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    • CALIFORNIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE Business Education and Computer Information Science Statewide Advisory Committee (BESAC) Evolution of the Administrative Office Professional in the United States Jane M. Thompson, Ed.D. Donna Anderson, CPS/CAP Solano Community College Purpose of the Paper This paper addresses the dynamic changes that have evolved and will continue to evolve in today’s highly technological offices. These changes will result in an expansive role for the office worker. Included in the paper is a recommendation to change the current name of the office support major to Administrative Office Management and change the name of the office support person to Administrative Office Professional*. Other recommendations suggest that new curriculum be developed to meet the demands of this major. Findings from current research will be reported that illustrate the expectations for these new office workers by managers. Also included will be educational requirements for today’s office workers in meeting the significantly expanded role they will serve. *Title was adapted from IAAP name, Administrative Professional. History of Office Personnel in the United States When one considers the role secretaries have played in the development of offices in the United States, it is clear it has been a pivotal one. They provided the support that businesses required for supplying all written communications. Shorthand and typewriting, as well as bookkeeping, were in continuous demand. There were no personal computers and no copying machines in most offices. Early on, secondary schools and colleges rallied around the need to prepare secretaries and created secretarial departments in the high schools and colleges that were designed to prepare students to work in a highly efficient, educated workplace. As the need increased, private business schools began to appear in most communities. Teacher training institutions in universities created secretarial departments that specialized in educating teachers to prepare students to work in the offices of the 50’s, 60’s, and 70’s. These early offices relied on secretaries who would take shorthand and transcribe notes without error, while often making multiple copies using carbon paper. These secretaries 1
    • normally possessed excellent English and math skills. According to one person who worked in offices in the 50’s, “There was greater need at that time for secretaries, receptionists, and support work than now. There were typing pools in big offices, composed primarily of women who typed letters, contracts—things that computers generate now” (Frances M. Savarese, personal communication, April 18, 2005). People were told what they needed to do and how to do it. There was little opportunity for creativity or innovation. With the advent of memory typewriters and later word processing machines in the early 1970’s, the workplace began to change. Offices used tape and magnetic card typewriters; but, by the 1980’s, secretaries began using computers. As computers became more and more powerful and the software more user friendly in the 1990’s, both managers and administrative assistants began using them. By 2000, most of the administrative assistants and managers were utilizing computers extensively. Because of the many options offered by computers, such as computer programming and networking, students found other areas of interest in the technology area, and enrollments in secretarial departments started to decline. Changing the name from Secretarial to Office Technology Department and the position from Secretary to Administrative Assistant did not seem to increase the popularity of these programs; enrollments have continued to decrease in many colleges. Emergence of Administrative Professionals As the use of technology continues to expand in offices in the United States and the world, the role of the Administrative Professional continues to change significantly. Office automation and organizational restructuring has resulted in secretaries and administrative assistants being responsible for tasks once reserved for managerial and professional staffs. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2005) reports that, while secretaries and administrative assistants now have a myriad of tasks to perform—from providing computer training and staff orientation—to conducting research on the Internet and troubleshooting new technologies, “their core responsibilities have remained much the same—performing and coordinating an office’s administrative activities, and storing, retrieving, and integrating information for dissemination to staff and clients”. The new Administrative Professional “will have to be increasingly self-directed and technically proficient, particularly those working from remote locations” (Office of the Future: 2020, p. 11). Further, this OfficeTeam publication asserts that creativity and innovative thinking will be the mode of operation at every level of the organization as companies develop new ways of doing business in order to gain a competitive edge in the global marketplace. Although the core responsibilities have remained the same, Administrative Professionals today are being asked to take on more and more management-type duties. At the same time, managers are handling their correspondence and computer input. Through organizations, such as the International Association of Administrative 2
