Business Communication Essentials


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Business Communication Essentials

  1. 1. Business Communication Essentials FOURTH EDITION Welcome to this brief benefits tour of Business Communication Essentials, Fourth Edition. We’ve selected a dozen pages from the text to illustrate some of the many unique features that make BCE4 an ideal teaching and learning resource for your business communication course. To hear audio commentary on each page, click this icon:
  2. 2. Contents in Brief Preface xiii Prologue P-1 [unit 1 ] BUSINESS COMMUNICATION FOUNDATIONS 3 CHAPTER 1 Understanding Business Communication in Today’s Workplace 4 CHAPTER 2 Mastering Interpersonal Communication 28 [ unit 2 ] THE THREE-STEP WRITING PROCESS 47 CHAPTER 3 Planning Business Messages 48 CHAPTER 4 Writing Business Messages 68 CHAPTER 5 Completing Business Messages 92 [ unit 3 ] BRIEF BUSINESS MESSAGES 115 CHAPTER 6 Crafting Messages for Electronic Media 116 CHAPTER 7 Writing Routine and Positive Messages 143 CHAPTER 8 Writing Negative Messages 172 CHAPTER 9 Writing Persuasive Messages 200 [ unit 4 ] LONGER BUSINESS MESSAGES 231 CHAPTER 10 Understanding and Planning Reports and Proposals 232 CHAPTER 11 Writing and Completing Reports and Proposals 260 CHAPTER 12 Developing Oral and Online Presentations 310 EMPLOYMENT MESSAGES AND JOB [ unit 5 ] INTERVIEWS 337 CHAPTER 13 Building Careers and Writing Résumés 338 CHAPTER 14 Applying and Interviewing for Employment 365 APPENDIX A Format and Layout of Business Documents A-1 APPENDIX B Documentation of Report Sources A-20 APPENDIX C Correction Symbols A-26 Video Guide VG-1 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage H-1 Answer Key AK-1 References R-1 Acknowledgments AC-1 Index I-1 v
  3. 3. xx Preface Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Learning objectives More emphasis on drafting Comparable to BCE3 More emphasis on résumé New emphasis on the and revising online content, fraud, résumé formatting, growing use of behavioral principles of graphic design, and media choices for interviews verifying the quality of visuals, résumés and completing reports From the Real World Retained: About the New: About removing Retained: About poorly Retained: About using the importance of using clear barriers between the designed résumés being job interview to give language when speaker and the tossed out without even employers a good idea of communicating about audience being read who you are and what you complex topics offer Chapter content (subject areas New section on drafting New advice for The first section, “Building Reorganized information that were added, clarified, online content anticipating and a Career with Your on common types of expanded, streamlined, or New coverage of proposal- responding to the Communication Skills,” is interviews updated for this edition) writing software emotional state of now in the new Prologue Added coverage of panel Heavily revised section on presentation Revised coverage of interviews illustrating reports with audiences employers’ approach to Situational and behavioral effective visuals, including New advice on the employment process interviews separated as visual literacy and six using a three-act Added information about two distinct types principles of effective storytelling networking etiquette Added coverage of visual design structure for New coverage of career working interviews New coverage of data presentations objectives, qualifications Added section on visualization summaries, and career interview media, which summaries includes e-mail and IM, Revised coverage of video, and online activities and interviews achievements Revised coverage of Revised coverage of what employers look for personal data and in an interview references Replacement of the New coverage of “Plan to Look Good” PowerPoint and video section résumés Revised “Discussing Salary” section Model documents and New: Data visualization New: Writing New: Effective New: Effective solicited other exhibits using a cloud tag (Figure readable content chronological résumé application message 11.9) (Figure 12.5) (Figure 13.5) (Figure 14.1) New: Digital image New: Slide master New: Combination manipulation (Figure (Figure 12.6) résumé (Figure 13.6) 11.12) New: Slide sorter New: Ineffective résumé view (Figure 12.7) design (Figure 13.7) New: Navigation and support slides (Figure 12.8) New: Moving blueprint slides (Figure 12.9) End-of-chapter exercises New questions on integrating New questions on New questions on résumé New questions on visuals and text, visual design, presentation skills, writing, networking, plain- situational and behavioral and wiki revision ethical design choices, text and HTML formats, and interviews and slide show qualifications summaries animation Cases 2 new cases 4 new cases 2 new cases Comparable to BCE3 COURSE PLANNING GUIDE Although Business Communication Essentials follows a traditional sequence of topics, it is struc- tured so that you can address topics in whatever order best suits your needs. For instance, if you want to begin by reviewing grammar, you can ask students to read Chapter 5,“Completing Business Messages” and then the “Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage.” Conversely, if you want to begin with employment-related communication, you can start with the Prologue, “Building a Career with Your Communication Skills,” followed by Chapters 13 and 14. The following table suggests a sequence and a schedule for covering the chapters in the textbook, with time allocations based on the total number of class hours available.
