use a period after a measurement that is abbreviated on most business or technical forms.
Ft foot, feet oz ounce, ounces gal gallon qt quart, quarts hr hour, hours yr year, years continued
Spell out measurements when they are used in general or nontechnical writing.
Small and Capital Letters PP 16-8a
Use a period after each letter in abbreviations that consist of small letters.
a . k . a . also known as c . o . d . collect on delivery f . o . b . free on board (within sentences)
Do not use a period after each letter in most abbreviations that consist of all capital letters.
CEO chief executive officer HMO health maintenance organization PIN personal identification number
Small and Capital Letters PP 16-8b Exceptions P . O . post office U . S . United States M . A . Master of Arts M . D . Doctor of Medicine B . C . before Christ continued
Personal Names and Corporate Names PP 16-9
Use a period after the initials or with abbreviations of most names.
J . C . Williams Thos . C . McGraw
Do not use a period with a nickname.
Skip Jenner Red Stocker
Use the same format that an individual uses in a signature or that a company uses on its letterhead as its official designation
Harry S Truman JCPenney
Titles, Academic Degrees, Professional Identification PP 16-10a
Use a period after an abbreviation of a person’s title.
Mrs . Ms . Mr . Dr .
Use a period after each element in the abbreviation of an academic degree or professional identification.
B.A. Ph.D. M.B.A. M.D.
Titles, Academic Degrees, Professional Identification PP 16-10b Examples Dr. Carole Bennett accepted a position as a technical writer. Sara Wong, M.D., hired Rose to work as a receptionist. Gretchen Carpenter, M.B.A., uses the Internet to post company job openings continued
Seniority Designations PP 16-11
Use a period after an abbreviated seniority designation.
Jason Harrison Jr . accepted a position in Nevada. Anthony Biasi III applied for an international banking position.
The Period and Geographic Locations PP 16-12 Use a period after an abbreviation of a country, state, or province unless the abbreviation appears in ZIP Code format. NC North Carolina N.C. AR Arkansas Ark. ON Ontario Ont. ZIP Code State or Standard Abbreviation Province Abbreviation
Shortened Forms of Words PP 16-13 Do not use a period after shortened words or foreign words that are not abbreviations. info information rep representative specs specifications temp temporary ad hoc for a particular purpose in re or re concerning
Outlines and Lists PP 16-14a
Use a period after the numbers or letters that identify items in an outline or list unless the numbers or letters are in parentheses.
I . EMPLOYMENT MATERIALS A . Resume 1 . Chronological a . Advantages (1) Shows job history
Outlines and Lists PP 16-14b
Use periods after complete sentences, dependent clauses, and long phrases in a list or outline.
The keys to salary negotiation are the following:
Discuss salary at the end of the interview .
Let the interviewer introduce the issue of salary .
Do research on salaries for your field .
Outlines and Lists PP 16-14c
Do not use periods after short phrases listed on separate lines if the lead-in statement is complete.
Avoid the following job-hunting methods:
Compound Sentences PP 16-15a
Use a comma to separate two independent clauses in a compound sentence.
Place the comma before the coordinating conjunction ( and, or, nor, but ) that joins the two clauses.
Most public libraries have company directories , and most online services also offer access to these directories. Everyone knows about doing job hunting research , but few people do it well.
Compound Sentences PP 16-15b
Omit the comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence if either or both of the two independent clauses are very short (four words or less).
Read the job description and fax your résumé. continued
Do not omit the comma if it is necessary for clarity.
Kyle interviewed me , and Maria tested my skills.
Compound Sentences PP 16-15c
Use a comma before the coordinating conjunction when a subject is not expressed (but implied) in one or both clauses in an imperative sentence.
Call companies that interest you , and ask to speak to people who can give you specific information about available positions. Prepare a portfolio of your best work , and bring it with you to the interview. continued
Compound Sentences PP 16-15d
Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins a compound subject, predicate, object, or subject complement.
Stress educational achievements and extracurricular activities in your cover letter. Working in temporary positions will introduce you to different industries and help you discover the types of jobs available. continued
Series PP 16-16a
Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
Include the comma before the coordinating conjunction.
Be selective when listing job duties , skills , and accomplishments on your résumé. Please bring your résumé , a sharpened pencil , and a list of references to the interview. Interviewing effectively means listening to suggestions of others , reading about interviewing , and participating in as many interviews as possible.
Series PP 16-16b
Do not use commas to separate items when each item is connected by a conjunction.
Cover letters require the exact last name of the person and the exact spelling of the name and the title of his or her position. continued
Series PP 16-16c
Use commas in a series of names in an organization exactly the way that the organization uses the commas on its letterhead or on another verifiable source.