    • Professionals (IAAP), a new worker has been identified in today’s offices—the Administrative Professional, who is capable of handling complex tasks and managing groups of individuals. According to a survey conducted in by IAAP, Administrative Professionals (February, 2005), the largest segment of the office workforce will play a very important role in offices of today and tomorrow. Studies by both the IAAP and OfficeTeam point to major changes that are taking place in today’s offices and that will continue to emerge in the offices of the future. Educational institutions (high schools, Regional Occupational Programs and Centers, community colleges, colleges, and universities) must align themselves with these new demands in order to ensure that the new Administrative Professionals are equipped to most effectively function in the workplace. The transformation that is taking place today is partly a result of the continuous introduction of highly sophisticated technology. The tools in today’s offices not only enhance office productivity but result in workers being able to direct projects that were once managed by the data processing center or outsourced to a company that specialized in technology and project management. Today, many of these projects can be accomplished in house, provided the office team possesses the skills needed to engage in such undertakings. A highly-educated, highly-skilled workforce is the key to success in today’s competitive environment. Office Skills Needed for Today’s Administrative Professionals What are the specific skills that are required of personnel in today’s offices? And, are these skills currently being taught in community colleges? To address this question, two surveys by IAAP and OfficeTeam, and other sources were examined to determine what tasks office workers need to be able to perform in today’s offices. In the February, 2005, study conducted by IAAP, 15,000 randomly selected members were asked to respond to a questionnaire in order “to gather data on job titles, key responsibilities, average salaries, job satisfaction, technology usage, training needs and other issues . . . “ (The 21st Century Administrative Professional, 2005). Listed below are the skills that were reported to be demanded of today’s Administrative Professionals: Skills in management functions and technology, including: • Project management • Integrated computer software applications • Organization and scheduling • Internet/intranet communications and research • Document preparation, storage, and retrieval, with emphasis on electronic recordkeeping • Customer services and public relations. (The 21st Century Administrative Professional, p. 1) 3
    • A second area addressed in the IAAP study related to the kind of tasks that office workers are being asked to perform. The findings indicate that office workers are handling a wider variety of tasks than ever, including the following: • Purchasing office equipment and supplies • Planning meetings and special events • Working closely with vendors and suppliers • Creating presentations (including giving them) • Interviewing, orienting and supervising other staff • Writing and editing documents • Scheduling events and facilities, coordinating direct mailings • Maintaining multiple schedules and calendars • Handling messages and correspondence (with voice mail, e-mail, and regular postal mail • Maintaining computer files, directories, and databases and more . . . (The 21st Century Administrative Professional, p. 1) The results reported above identify a number of major ways in which community colleges can and must add and modify current courses to prepare Administrative Office Professionals to handle the many new tasks they will be called upon to perform. Coupled with the above tasks that Administrative Professionals may/will encounter, the Education and Professional Department of IAAP lists advanced skills that will be needed, such as project manager, Web site maintainer, etc. (For a full listing of these skills and the bright future projected for Administrative Professionals, see Appendix A.) Other Skills Needed In addition to the above skills and tasks, employers are reporting job applicants lack soft skills. These skills are defined as “sought-after behaviors that employees demonstrate unconsciously and routinely on the job” (Integrating soft skills development in vocational courses, 2004). Examples include skills such as working on a team or exhibiting motivation and initiative. A study of soft skills needed on the job by the Marketing Team of the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee (2004) revealed that job descriptions are filled with soft skills including the following: • Good time management, ability to prioritize and meet deadlines; • The ability to take initiative, think logically, and demonstrate problem solving techniques; • Independent work and initiative, as well as the ability to work in a team environment; • Successful interaction with a variety of personalities; • Professional appearance and behavior showing enthusiasm/passion for the job. 4
    • Additional information regarding soft skills needed in today’s office that was gathered from a survey conducted by the BESAC Office Technology Team in 2004 can be found on the BESAC Web site at http://www.calbusinessed.org/besac/curr_group_e.html) As reported in January 2004 Keying In, the Newsletter of NBEA (National Business Education Association), “a person with developed soft skills is one who can communicate effectively, get along and work well with others, be a self-starter, and otherwise act, dress, and speak in a professional manner” (p. 1). The concern for lack of soft skills is so grave that the Lazaroff (2005) writes that a National program may be the solution. Citing numerous complaints from business owners regarding workers who don’t call in when they are ill or unwilling to accept supervision, the author reports that “they (business owners) say it’s a problem that threatens to cripple American productivity at home and competition abroad”, p. C5. In addition to the deficiency in soft skills, employers are also asking for improved English and math proficiencies. As the curriculum is revised for the Administrative Office Professional, these deficiencies will continue to be addressed. Job-Specific Skills Needed by Administrative Professionals The National Business Education Association (NBEA) has published standards covering Information Technology that include several content areas needed for Administrative Office Professionals. The first bulleted list below is drawn from Application Software, Input Technologies, Information Retrieval, and Database Management Systems. These achievement standards include: • Proper input techniques (e.g., keyboarding at acceptable speed and accuracy levels, scanning, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, and the use of a touch screen or mouse), including