  4. 4. 80 Unit 2: The Three-Step Writing Process Creating Effective Sentences Making every sentence count is a key step in creating effective messages. Start by selecting the optimum type of sentence and then arrange words to emphasize the most important point in each sentence. Choosing from the Four Types of Sentences A simple sentence has one main Sentences come in four basic varieties: simple, compound, complex, and compound-com- clause. plex. A simple sentence has one main clause (a single subject and a single predicate), although it may be expanded by nouns and pronouns serving as objects of the action and by modifying phrases. Consider this example (with the subject underlined once and the predi- cate verb underlined twice): Profits increased in the past year. A compound sentence has two main A compound sentence has two main clauses that express two or more independent but clauses. related thoughts of equal importance, usually joined by and, but, or or. In effect, a compound sentence is a merger of two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) that are related. For example: Wages have declined by 5 percent, and employee turnover has been high. The independent clauses in a compound sentence are always separated by a comma or by a semicolon (in which case the conjunction—and, but, or or—is dropped). A complex sentence has one main A complex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and one or clause and one subordinate clause. more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses) related to it, often separated by a comma. The subordinate thought, which comes first in the following sentence, could not stand alone: Although you may question Gerald’s conclusions, you must admit that his research is thorough. A compound-complex sentence has A compound-complex sentence has two main clauses, at least one of which contains a two main clauses and at least one dependent clause. subordinate clause: Profits have increased in the past year, and although you may question Gerald’s conclu- sions, you must admit that his research is thorough. Writing is usually most effective if it To make your writing as effective as possible, strive for variety and balance using all balances all four sentence types. four sentence types. If you use too many simple sentences, you won’t be able to prop- erly express the relationships among your ideas, and your writing will sound choppy and abrupt. If you use too many long, compound sentences, your writing will sound monotonous. Using Sentence Style to Emphasize Key Thoughts Emphasize specific parts of In every message, some ideas are more important than others. You can emphasize key ideas sentences by through your sentence style. One obvious technique is to give important points the most Devoting more words to them space. When you want to call attention to a thought, use extra words to describe it. Consider Putting them at the beginning or at the end of the sentence this sentence: Making them the subject of the The chairperson called for a vote of the shareholders. sentence To emphasize the importance of the chairperson, you might describe her more fully: Having considerable experience in corporate takeover battles, the chairperson called for a vote of the shareholders. You can increase the emphasis even more by adding a separate, short sentence to augment the first: The chairperson called for a vote of the shareholders. She has considerable experience in corporate takeover battles. You can also call attention to a thought by making it the subject of the sentence. In the following example, the emphasis is on the person: I can write letters much more quickly using a computer.
