BA 4323 Business Data Communications
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BA 4323 Business Data Communications

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BA 4323 Business Data Communications BA 4323 Business Data Communications Presentation Transcript

  • Administrative Details ¡ Instructor: Dr. Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 ¡ Office: JO 4.638 ¡ Email: Use WebCT Business Data Communications ¡ Home page: http://www.utdallas.edu/~radham ¡ Office Hours: Tue, Thurs 9:00 – 10:30 BA 4323 Radha Mookerjee Fall 2002 BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Administrative Details Administrative Details ¡ TA: Hulisi Ogut ¡ All assignments will be submitted using WebCT ¡ Phone: 972-883-6455 ¡ All communication will take place through ¡ Office: JO 3.210 WebCT ¡ Email: hxo012000@utdallas.edu ¡ Assignment 0, due September 3 rd, will help ¡ Office Hours: Thurs 12:30 – 1:30 you familiarize yourself with using WebCT and make sure that you can access your course material without any trouble. ¡ Check for changes at least twice a week BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Objectives Why Study Data Communications ¡ Brief History of Telecommunications An organization needs cooperation ¡ Data Communications Networks ¡ l Components of a Network l Inter-personal l Types of Networks l inter-departmental ¡ Network Models l inter-organizational l OSI Model l Internet Model • Network Standards • Benefits and Impact of Telecommunications BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Why Study Data Communications Why Study Data Communications ¡ Cooperation needs exchange of information ¡ Move from the Industrial Age to the Information Age l Information is an important Data Communications has global organizational resource implications l Information sharing l Information must be timely and accurate BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • A Brief History of Telecommunications in the U.S. ¡ First working telegraph system – 1837 Brief History of ¡ Patent of printing telegraph – 1843 Telecommunications in the US ¡ First telephone – 1876 BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee A Brief History of A Brief History of Telecommunications in the U.S. Telecommunications in the U.S. ¡ 1947 – First commercial microwave ¡ First private manual telephone link for telephone transmission switchboard – 1879 established ¡ First pay phone – 1880 ¡ 1951 - first direct long distance dialing ¡ First transcontinental telephone service & first transatlantic voice ¡ 1962 - first international satellite connections – 1915 telephone call BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • A Brief History of A Brief History of Telecommunications in the U.S. Telecommunications in the U.S. ¡ 1970 - MCI permitted to provide limited ¡ 1990s - cellular telephones long distance service in competition to commonplace AT&T. ¡ 1996 - U.S. Congress enacted the ¡ 1984 - deregulation of AT&T Telecommunications Act of 1996 ¡ 1980s – radio telephone calls supplanted ¡ 1997 - International agreement by cellular telephone networks signed by 68 countries to reduce regulation in TC markets BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee A Brief History of A Brief History of Telecommunications in the U.S Telecommunications in the U.S ¡ The Internet has been a ¡ Today, there are more than 5000 different story. Virtually all Internet Service Providers (ISPs) RBOCs, LECs, and IXCs, have who provide dial-in access to the aggressively entered the Internet to millions of small Internet market. business and home users. BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Data Communications Networks ¡ Data Communications l Movement of encoded information from one device to another ¡ Data Communications networks Data Communications Networks l Collection of devices connected together to enable the movement of information using electrical or optical impulses ¡ Telecommunications l Includes the transmission of voice and video as well as data BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Components of a Computer Components of a Computer Network Network ¡ Computers ¡ Communication devices l Server (host computer), client l Routers, bridges, modems l These are the devices between which ¡ Devices that perform special functions to the information is exchanged facilitate the operations of a computer network ¡ Protocols ¡ Communication circuits l A set of rules that describe how to transmit l Fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable data across a network l The pathway through which the ¡ e.g. TCP/IP information travels BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Types of Communications Networking Issues Networks ¡ Connectivity Commonly classified based on l Reliability geographical scope Availability ¡ Local Area Networks l l Alternate Routes l Span a single building or a cluster of ¡ Response Time buildings l Speed l Supports data rates of 10 to 100 million bits per second (mbps) l Distance l Connected by a common circuit l Congestion ¡ Security BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Types of Communications Types of Communications Networks Networks § Wide Area Networks ¡ Metropolitan Area Networks l Covers a large geographical area – l Connect LAN’s and BN’s located in 100’s to 1000’s of miles different areas to each other and l Crosses the boundaries of an WAN’s organization’s private property into l Span 3 – 30 miles public regions l May partly rely on circuits provided by l Support data rates of 100 to 1000 a common carrier Mbps l Supports data rates of 28.8 Kbps to 2 Gbps BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Types of Communications Networks Nested Network Structure § Backbone Networks MAN LAN l Span several miles LAN l Connect several LAN’s, other BN’s, MAN MAN’s and WAN’s together LAN l Provide data transmission speeds of LAN 100 to 1000 Mbps LAN MAN MAN MAN BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Example Network Models BA 4323 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Fall 2002