safety methods to avoid repetitive strain injury. • Enter and manipulate numeric data using the touch method on a 10-keypad; • Compose original documents using speech recognition and other input technologies; • Use a wide variety of information technology resources to retrieve information; • Enter data into and edit fields and records; sort and retrieve data from databases (National Standards for Business Education, p. 85). The second bulleted list is taken from Accounting, Communication, Computation, Economics, International Business, and Management. • Use spreadsheet or accounting software to prepare charts and graphs useful in analyzing the financial condition of the business; • Write coherent business messages, instructions, summaries, and reports using appropriate formats; • Proofread documents to ensure correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation; • Follow oral directions; record complete and accurate telephone messages; • Project a positive first impression over the telephone; • Demonstrate appropriate cellular phone etiquette; 5
    • • Practice courtesy and tact when dealing with others; display a positive attitude; • Apply team skills; demonstrate an appropriate work ethic in a business environment; • Use electronic messaging technologies (e.g., fax, voice mail, conference calls, pagers, chat rooms, bulletin boards, and e-mail to communicate); • Write a formal application message, resume, and follow-up message for a job opportunity; • Solve problems that involve whole numbers, decimals and fractions; • Understand the necessary analytical tools for addressing economic issues, both personal and societal; • Compose effective business communications for the global business environment based on an understanding of differences in tone, style, and format; • Apply the decision-making process to business applications; • Discuss the importance of vision, mission, and goal setting within the context of the business environment; • Explain the difference between leadership and management. (National Standards for Business Education, 2001). Finally, Business Departments/Business Divisions should integrate international business concepts into every course in order to prepare students to work in an increasingly global economy. Referring again to the NBEA National Standards, community colleges should focus on the following: • Raising awareness of the interrelatedness of one country’s political policies and economic practices on another • Learning to improve international business relations through appropriate communication strategies • Understanding the global business environment—that is, the interconnectedness of cultural, political, legal, economic, and ethical systems • Exploring basic concepts underlying international finance, management, marketing, and trade relations • Identifying forms of business ownership and international business opportunities. (National Standards for Business Education, 2001, p. 94). California Community College Administrative Office Management Major Considering the massive changes that are taking place in the administrative office management area, the question that must be addressed is, “To what extent are community colleges preparing office workers for the skills needed in today’s and tomorrow’s workplace?” Compelling evidence from surveys conducted by IAAP and OfficeTeam suggests that dramatically new skills must to be added to the curriculum. In some cases, content can be added to existing courses (perhaps with a different name); but entirely new courses must be written to ensure that graduates possess the skills needed to function effectively in today’s offices. A preliminary survey currently being conducted of California Community College Office Technology and/or Business 6
    • Departments reveals, of 10 colleges surveyed, none appears to be teaching courses in which many of the identified skills indicated above are being taught. According to Office of the Future: 2020 (pp. 9-10), new job titles will include: Resource Coordinator, Workflow Controller, Knowledge Manager, Information Integrator/ Abstractor, Telecommuting Liaison, Virtual-Meetings Organizer, Administrative Services Director, Client/Customer Service Liaison, Electronic Service, Liaison, Electronic Security Specialist (ESS), Compliance Assistant. (For a description of some of the roles, see Appendix B.) Location of Administrative Office Management Discipline The question arises, where should the new Administrative Office Professional be located in the California Community College system and in what discipline? When one considers the vastly changed major with its many new requirements, it is clear that the most appropriate discipline area in the California Community College system’s Taxonomy of Programs (TOPCODES) is still 05—Business and Management. However, it is strongly recommended that the name, Office Technology, be changed to Administrative Office Management to more accurately reflect the responsibilities noted above that are requisite to this position. It is further suggested that the title of the individual be changed from administrative assistant to the name similar to the one suggested by the IAAP, Administrative (Office) Professional. A possible change to the California Community College TOPCODES might be as indicated below, although further investigation of this suggestion should be made to determine a new listing altogether. From: 05 – Business & Management (Office Administration, Legal, Medical, Court Reporting) 0514 – Secretary/Administrative Assistant •0514.10 – Legal •0514.20 – Medical •0514.30 – Court Reporting To: 05 – Business & Management (Administrative Office Management, Legal, Medical, Court Reporting) 0514 – Administrative Office Professional •0514.10 – Legal •0514.20 – Medical •0514.30 – Court Reporting •0514.40 – Virtual Entrepreneurship Career Ladders for Administrative Office Professionals 7