  5. 5. 182 Unit 3: Brief Business Messages Planning Writing Completing Analyze the Situation Adapt to Your Audience Revise the Message Verify that the purpose is to refuse a Adjust the level of formality based Evaluate content and review readability warranty claim and offer alternatives; on the degree of familiarity with the to make sure the negative information the audience’s likely reaction is audience (relatively formal is best in won’t be misinterpreted; make sure disappointment and surprise. this case); maintain a positive your tone stays positive without being Gather Information relationship by using the “you” artificial. Verify warranty information and attitude, politeness, positive emphasis, and bias-free language. Produce the Message research alternatives to present to Emphasize a clean, professional the customer. Compose the Message appearance. Select the Right Medium Use a conversational but professional Choose the best medium to deliver Proofread the Message style and keep the message brief, this message; the customer submitted Review for errors in layout, spelling, clear, and as helpful as possible. the claim via e-mail, so a response and mechanics. via e-mail is appropriate. Distribute the Message Organize the Information Deliver your message via e-mail. Focus on the main idea, which is to refuse the claim; select the indirect approach based on the audience and the situation. 1 2 3 Buffers the bad news by starting with a point on which the writer and reader agree States the bad news indirectly Subtly lets the customer while emphasizing the know that he made a mistake, appropriate uses of the but doesn’t blame him directly product Gives the customer options for the next step, including a helpful link to the company’s website Encourages future purchasing in a way that indicates a desire Closes on a positive note by to help the customer avoid a thanking the customer and repeat of this mistake looking to the future Pointers for Refusing Claims • Use the buffer to indicate that you received and understand the request or complaint. • In the body, provide an accurate, objective account of the transaction. • Make the refusal clear without being abrupt, insulting, or accusatory. • Maintain an impersonal tone that doesn’t offend the reader. • Don’t apologize for refusing, since your company hasn’t done anything wrong. • If appropriate, offer an alternative solution. • Emphasize your continued desire for a positive relationship with the customer. • Close with resale information if appropriate. • Make any suggested actions easy for the reader to follow. Figure 8.4 Effectively Refusing a Claim Vera Shoemaker diplomatically refuses this customer’s request for a new saw blade. Without blaming the customer (even though the customer clearly made a mistake), she points out that the saw blade is not intended to cut steel, so the warranty doesn’t cover a replacement in this instance. If you deal with enough customers over a long-enough period, chances are you’ll get a request that is particularly outrageous. You may even be convinced that the person is being dishonest. However, you must resist the temptation to call the person dishonest or incompe- tent. If you don’t, you could be sued for defamation, a false statement that damages some- one’s reputation. (Written defamation is called libel; spoken defamation is called slander.) To successfully sue for defamation, the aggrieved party must prove (1) that the statement is false, (2) that the language injures the person’s reputation, and (3) that the statement has been communicated to others.
  6. 6. Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage The rules of grammar, mechanics, and usage provide the answered all the questions, ask your instructor for an answer guidance every professional needs in order to communicate suc- sheet so that you can score the test. On the Assessment of cessfully with colleagues, customers, and other audiences. English Skills form (page H-3), record the number of questions Understanding and following these rules helps you in two you answered incorrectly in each section. important ways. First, the rules determine how meaning is The following choices apply to items 1–5. Write in each encoded and decoded in the communication process. If you blank the letter of the choice that best describes the part of don’t encode your messages using the same rules your readers or speech that is underlined. listeners use to decode them, chances are your audiences will not extract your intended meaning from your messages. Without a A. noun firm grasp of the basics of grammar, mechanics, and usage, you B. pronoun risk being misunderstood, damaging your company’s image, los- C. verb ing money for your company, and possibly even losing your job. D. adjective In other words, if you want to get your point across, you need to E. adverb follow the rules of grammar, mechanics, and usage. Second, F. preposition apart from transferring meaning successfully, following the rules G. conjunction tells your audience