Business Communication Chapter 12


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Business Communication Chapter 12

  1. 1. Business Communication Chapter 12 Designing and Delivering Business Presentations
  2. 2. Planning a Presentation <ul><li>Goal: To be organized, clear, confident and persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Your Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>If your presentation were a Broadway musical, what tune would you want the audience whistling at the end of the performance? </li></ul><ul><li>This primary message should be the first and last thought in your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a compact, clear and memorable phrase that expresses it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Planning a Presentation <ul><li>Know Your Audience </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are they (age, gender, culture, etc.)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are they (occupations, levels, job titles)? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they there? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they expect? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they need or want? </li></ul><ul><li>What will they find interesting, useful and credible? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the three business foundation questions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Planning a Presentation <ul><li>Know Your Context </li></ul><ul><li>What is the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it call for? </li></ul><ul><li>Length and topic specified? </li></ul><ul><li>Who else speaks? About what? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does my presentation fit in? What time of day? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Q. and A. expected? Panel or individual? If so, anticipate questions and prepare answers. </li></ul><ul><li>Written, hand-out version required or can you speak from power point notes? </li></ul><ul><li>Podium or lapel mike? What other equipment is available? </li></ul><ul><li>Will news media attend? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organizing the Content <ul><li>Tell them what you’re going to tell them. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them what you told them. </li></ul><ul><li>S, S and I, S </li></ul><ul><li>State, Support and Inform, Summarize </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organizing the Content <ul><li>Primary point </li></ul><ul><li>2. Supporting point </li></ul><ul><li> A. Sub-point </li></ul><ul><li> B. Sub-point </li></ul><ul><li>3. Supporting point </li></ul><ul><li> A. Sub-point </li></ul><ul><li> B. Sub-point </li></ul><ul><li>II. Summary </li></ul>
  7. 7. Writing Process <ul><li>Research. </li></ul><ul><li>Pause, ponder, analyze. </li></ul><ul><li>Select your position/primary message. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Burst” write to get down the position and the support you have gathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Read what you have written and ask, “What am I trying to say?” </li></ul><ul><li>Then pretend you are verbally explaining the subject to a friend; write a lead sentence (no more than 30 words) summarizing what you say to the imaginary friend. This is the “tune.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing Process <ul><li>Select supporting points, write a short sentence explaining each and organize them under the lead sentence in descending order of importance. Or outline. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a final statement summarizing your entire argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect all pieces with smooth transitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite, polish and condense – removing extra words. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the then-then-then logic chain. Is it persuasive? Does the conclusion stand up? </li></ul><ul><li>Proof-read for syntax, grammar, spelling and punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>You should rewrite at least three times! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Goal: to seize audience attention, generating involvement and rapport </li></ul><ul><li>A shocking statement or startling statistic </li></ul><ul><li>A quotation from a well-known person </li></ul><ul><li>An open-ended question that will generate thought or discussion </li></ul><ul><li>An appropriate joke or anecdote that can be tied into the subject </li></ul><ul><li>A dramatic demonstration (“King Kong in a tux”) </li></ul><ul><li>A compliment to the audience, a reference to the occasion of the presentation or something happening in the community where the presentation is given – Linkage! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>Present your purpose and preview points to be developed in the order in which you will address them. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a long complex presentation, list them in order on a slide. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the visual equivalent of a heading in a written presentation; a signpost telling the audience what to expect. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Body <ul><li>Use no more than 5 major (first-level) points in a 30-minute presentation. People cannot easily absorb more. </li></ul><ul><li>Use conversational style, short sentences and simple words. Unlike the eye, the ear has only one chance to absorb meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t over-use statistics; round them off – 63% or nearly two-thirds, not 62.7%. </li></ul><ul><li>Use humor only if it ties easily into the subject. Humor doesn’t cross national borders easily. Self-deprecating humor works well. </li></ul><ul><li>People like stories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Close <ul><li>Signal that the closing is coming. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it a memorable summary of your primary message (remember the “tune”). </li></ul><ul><li>Tie it to the opening by, for example, answering the rhetorical question you asked to start your presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice so that you can deliver it smoothly while maintaining eye contact with the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Raise your voice to make it clear, emphatic and sincere. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t say “thank you.” If you give an effective presentation, they will thank you with applause. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Designing Compelling Visuals <ul><li>Visuals reinforce your message by engaging the audience’s eyes as well as ears. Research has shown that visuals: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase retention by as much as 38 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce time required to present concepts by clarifying and emphasizing vital points </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consensus in a meeting by as much as 20 percent. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effective Visuals <ul><li>The goal is to clarify so keep visuals simple. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the number; rule of thumb -- each visual uses one minute of presentation time. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Word should match Mr. Picture. Don’t show one thing and talk about another. </li></ul><ul><li>Include only important “core” ideas that can be visually digested </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effective Visuals <ul><li>Use short, bulleted lists. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid condensed speaking notes as a crutch to accompany a boring delivery (as I am doing right now); instead use powerful visual symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain your visuals are legal and ethical (don’t visually distort meaning). </li></ul><ul><li>Proofread them as you do text. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Effective Visuals <ul><li>Invite the eye with white space. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the 7X7 rule: no more than seven lines of text, each with no more than seven words (75% coverage or less). </li></ul><ul><li>Use borders, boxes and lines to capture and direct the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>As a rule, align text left. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effective Visuals <ul><li>Limit fonts to no more than three that can be read easily from a distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary font on a slide for emphasis. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Using Color <ul><li>Color conveys message and mood: blue, conservative and formal; yellow, informal; red, bold, loss or stop; green, calm and go; white, crisp and clean; black, profitable, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain background color doesn’t make words difficult to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Use color to highlight elements of a slide or a particular page in a handout. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Using Color <ul><li>About 10 percent of people are color-impaired, so don’t use red or green to highlight slides. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid confusing the eye, use no more than three different colors on a slide. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of context: for example, dark room use light text on a darker background (test it) </li></ul><ul><li>Use complementary colors for text and background to heighten contrast and legibility (example, yellow on dark blue). If it’s a large audience, these legibility “tricks’ become even more important. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Handouts <ul><li>A handout provides your take-away in written form and can provide a place to take notes (as I do with you by providing power point ahead of time) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Delivery <ul><li>Four methods: memorized, scripted, impromptu, extemporaneous </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Memorized: like a train on a narrow track – no flexibility; useful only for emphasizing short sections of a speech </li></ul><ul><li>Scripted: useful when accuracy is vital; disrupts eye contact unless script is carefully prepared and presented </li></ul>
  22. 22. Preparing a Script <ul><li>Use heavy, easy-to-turn stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Double space. </li></ul><ul><li>Use at least 20-point type. </li></ul><ul><li>Use no more than 2/3 of page in order to keep the speaker’s head up and foster good eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Never carry a sentence or a paragraph over a page break. </li></ul><ul><li>Underline and/or boldface key words. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Presentation Styles <ul><li>Impromptu: unprepared and frightening at first, but experience improves you (think of meetings) </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous: prepared but using power point or notes and wandering around the stage wearing a lapel mike. Can be the most credible and persuasive format if you know your material well. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Using Your Voice Properly <ul><li>Phonation, Articulation, Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Phonation masters : Martin Luther King, James Earl Jones, Barack Obama (minister, actor, politician – all depending on their voice) </li></ul><ul><li>> Pitch: mid-to-low is best; low perceived as authoritative; variation necessary </li></ul><ul><li>> Volume: make sure you’re audible to the back row; vary it to keep their attention </li></ul><ul><li>> Rate: vary it, but – in general – breathe deeply, relax and slow down </li></ul>
  25. 25. Emphasis Changes Meaning <ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul><ul><li>I am happy you are here. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Using Your Voice Properly <ul><li>Articulation (not dialect): produces clear, smooth, pleasant speech: kind of (kinda); working (workin’); going to (gonna); this (dis) </li></ul><ul><li>> Work to develop American Broadcast English </li></ul><ul><li>> Speaking is like singing: stand up with shoulders back; support with your diaphragm; breathe well; enunciate </li></ul>
  27. 27. Using Your Voice Properly <ul><li>Pronunciation: incorrect pronunciation can distract and detract from your message; if in doubt, use the dictionary to check the word out. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Presenting <ul><li>Prepare thoroughly to control anxiety; if you believe your message, your audience will feel as well as hear your words. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop tools (visuals, handouts, etc.) and always have a back-up plan in case of technical difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice to familiarize yourself with the material, but don’t rehearse all the feeling out of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Record it and listen to yourself. Do your ears catch the key phrases? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Presenting <ul><li>Work hard on the opening and the closing so you can maximize eye contact at these important points. </li></ul><ul><li>Body left (of the audience) and eyes front; check the slide, make eye contact and deliver the point. </li></ul><ul><li>Move your contact around (serial conversations with individual audience members). </li></ul><ul><li>If your hands are shaking, use a podium. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presenting <ul><li>Don’t bob and weave – it’s distracting. </li></ul><ul><li>Dress professionally. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive in time to check it out. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt alert, athletic posture. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate confidence and enthusiasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Use natural gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch audience for feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to time limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Always seek feedback so you can improve. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Crossing Ethnic/Cultural Barriers <ul><li>Speak Simply. </li></ul><ul><li>Know and avoid “red flag” words/phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to enunciation and articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful of humor and jokes! </li></ul><ul><li>What are the culture’s body-language norms? National protocol? </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient and walk in their shoes. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Team Presentations <ul><li>Team presentations require even more preparation, coordination and practice than individual presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on a purpose and timetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick an organized, disciplined team leader willing to act as referee in dividing up the turf. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a standard, cohesive design for all parts of the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Make transitions from member to member both verbally and physically smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Field Q. and A. as a team. </li></ul>