    • One important requirement of all majors at California Community Colleges is that they be part of a career ladder that offers opportunities beyond an entry-level position. The Career Ladders concept that was established by the California Community College Board of Governors states: “The ultimate goals of this project are to enhance workforce and economic development in California by increasing the supply of skilled workers, and to establish a system of career ladders throughout the state that will provide an opportunity for all citizens, and particularly for low-income individuals, to attain jobs that provide a living wage and the opportunity to advance to positions requiring greater skills, greater responsibilities and, accordingly, higher pay” (Workforce Development Initiative Update, p. 1). The Career ladders were not conceived as a training program but as a way for organizing and delivering career education on a lifelong basis. The concept is based the idea that training and work opportunities are open to individuals at all levels of skills and readiness. In order to be most successful, it was determined that the Administrative Office Management major should include a Career Pathways/Career Ladders focus. This means that preparation for the major could begin as a Career Pathway at the middle school level, advance to the high school and/or ROP/C levels, and culminate with the Administrative Office Management major focusing on the Career Ladders concept at the community college level. Work has already begun on a Career Pathways/Career Ladder model for Administrative Office Professionals. As noted above, it will begin with Middle School, flow to High School, and then to the Community College. This model can be used for other business/computer science programs throughout the state, but it can also serve as a model for other Career Technical programs. Jeff Aronsky, a middle school teacher and member of the BESAC Administrative Office Management Committee, volunteered to develop the Career Pathway/Career Ladder for business education as part of the grant. As can be seen in Appendix D, Jeff Aronsky and Ann Kerman, Career Alliance Director of the Wm. S. Hart Union High School District, have created a draft version of the paper for their District. Additional input will be sought during the next several months, resulting in a model for Career Technical education for all colleges. Curriculum Development It is anticipated that the following components will be developed for the Administrative Office Management major as a result of this project: 1. A.S. or A.A. Degree in Administrative Office Management, including a listing of all courses (A.A. or A.S. designation depends requirements at individual college) 2. Administrative Office Professional Certificate Model listing all courses in the major 3. Fully developed course proposals for each course that may be modified to meet the requirements of individual colleges Other outcomes will include: 1. Development of a Career Pathway model in the office technology area that may be replicated throughout the state 8
    • 2. Development of a Career Ladder model that will include numerous options for concentrations in Administrative Office Management, such as: • General Office • Legal Office • Medical Office • Court Reporting 3. Entrepreneurship Options • Virtual Office • Virtual Accounting • Virtual Marketing Outsourcing/Virtual Administrative Office Professionals In the last several years, outsourcing has become a reality in many companies in the United States. While some are concerned with outsourcing as taking jobs from workers in this country, there are others who see opportunities. Jet Blue Airlines outsources to virtual office workers in this country. It follows, therefore, that Administrative Office Professionals can now become entrepreneurs through being involved in outsourcing by creating a Virtual Administrative Office Professional business. It is clear they would have a competitive edge over individuals from most other countries. According to the International Association of Virtual Office Assistants (IAVOA), virtual office workers are currently working as executive assistants, secretaries, data-entry personnel, clerks, tax advisors, accountants, legal and medical transcribers, Web designers, and handle a variety of different tasks. Services include information processing, Internet research, bill-paying services, mail and e-mail services, event planning as well as providing assistance in making travel arrangements. These virtual workers have previously worked as secretaries, clerks, executive assistants, etc. Professional Associations for Administrative Office Professionals In addition to a fully developed curriculum, one important way for students to keep up with technology and the demands of today’s workplace is to join professional organizations. These groups monitor changes and make recommendations for Administrative Office Professionals on an ongoing basis. The resources provided by associations for Administrative Office Professionals help offer members the lifelong learning needed to keep abreast of technology and the global marketplace. (See Appendix C for a listing of these organizations and other resources.) 9
    • Summary and Conclusions It is clear from the literature and research findings that major changes are taking place in offices today that require all colleges to carefully review their curriculum offerings in the office technology area to ensure that courses currently being offered are relevant in preparing an office worker to succeed in today’s highly sophisticated global marketplace. Courses that do not include the skills identified in studies cited in this paper should be modified or replaced with those that are relevant in preparing office workers to function effectively. There is a tremendous opportunity for California Community Colleges to revamp their existing office technology programs and create a new Administrative Office Management major. To this end, the following recommendations are made for Business Departments/Divisions in community colleges: 1. Review the office technology curriculum offerings and revitalize the majors to include the skills needed by today’s Administrative Office Professionals. This will involve developing new courses or modifying existing courses. 2. Work with middle schools, high schools, and ROP/Cs in implementing a career pathway that feeds into the community college career ladder Administrative Office Professional major. In conclusion, the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee is committed in this next year’s grant to address Administrative Office Management. To become a part of the BESAC Administrative Office Management Committee, please contact Jane Thompson at jmthompsn@aol.com 10