that you respect the conventions and expec- H. article tations of the business community. ____ 1. The new branch location will be decided by next You can think of grammar as the agreed-upon structure of a week. language, the way that individual words are formed and the ____ 2. We must hire only qualified, ambitious graduates. manner in which those words are then combined to form mean- ____ 3. After their presentation, I was still undecided. ingful sentences. Mechanics are style and formatting issues such ____ 4. See me after the meeting. as capitalization, spelling, and the use of numbers and symbols. ____ 5. Margaret, pressed for time, turned in unusually Usage involves the accepted and expected way in which specific sloppy work. words are used by a particular community of people—in this case, the community of businesspeople who use English. This In the blanks for items 6–15, write the letter of the word or handbook can help you improve your knowledge and awareness phrase that best completes each sentence. in all three areas. It is divided into the following sections: ____ 6. (A. Russ’s, B. Russ’) laptop was stolen last week. Diagnostic Test of English Skills. Testing your current ____ 7. Speaking only for (A. me, B. myself), I think the new knowledge of grammar, mechanics, and usage helps you policy is discriminatory. find out where your strengths and weaknesses lie. This test ____ 8. Of the five candidates we interviewed yesterday, offers 50 items taken from the topics included in this hand- (A. who, B. whom) do you believe is the best choice? book. ____ 9. India has increased (A. it’s, B. its) imports of corn Assessment of English Skills. After completing the diag- and rice. nostic test, use the assessment form to highlight the areas ____ 10. Anyone who wants to be (A. their, B. his or her) own you most need to review. boss should think about owning a franchise. ____ 11. If the IT department can’t (A. lie, B. lay) the fiber- Essentials of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage with optic cable by March 1, the plant will not open on Practice Sessions. This section helps you quickly review schedule. the basics. You can study the things you’ve probably already ____ 12. Starbucks (A. is, B. are) opening five new stores in learned but may have forgotten about grammar, punctua- San Diego in the next year. tion, mechanics (including capitalization, abbreviation, ____ 13. The number of women-owned small businesses (A. number style, and word division), and vocabulary (includ- has, B. have) increased sharply in the past two ing frequently confused words, frequently misused words, decades. frequently misspelled words, and transitional words and ____ 14. Greg and Bernyce worked (A. good, B. well) together. phrases). Practice sessions throughout this section help ____ 15. They distributed the supplies (A. among, B. between) you test yourself and reinforce what you learn. Use this the six staff members. essential review not only to study and improve your English skills but also as a reference for any questions you The following choices apply to items 16–20. Write in each may have during this course. blank the letter of the choice that best describes the sentence structure problem with each item. Diagnostic Test of English Skills A. sentence fragment Use this test to determine whether you need more practice with B. comma splice grammar, punctuation, mechanics, or vocabulary. When you’ve C. misplaced modifier H-1
  7. 7. 6: Crafting Messages for Electronic Media 123 For the latest information on using IM in business, visit and click on Chapter 6. CREATING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS BLOGS A blog (short for web log) is an online journal that is much easier to personalize and update Blogs have a unique ability to than a conventional website. In a sense, a blog combines the global reach and reference value encourage interaction with a large, geographically dispersed audience. of a conventional website with the conversational exchanges of e-mail or IM. Good business blogs pay close attention to several important elements: Communicating with personal style and an authentic voice. Most business messages designed for large audiences are carefully scripted and written in a “corporate voice” that is impersonal and objective. In contrast, successful business blogs are written by individ- uals and exhibit their personal style. Audiences relate to this fresh approach and often build closer emotional bonds with the blogger’s organization as a result. For instance, Microsoft’s Channel 9 video blog, or vlog (, features informal, personable video clips in which several of the company’s technical experts answer questions and criticisms from software developers.25 Delivering new information quickly. Today’s blogging tools let you post new material within minutes of writing it or filming it. Not only does this feature allow you to respond quickly when needed—such as during a corporate crisis—it also lets your audiences know that an active conversation