  • Network Model Network Model ¡ A logical description of the ¡ Two prominent network models functionality of a networked system l Open Systems Interconnection Model l Enables understanding and analysis of ¡ Developed in 1984 data communication networks ¡ Seven layer Model l Functionalities are modularized into layers l TCP/IP Model l Hardware and software can be ¡ Most widely used networking architecture independently developed for each layer ¡ Five layer Model l Plug -n-play BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Encapsulation: Concept behind Layered Models OSI Model Sender Receiver Sender Receiver Application Application Presentation Presentation Session Session Transport Transport Network Network Physical Physical Connection Data Link Connection Data Link Physical Physical BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • The OSI 7-layer Model Application: provides a set of utilities used by application TCP/IP Model programs Presentation: formats data for presentation to the user, Sender Receiver provides data interfaces, data compression and Application Application translation between different data formats (HTTP) (HTTP) Session : responsible for initiating, maintaining and terminating each logical session between sender and Transport Transport (TCP) receiver (TCP) Transport: deals with end- to-end issues such as Internet Internet segmenting the message for network transport, and (IP) (IP) maintaining the logical connections between sender and receiver Data Link Data Link Network: responsible for making routing decisions (Ethernet) (Ethernet) Physical Data Link: deals with message delineation, error control Connection and network medium access control Physical Physical Physical : defines how individual bits are formatted to be transmitted through the network BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee ¡ Transport Layer (Layer 4): ¡ Application layer (Layer 5) l Establishes end-to-end connection between sender and receiver. l Translates the destination of the The application software used by the message into an address network user, allows the user to understood by the network. define what messages are sent over l Breaks the data block into a the network. number of segments if necessary e.g. Email message, a file, a block of user input BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • ¡ Network layer (Layer 3): ¡ Data link layer (Layer 2) q Handles routing, prioritizing q Determines when to transmit and addressing issues. messages over the media q Formats the message by indicating where messages start and end q Detects and corrects any errors that have occurred in the transmission BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee ¡ Physical layer (Layer 1) Network Layers l The physical connection between ¡ Network layers can also be placed the sender and receiver. in three groups: l application layer l It transfers a series of electrical, ¡ includes the application layer, radio, or light signals through the l internetwork layer circuit from sender to receiver. ¡ includes the transport and network layers l hardware layer l It specifies the type of connection, ¡ includes the data link and physical layers and the signals that pass through it. BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Network Models Network Models For communications to be successful, each layer in one computer must be able to communicate with its matching layer in the other computer. This is accomplished by standards. BA 4323 Radha Mookerjee Fall 2002 BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Advantages of having Standards Network Standards ¡ Allows products from multiple vendors to communicate, providing consumers with wider selection ¡ Assures a large market, which encourages mass production and often lowers costs ¡ Makes it easier to develop software and hardware that link different networks because software and hardware can be developed one layer BA 4323 Radha Mookerjee at a time. Radha Mookerjee Fall 2002 BA 4323 Fall 2002
  • Networking Standards The Standards Making Process Three stages Two Types 1. Specification stage: developing a nomenclature and identifying the problems to ¡ Market Driven and Voluntary be addressed. l Called de -facto standards 2. Identification of choices stage: those working l Supported by vendors, but have no on the standard identify the various solutions official standing and choose the optimum solution from among the alternatives. • Formal Standards 3. Acceptance , the most difficult stage: defining the solution and getting recognized industry l Developed by official bodies or leaders to agree on a single, uniform solution government regulated BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Telecommunications Standards Telecommunications Standards Organizations Organizations International Telecommunications ¡ International Organization for Union - Telecommunication Standards (ISO) Standardization Sector (ITU-TSS) Member of the ITU, makes technical § Technical standard setting organization recommendations about data of the ITU. Formerly called the communications interfaces. Consultative Committee on International Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT) § Comprised of representatives of over 150 Postal Telephone and Telegraphs (PTTs), like AT&T, RBOCs , or common carriers. BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • TC Standards Organizations Some Common Standards American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ¡ Layer Common Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ¡ (IEEE) Standards 5. Application Layer HTTP, HTML (Web) ¡ Electronic Industries Association (EIA) MPEG, H.323 (audio/video) ¡ National Institute of Standards and Technology IMAP, POP (email) (NIST) 4. Transport Layer TCP (internet) SPX (Novel LANs) ¡ Electronic Data Interchange -(EDI) of Electronic 3. Network Layer IP (Internet) Data Interchange for Administration Commerce IPX (Novell LANs) and Transport (EDIFACT). 2. Data Link Layer Ethernet (LAN) PPP (dial-up via modems) 1. Physical Layer Category 5 cable (LAN) V.92 (56-Kbps modem) BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Benefits of Telecommunications Benefits and Impact of Telecommunications ¡ Anytime, Anywhere nature of business ¡ Geographical independence ¡ Reductions in response times ¡ Improvements in productivity ¡ Flattening of organizational structures ¡ Widespread and easy information dissemination BA 4323 Radha Mookerjee ¡ Product differentiation (initially) Fall 2002 BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee
  • Applications Applications ¡ New methods ¡ Crossing organizational barriers l Collaborative work: whiteboards, l Vertical integration newsgroups etc. ¡ Crossing organizational boundaries l Distribution of labor: telecommuting, l Airlines - customers (bypassing travel corporations sharing space etc. agents) ¡ Cost savings l Parcel companies (e.g.: UPS/FedEx - l Utilization of highly skilled employees: customers) ¡ Telemedicine ¡ Manpower reductions : l Savings in real estate costs l VR systems : Telephone companies, ¡ Telecommuting Appliance companies etc. BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee Applications Impact on Industry ¡ “Flat” communication channels ¡ Impact on Processes/Cost : l Impact of email (non-obtrusive l Shorter cycle times communications) l Lower real estate costs ¡ Re -distribution of production due to l Faster information dissemination globalization l Lower labor costs l Offshore software development l Labor intensive functions moved to lower cost ¡ Impact on Structure of Industry countries/sites (e.g.: Medical l New minimum capabilities e.g.: Banks - diagnosis transcription services in India) ATMs etc. i.e. Barriers to entry l Changes in corporate structure BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee BA 4323 Fall 2002 Radha Mookerjee