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  • Ontology: What happens; Epistemology: what do we know about it; Methodology: How do we know about it
  • Much like a theory of engineering or a theory of medicine.
  • Again much like a theory of medicine or a theory of engineering
  • Typically, doctoral programs are structured such that the student is exposed to a field survey that outlines the breadth of the specialization, a seminar dealing with current concerns and critical issues that provide probity and exposure to the depth of the field as it stands, and then a methodology seminar that familiarises the student to analytic and synthetic techniques, popular tools etc, then there is exposure to a cognate field that provides an optic to frame one’s scholarship (eg: economics, math, psychology, political science, industrial engineering etc) This leads to the dissertation where the student does focused work and solves a significant problem which paves the way to the ongoing dvelopment of scholarship and the matauration of the scholar.
  • B778lecture1.ppt

    1. 1. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>Instructor: Vishwanath V. Baba </li></ul><ul><li>(People call me Baba; feel free!) </li></ul><ul><li>DeGroote School of Business </li></ul><ul><li>McMaster University </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton, ON, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Phone (O):26947 </li></ul><ul><li>Office: MGD424 </li></ul><ul><li>Email:baba@mcmaster.ca </li></ul><ul><li>Webpage:www.business.mcmaster.ca/hrlr/profs/baba </li></ul>
    2. 2. What is management?
    3. 3. What is Management? <ul><li>Direct resources toward strat.objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Order deployment of resources to accomplish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Goal accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Work together, work hard toward goals </li></ul><ul><li>Planning. Coordination. Communicate to accomplish objectives </li></ul><ul><li>optimization </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is management? <ul><li>Guidance, leadership, decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul><ul><li>Foresee </li></ul><ul><li>Oversee, coordinate, goal achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate resources, bench marking </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving objectives, optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate man, machine, money, material </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction, networking </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, organizing, controlling </li></ul>
    5. 5. Now we need to put this all together so that it is coherent, makes sense, useful… How do we do that?
    6. 6. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>Let us begin at the beginning…Theory, I am told, is embedded in philosophy. So… </li></ul><ul><li>What is Philosophy of Management? </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophy of management, at its broadest, deals with the epistemology, the ontology, and the methodology of management. </li></ul>
    7. 7. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>What is Philosophy of Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology: Nature of organizational phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology: Nature of knowledge about the phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: Ways of knowing the phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Together, they contribute to the shaping of Management Theory </li></ul>
    10. 10. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>What is the objective of this seminar? </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate objective of this seminar is to work toward developing a grounded theory of management. Such groundedness comes from an understanding of the meanings of management a . in different cultural contexts, b . in different fields, c . in different sectors of the economy, d . in different systems of governance, and e . in different time periods. </li></ul>
    11. 11. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>What is the plan? </li></ul><ul><li>While this is eventually accomplished through a series of seminars focused on specific contexts, we begin here by focusing on the meaning of management in different fields that could arguably lead to the identification of the core concept of management and the operational differences that make it viable as a field of practice. </li></ul>
    12. 12. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>How do we do that? </li></ul><ul><li>Management as a discipline appears to house a multitude of paradigms, principles, and approaches. They vary depending upon whether management is viewed as a system, a set of functions, processes, pattern of activities, or simply a collection of techniques. In order to provide the discipline with a sense of cohesion, it is suggested that we examine the fundamental value or concept, which underlies management functions, processes, activities, and techniques. </li></ul>
    13. 13. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>And do what? </li></ul><ul><li>We will make an effort at developing a theory (in use) of management by attempting to document commonalties and differences among its functional variants and working toward an integrative theory of management. </li></ul>
    14. 14. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>How do we go about this? </li></ul><ul><li>We start exploring the meaning of management invoked in the writings of both scholars and practitioners and probe what it is that they consider as managerial in their thoughts and behavior, and why. </li></ul>
    15. 15. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>Where does it lead us? </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, I believe that a picture will emerge that will shed light on aspects of management that are shared across the spectrum by all managers as well as those aspects of management that are unique to the activity that is being managed. </li></ul>
    16. 16. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>Again, how do we do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Here what I have in mind is to explore the meaning of management in such activities as strategic management, marketing management, financial management, human resources management, knowledge and information management, production and operations management, managerial accounting to mention a few. In addition, I am interested in locating the meaning of management in context - that is to explore contextual attributions to the term &quot;management&quot; and its operationalization not only in different fields but also in different cultures. </li></ul>
    17. 17. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>And what do we get? </li></ul><ul><li>The immediate outcome is a framework that would help a scholar-in-training to understand the intellectual forces that shape management research regardless of its specific focus, say for example on human resources management or operations management or financial management or marketing management etc. </li></ul>
    18. 18. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>And why? </li></ul><ul><li>The typical PhD student gets a lot of depth in the field of choice. However, they do not often acquire a breadth of vision. This seminar attempts to provide that missing breadth, in essence, a wider managerial optic. </li></ul>
    19. 19. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>So? </li></ul><ul><li>The more enduring hope here is to develop a framework that would facilitate re-codification of knowledge currently available under the rubric of traditional management education, management training, and management development curricula and develop new knowledge guided by the &quot;new&quot; theory of management. Eventually, this effort will energize and motivate broad-based curriculum changes and contribute toward further professionalization of management. </li></ul>
    20. 20. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>How are we going to go about it? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>There are two parts to it: The context and the content. In the first part of this seminar you will be exposed to the epistemological and ontological underpinnings of management knowledge. We learn the vocabulary and the methodology of theory building. </li></ul>