is taking place. Blogs that don’t offer a con- tinuous stream of new and interesting content are quickly ignored in today’s online environment. Choosing topics of peak interest to audiences. Successful blogs cover topics that readers care about. For instance, General Motors’s popular FastLane blog (http:// features top executives writing about GM cars and respond- ing to questions and criticisms from car enthusiasts. The people who read the blog and write comments obviously care about cars and want the latest information from GM.26 Encouraging audiences to join the conversation. Not all blogs invite comments, Most business blogs invite readers to although most do, and many bloggers consider comments to be an essential feature. leave comments. Blog comments can be a valuable source of news, information, and insights. In addition, the relatively informal nature of blogging seems to make it easier for companies to let their guard down and converse with their audiences. To guard against comments that are not helpful or appropriate, many bloggers review all comments and post only the most helpful or interesting ones. Understanding the Business Applications of Blogging Blogs are a potential solution whenever you have a continuing stream of information to The business applications of blogs share with an online audience—and particularly when you want the audience to have the include a wide range of internal and external communication tasks. opportunity to respond. Here are some of the many ways businesses are using blogs:27 Project management and team communication. Using blogs is a good way to keep pro- ject teams up to date, particularly when team members are geographically dispersed. For instance, the trip reports that employees file after visiting customers or other external parties can be enhanced vividly with mobile blogs, or moblogs. Company news. Companies can use blogs to keep employees informed about general business matters, from facility news to benefit updates. Blogs also serve as online commu- nity forums, giving everyone in the company a chance to raise questions and voice concerns. Customer support. Building on the tradition of online customer support forums that have been around since the earliest days of the Internet, customer support
  8. 8. 6: Crafting Messages for Electronic Media 137 some say they are getting tired of all the ads—both ads on the site itself and pop-up ads. A few say they are switching to other [ BLOGGING SKILLS websites with fewer advertising intrusions. Your site traffic 5. Legitimate and Legal: Defending Technology Sales to Chinese numbers are holding fairly steady for now, but you’re worried Police Agencies Cisco, a leading manufacturer of computer net- that the few visitors leaving might be the start of a working equipment, is one of several technology companies that significant exodus in the future. have been criticized recently for selling high-tech equipment to Your task Write an e-mail message to your manager, police agencies in China. After the Chinese government killed expressing your concern about the amount of advertising con- hundreds of protestors in Tiananmen Square in 1989, U.S. offi- tent on Acknowledge that advertising is a vital cials began restricting the export of products that could be used source of revenue but share what you’re learned about site vis- by Chinese security forces. The restrictions cover a range of low- itors who claim to be migrating to other sites. Offer to lead a tech devices, from helmets and handcuffs to fingerprint powder comprehensive review effort that will compare the advertising and teargas, but not certain high-tech products, such as the net- presence on with that of other sports websites and working equipment that Cisco sells, which can conceivably be explore ways to maintain strong advertising sales without used by security forces in ways that violate human rights. Critics alienating readers.45 contend that by not restricting products such as Cisco’s, the U.S. government is not enforcing the full intent of the restrictions. Moreover, they suggest that Cisco could be enabling abuse. For [ E-MAIL SKILLS example, its Chinese marketing brochure promotes the equip- 3. Must Be an Opportunity in Here Somewhere: The Growing ment’s ability to “strengthen police control.” Market of Women Living Without Husbands For the first time in Your task Write a brief post for the Cisco executive blog that history (aside from special situations such as major wars), more explains the following points: The company rigorously follows than half—51 percent—of all U.S. adult women now live with- all U.S. export regulations; the company’s marketing efforts in out a spouse. (In other words, they live alone, with roommates, China are consistent with the way it markets products to other or as part of an unmarried couple.) Twenty-five percent have police organizations throughout the world; the products are never married, and 26 percent are divorced, widowed, or mar- simply tools, and like all other tools, they