Do not use a comma before the ampersand (&) in the name of an organization unless the company itself does.
The firm of Farrell , White , and Jones specializes in recruiting hospital employees. Henderson, Hernandez , & Holmes fills its positions through networking. continued
The Comma and Etc. PP 16-17
Use a comma before and after the abbreviation etc. When etc. appears at the end of a sentence, use a comma before the abbreviation only. The abbreviation etc. means and so forth or and others .
Do not use the phrase and etc.
Most experts recommend cream, white, off-white , etc., bond paper for résumés.
Independent Adjectives PP 16-18a
Place a comma between independent adjectives that precede a noun unless they are already separated by a coordinating conjunction.
To determine whether adjectives are independent, reverse their order or place the word and between the two adjectives. If both revisions sound satisfactory, place a comma between the two adjectives.
Independent Adjectives PP 16-18b
continued James offered vague, disorganized answers to the interview questions. Anne conducted a successful, well-organized job search. A study of successful female job hunters indicated that attention to detail is vital.
Appositives PP 16-19a
Use commas to set off an appositive if it is not essential to the meaning of a sentence.
Kris Hing , CEO of Hing and Associates , looks for candidates who speak at least three languages. JOBS , an online listing of professional positions , helped me narrow my job search.
Appositives PP 16-19b
Do not use commas to set off an appositive that explains or clarifies the noun preceding it.
The newspaper National Business Employment Weekly offers job hunting strategies. The year 2001 was the year that I was promoted to assistant manager. continued
Parenthetical Expressions PP 16-20a
Parenthetical expressions interrupt a sentence. These side remarks do not add to the clarity of a sentence, and they are set aside by commas.
Parenthetical Expressions PP 16-20b
Below is a partial list of parenthetical expressions.
after all as a consequence
as a matter of fact as a result
as a rule as you know
at any rate believe me
by the way for example
however I am sure
I assure you I believe
Parenthetical Expressions PP 16-20c
continued Being unemployed , as you can see, allowed me to return to school. Unfortunately, Jack lost his disk that contained his résumé. Group interviews , by the way, are popular with educational institutions.
Use a comma to set off an introductory participial phrase from the rest of the sentence.
Surprised by the results of my skill tests, I decided to set new goals. Reviewing my cover letter, I realized that I had used an incorrect telephone number.
Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses PP 16-25
Use commas to set off a nonrestrictive adjective clause from the rest of the sentence.
Drug testing , which is becoming more prevalent, is a requirement for some occupations. I carry my resume in a leather portfolio , which was a graduation gift .
Restrictive Adjective Clauses PP 16-26
Do not set off a restrictive adjective clause (necessary for the meaning of the word it modifies) from the rest of the sentence.
Job applicants who arrive late for their interviews are usually not hired at our firm. A college degree that emphasizes communication skills is valuable in today’s job market.
Contrasting Expressions PP 16-27
Use commas to set aside a contrasting expression from the rest of the sentence. A contrasting expression often begins with the word not or never. A contrasting expression contradicts the noun or idea it follows.
The interview , not the résumé, gets you the job. The position for which Nina is interviewing is an existing position , not a new one .
Direct Address PP 16-28
Use commas to set off the names of individuals who are being addressed directly.
You will be pleased to know , Larry, that you will receive a bonus this year. Sheila, you are a finalist for the position.
Tag Questions PP 16-29
Use a comma to separate a tag question from the rest of the sentence.
We have five job candidates to interview today , don’t we? We do not need to interview the job candidates on Saturday , do we?
Quotations PP 16-30
Use a comma to introduce a direct quotation or set it off from other parts of a sentence.
Mr. Bertoli asked me , “How do you define success?” “ Success , ” Mr. Bertoli said , “depends upon your own definition.”
Do not use a comma to set off an indirect quotation.
Mr. Bertoli said that success depends upon your own definition.
Dates PP 16-31
Use a comma before and after the year when a date includes a month, day, and year.
I hope to graduate by June 30 , 2005 , or at the latest December 31 , 2005.
Do not use a comma if only the month and day or only the month and year are in a sentence.
Mr. Elias indicated that he would notify me by August 5 about the position. My first interview was in October 2001 for a retail sales position.
Addresses PP 16-32
Use commas to separate parts of an address or geographical location.
Do not place a comma between a state name or a two-letter state abbreviation and the ZIP Code within a document or on an envelope.
I applied for a position at Sonoma State University , 1801 East Coati Avenue , Rohnert Park , CA 94953 , last week.