    21. 21. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>How are we going to go about it? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In the second part you will be exposed to the different schools of management thought and learn the meaning of management as revealed in each school of thought. Toward the end, you will analyze the commonalities and differences in the meaning of management in each school of thought and work toward a developing a theory of management that is abstract, fundamental, and integrative. </li></ul>
    22. 22. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>How does this seminar fit in the pedagogical domain of your PhD program? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>This seminar is designed to complement more specialized and depth oriented field seminars that introduce you to the substantive and methodological literature in the areas of your choice leading to dissertation research. As a result, information discussed in this seminar can be applied toward a deeper understanding of the material in advanced seminars in the different fields of management. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    23. 23. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> What is the approach? </li></ul><ul><li>I would like you to focus your attention on the following issues as you go through the reading list in the second part of the seminar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. What is management according to the readings? Here concentrate on a definition of management based on the readings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. What are the elements of management? Here we are breaking the definition down starting the process of deconstruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. What are the underlying assumptions, which inform these readings? Assumptions about work, life, human nature etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    24. 24. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> What is the approach? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What are the cultural assumptions, historical antecedents, contextual factors that have influenced early management thought? Why should we know them? How do they shape management thought? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Now synthesize the readings and articulate a theory of management. Write it down on a sheet of paper and e-mail me on Monday before we meet on Thursday to discuss those readings. I do not expect it to be more than a page. </li></ul>
    25. 25. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> The more deeply you think and the more intensely you reflect, the more meaningful your contribution will be. Remember parsimony is a positive feature of a theory. And even more important, have fun with it...we all learn better when we are having fun! </li></ul>
    26. 26. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> How am going to be evaluated? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Preparation, Presentation, Participation (30%). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Book Review (20%). Due on November 16th </li></ul><ul><li>3. Each of you will select a field of interest. Using the same model that guides the class discussion and the one pager that serves as the basis for the discussion, you will research the notion of management and critique the theories of management that energize the selected field, and propose a theory of management that would shape that field in the future. The field can be human resources management, organizational behaviour, strategic management, operations management…any functional field. You are to submit a paper (about 25 pages) by the end of the seminar (50%). </li></ul><ul><li>4. The paper is due on December 22nd </li></ul>
    27. 27. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> What is expected in the book review? </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying assumptions/ideological position </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical framework </li></ul><ul><li>Model of inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Validity and generalizability </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value added </li></ul><ul><li>Level of embeddedness in functional fields </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to future research/practice </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for the future </li></ul>
    28. 28. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li> What is expected in the book review? </li></ul><ul><li>What did I learn from reading the book? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodologically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did it alter my assumptions about managerial life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are my existing assumptions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where does it lead me in terms of my understanding of management </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT THEORY I. General Tools of Inquiry: Paradigm, Theory II. Schools of Thought in Management III. Toward a Paradigm of Management IV. Implications for Research and Practice
    30. 30. General Tools of Inquiry: Paradigm, Theory <ul><li>Why inquire? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we inquire in Management? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a paradigm? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need a paradigm? </li></ul><ul><li>What is theory? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need a theory? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a model? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Schools of Thought in Management <ul><li>What is a school of thought? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the schools of thought in Management? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they shape management theory? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they shape practice? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Toward a Paradigm of Management <ul><li>What is management in the Early Management Thought? </li></ul><ul><li>What is management in the Human Resources School? </li></ul><ul><li>What is management in the Production and Operations school? </li></ul><ul><li>What is management in the Marketing School? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Toward a Paradigm of Management <ul><li>What is management in the Information School? </li></ul><ul><li>What is management in the Strategy School? </li></ul><ul><li>What is common to management in all of the Schools? </li></ul><ul><li>How central is it to a definition of management? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Toward a Paradigm of Management <ul><li>How can we motivate a paradigm from the definition? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we motivate a theory from the paradigm? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we generate models of management from the theory? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we influence and improve management practice? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Implications for Research and Practice <ul><li>In light of the new paradigm, theory, how do we motivate management research? </li></ul><ul><li>What topics? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we model managerial phenomena? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we capture interconnections? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we capture interactions? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO WE MANAGE? </li></ul>
    36. 36. Next week… <ul><li>Read all of the assigned readings </li></ul><ul><li>Write what you have learnt – I am not looking for a summary but want to see more of your take on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how is it useful? </li></ul><ul><li><2 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Come prepared to discuss it in class </li></ul>
    37. 37. Philosophy of Science Natural Sciences Humanities No Yes No No Intentional Explanation No ? Yes No Functional Explanation No ? Yes Yes Causal Explanation Aesthetic Fields (e.g. Arts) Social Science (e.g. Management) Organic Matter (e.g. Biology) Inorganic Matter (e.g. Physics)