can be applied in good ried but living apart from their spouses. In the 1950s and into or bad ways, and responsible application is the customer’s the 1960s, only 40 percent of women lived without a spouse, but responsibility, not Cisco’s; and if Cisco didn’t sell this equip- every decade since, the percentage has increased. In your work ment to the Chinese government, another company from as a consumer trend specialist for Seymour Powell (www. another country would.48, a product design firm based in London that specializes in the home, personal, leisure, and transporta- tion sectors, it’s your business to recognize and respond to [ IM SKILLS demographic shifts such as this. 6. The Very Definition of Confusion: Helping Consumers Sort Your task With a small team of classmates, brainstorm possi- Out High-Definition Television High-definition television can ble product opportunities that respond to this trend. In an be a joy to watch—but, oh, what a pain to buy. The field is lit- e-mail message to be sent to the management team at Seymour tered with competing technologies and arcane terminology that Powell, list your ideas for new or modified products that might is meaningless to most consumers. Moreover, it’s nearly impos- sell well in a society in which more than half of all adult women sible to define one technical term without invoking two or three live without a spouse. For each idea, provide a one-sentence others, leaving consumers swimming in an alphanumeric soup explanation of why you think the product has potential.46 of confusion. The manufacturers themselves can’t even agree on which of the 18 different digital TV formats truly qualify as “high definition.” As a sales support manager for Crutchfield [ E-MAIL [ PORTFOLIO SKILLS BUILDER (, a leading online retailer of audio and video systems, you understand the frustration buyers feel; your 4. Help Is on the Way: Encouraging Ford Dealers The “Big staff is deluged daily by their questions. Three” U.S. automakers—General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford—haven’t had much good news to share lately. Ford, in par- ticular, has been going through a rough time, losing billions of Your task To help your staff respond quickly to consumers dollars and being overtaken in sales volume by Toyota. who ask questions via Crutchfield’s online IM chat service, you are developing a set of “canned” responses to common ques- Your task Write an e-mail message to be sent to all Ford deal- tions. When a consumer asks one of these questions, a sales ers in North America, describing an exciting new model about advisor can simply click on the ready-made answer. Start by to be introduced to the public. For this exercise, you can use writing concise, consumer-friendly definitions of the following either an upcoming Ford model you have researched in the terms: resolution, HDTV, 1080p, and HDMI. (On the automotive media or a fictitious car of your own imagination Crutchfield website, click on “Learn,”“TVs, Blu-ray & Gaming,” (make sure it’s something that could conceivably be introduced and then “Televisions” to learn more about these terms. by Ford).47 and are two other handy sources.)49
  9. 9. 158 Unit 3: Brief Business Messages Test Your Knowledge 1. What are three guidelines for asking a series of questions in a routine request? 2. Should you use the direct or indirect approach for most routine messages? Why? 3. What six pieces of information must be included in a letter of recommendation? 4. How can you avoid sounding insincere when writing a goodwill message? 5. What are six guidelines for writing condolence messages? Apply Your Knowledge 1. Why is it good practice to explain that replying to a request could benefit the reader? 2. Your company’s error cost an important business customer a new client; you know it, and your customer knows it. Do you apologize, or do you refer to the incident in a positive light without admitting any responsibility? Briefly explain. 3. You’ve been asked to write a letter of recommendation for an employee who worked for you some years ago. You recall that the employee did an admirable job, but you can’t remember any specific information at this point. Should you write the letter anyway? Explain. 4. Every time you send a direct-request memo to Ted Jackson, he delays or refuses to comply. You’re beginning to get impatient. Should you send Jackson an e-mail message to ask what’s wrong? Complain to your supervisor about Jackson’s uncooperative attitude? Arrange a face-to-face meeting with Jackson? Bring up the problem at the next staff meeting? Explain. 5. Ethical Choices You have a complaint against one of your suppliers, but you have no documentation to back it up. Should you request an adjustment anyway? Why or why not? Practice Your Knowledge Exercises for Perfecting Your Writing Revising Messages: Direct Approach Revise the following short e-mail messages so that they are more direct and concise; develop a subject line for each revised message. 1. I’m contacting you about your recent order for a High Country backpack. You didn’t tell us which backpack you wanted, and you know we make a lot of different ones. We have the canvas models with the plastic frames and vinyl trim, and we have
