APA Writing Guidelines
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  • 1. APA WRITING GUIDELINES www.vanguard.edu/psychology/ Click on APA
  • 2. General Guidelines
    • Margins
    • Font size and type
    • Spacing
    • Alignment
    • Paragraph indentation
    • Pagination
    • Manuscript page header
  • 3. General Guidelines
    • 1 inch all sides
    • 12-pt font
    • Times Roman or Courier
    • Double space
    • Flush left only
    • Indent 5-7 spaces
    • Page number 1 inch from right edge
    • First 2 or 3 words of title 5 spaces to left of page number
  • 4. Title Page
    • Pagination
    • Key elements
    • Article title
    • Author(s)
    • Institutional affiliation
    • Running head
  • 5. Title Page
    • Title page is page 1
    • Paper title, author and affiliation
    • Title - centered uppercase/lowercase
    • Author - Centered following title
    • Affiliation – centered following author
    • “ Running head” – flush left all uppercase
    • Line below page header
    • Less than 50 characters
  • 6. Abstract
    • Pagination
    • Heading
    • Format
  • 7. Abstract
    • Begins page 2
    • Abstract – centered, first line below header
    • Block format
    • Not exceed 120 words
    • All numbers typed as digits
  • 8. Body
    • Pagination
    • Title
    • Introduction
    • Headings
  • 9. Body
    • Body begins page 3
    • Title is centered on first line
    • Introduction is not labeled
    • Main headings –
    • - Centered
    • - Upper/lowercase
    • Subheadings – underlined
      • Flush left
      • Upper/lowercase
      • 2 nd subheading indented 5 spaces, underlined, Upper/lowercase followed by a period.
  • 10. Text Citations
    • Sources are part of the formal structure of the sentence
    • Sources are not part of the formal structure of the sentence
    • Source has two authors
    • Source has three, four or five authors
    • Source has six or more authors
  • 11. Ideas & Words of Others
    • Wirth and Mitchel (1994) found that although…
    • ..higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema & Jenkins, 1991).
    • Previous are ordered alphabetically by 1 st authors’ surname.
    • 3-5 authors – all included first time. Second time first author and et al. year.
    • 6 or more – “et al.” used every time cited.
  • 12. Quotations
    • Fewer than 40 words
    • Greater than 40 words
  • 13. Quotations
    • 40 words or less
      • Enclose in double quotation marks
      • Incorporate in sentence
      • … had ”less congestive heart failure…” (Byrd, 1988, p. 829).
    • Greater than 40 words
    • in block format
    • Each line indented 5 spaces from left margin
    • No quotation marks
  • 14. References
    • Pagination
    • Heading
    • Format
  • 15. References
    • Begins on a new page
    • References centered
    • Hanging indent
    • Alphabetical
    • Author(s) – use surnames and initials
    • Separate authors with comma
    • No author - title of document begins
    • Year (1991). - Period
  • 16. Examples
    • Journal article
      • Guess, K., & Pevoto, A. (2001). Management communication. Journal of Business , 12, 512-518
      • Book
      • Guess, A. K. (2001). Business communication (2 nd ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
      • Web Document – univ/dept. web site
      • Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials . Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc id=796
  • 17. Examples (Cont’d.)
    • Web document – no date
      • Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology. Retired August 3, 2001, from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr. htm
      • Journal article from database
      • Hien,D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at drug abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000 from ProQuest database.
      • Article/chapter in edited book
      • Shen, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and Mental Health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 18. Tables and Figures
    • Example of: http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/table.pdf
  • 19. Footnotes
    • Footnotes centered on a separate page.
    • Numbered the same as in the text.