  10. 10. 136 Unit 3: Brief Business Messages Expand Your Knowledge Exploring the Best of the Web Surfing Your Way to Career Success Ready to Start Blogging? Blogging is easy to do if you have Bovée and Thill’s Business Communication Headline News the right information. Start with the helpful tutorials at offers links to hundreds of online resources that can help More than 30 you with this course, your other college courses, and your brief articles cover everything from creating a blog to career. Visit and attracting more readers to setting up RSS newsfeeds. Learn click on “Web Directory.” The Letters, Memos, E-Mail, the techniques for adding audio and photo files to your blog. Instant Messages, Blogs, and Web Content section connects Review how search engines treat blogs and how you can use you to a variety of websites and articles on routine, positive, search engines to help more people find your blog. Then and negative messages; persuasive messages; letters and answer the following questions. memos; e-mail; IM; blogging; and web writing. Identify three websites from this section that could be useful in your Exercises business career. For each site, write a two-sentence summary 1. What are five ways to attract more readers to your blog? of what the site offers and how it could help you launch and 2. Why are blogs good for marketing? build your career. 3. What is a newsfeed, and why is it a vital part of blogging? Use to test your understanding of the concepts presented in this chapter and explore additional materi- als that will bring the ideas to life in video, activities, and an online multimedia e-book. Additionally, you can improve your skill with prepositions, conjunctions, and articles by using the “Peak Performance Grammar and Mechanics” module within the lab. Take the Pretest to determine whether you have any weak areas. Then review those areas in the Refresher Course. Take the Follow-Up Test to check your grasp of prepositions, conjunctions, and articles. For an extra challenge, take the Advanced Test. Finally, for even more reinforcement, go to the “Improve Your Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage” section that follows the cases, and complete the “Level 1: Self-Assessment” exercises. CASES Apply the three-step writing process to the following cases, as assigned by your instructor. [[BLOGGING BLOGGING SKILLS SKILLS [ E-MAIL SKILLS 1. Come on to Comic-Con: Explaining the Benefits of Attending 2. Keeping the Fans Happy: Analyzing Advertising on Comic-Con International is an annual convention that high- ESPN leads the pack both online and off. Its well-known cable lights a wide variety of pop culture and entertainment media, television sports channels are staple fare for sports enthusiasts, from comic books and collectibles to video games and movies. and ( is the leader in sports From its early start as a comic book convention that attracted websites. Advertisers flock to because it delivers mil- several hundred fans and publishing industry insiders, Comic- lions of visitors in the prime 18- to 34-year-old demographic Con has become a major international event, with more than group. With a continually refreshed offering of sporting news, 120,000 attendees. columnists, video replays, and fantasy leagues (online competi- tions in which participants choose players for their teams, and Your task Several readers of your pop culture blog have been the outcome is based on how well the real players do in actual asking for your recommendation about visiting Comic-Con in live competition), has become one of the major San Diego next summer. Write a two- or three-paragraph post- advertising venues on the web. ing for your blog that explains what Comic-Con is and what As an up-and-coming web producer for, you’re visitors can expect to experience at the convention. Be sure to concerned about the rumblings of discontent you’ve heard address your posting to fans, not industry insiders. You can from friends and read in various blogs and other sources. learn more at remains popular with millions of sports fans, but
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  12. 12. 1 Read messages from the authors and access over 175 media items available only to instructors. (Students have access to their own messages, assignments, and media items.) 2 Click on any chapter to see the updates and media items for that chapter. 4 Subscribe via RSS to individual chapters to get updates automatically for the chapter you’re currently teaching. 3 Scan headlines and click on any item of interest to read the article or download the media item. Every item is personally selected by the authors to complement the text and support in-class activities. 5 Media items are categorized by type so you can quickly find podcasts, videos, PowerPoints, and more.