    • References 2005 Profile of administrative professionals: Results from IAAP 2005 benchmarking survey. Retrieved May 6, 2005, from http://www.iaap-hq.org/apw/ 2005_IAAP_profite_of_administrative_professionals_survey_…htm Keying In: The Newsletter of the National Business Education Association, Volume 14, Number 3, January 2004. Reston, VA: National Business Education Association. Integrating soft skills development in vocational courses (2004). Marketing Curriculum Team, Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee (BESAC). Retrieved June 15, 2005 from http://www.calbusinessed.org/besac/Group-D/D- Deliverables/BESAC-SoftSkills.doc Lazaroff, L. (2005, May 23). Employers seek ‘soft skill’ credentials, San Diego Union Tribune, p. C5. National standards for business education: What America’s students should know and be able to do in business. (2001). Reston, VA: National Business Education Association. Office of the future: 2020. OfficeTeam (2005, Spring). Robert Half International, Inc. The 21st century administrative professional. Retrieved May 6, 2005, from http://www.iaap-hq.org/ResearchTrends/21centuryadmin.htm United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2004, March 24). Secretaries and administrative assistants. Retrieved May 21, 2005, from http://www.bls.gov/#content National Standards for Business Education: What America's Students Should Know and Be Able To Do in Business, 2001. Reston, VA: National Business Education Association. Workforce development initiative update (2002). Board of Governors, California Community Colleges. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from http://www.cccco.edu/ executive/bog /agendas/attachments_1102/08-4-WorforceDevInitiative.doc 11
    • APPENDIX A Advanced Skills Admins Need to Excel in Today’s Workplace It’s no secret that admins are taking on new roles in today’s office. Here are some of the skills needed to excel in the workplace today, according to the Education & Professional Development Department of the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP). • Project manager • Software trainer (especially for execs and new hires) • Software adaptor (adapting software to particular company needs • Web site maintainer (updater) • Negotiator (with clients and vendors) • Online purchaser • Reviewer/evaluator of furniture and technology equipment (includes phone systems, copiers, and more—purchasing and leasing) • Coordinator of mass mailings (includes dealing with the printer and determining the most cost-efficient method) • Storing and retrieval of information, along with interconnecting its significance (could be e-info, tapes, videos, paper, etc.—multi-formats) • Scheduler and maintainer of calendars for self and others (mostly done electronically; also includes scheduling facilities) • Meeting planner (includes negotiating hotel contracts, scheduling catering, preparing for cyber- and video-conferencing) • Travel planner (includes online research, booking, tracking, preparing the traveler, securing needed info such as maps, phone numbers, alternatives, emergency numbers) • Desktop publisher (brochures, flyers, annual reports, and other things that are sent directly and electronically to the printer, Web design and postings) • Team leader dealing with virtual members (from other facilities, traveling execs, or with outside business partners) What new positions will open for secretaries/administrative professionals in the future? • Telecommuting (by administrative assistants and managers) • Home-based administrative services businesses • Training for administrative support staff (on-site and through local colleges) • Information management on the Internet (becoming a "Web Master") • Personal computer troubleshooter • Creating customized software manuals for organizations, particular to department and/or industry needs • Secretarial/clerical recruiter for temporary/permanent placement agencies • Newsletter editor (compile and summarize information on particular areas of interest) • Multimedia librarian/coordinator/information abstractor 12
    • • Video and/or Web conferencing coordinator (scheduling, site preparation, equipment procurement, host conferencing, on-site at business or off-site) • Technology coordinator/facilities management (maintenance scheduling, tracking/backing up databases, installing new hardware/software • Graphics/desktop publishing coordinator • Support services consultant (Advanced Skills Need to Excel in Today’s Workplace, p. 1) Administrative Career Offers Bright Future Source: International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP). Now is a good time to become an administrative assistant, executive secretary, information coordinator or other type of administrative professional. Technology and corporate restructuring have created jobs that are more rewarding and more skilled than ever before. Salaries. Average salaries in the United States for mid-to upper-level administrative staff range from $30,000 to $45,000 and up, according to the 2005 OfficeTeam Salary Guide and IAAP member surveys. Employers are paying more for specialty skills such as desktop publishing and database management. Career Paths. Companies are creating a multitude of career paths for persons in administrative professions. Administrative assistants have moved into training, supervision, desktop publishing, information management and research. They are involved with equipment purchase and maintenance, customer service, project management and supervision of outside vendors. Changing Roles. The number-one skill sought by employers when hiring administrative professionals is computer expertise. Administrative assistants should master word processing, spreadsheet, database, graphics and desktop publishing. With more managers keying their own correspondence and more files being stored electronically, the nature of secretarial work is changing drastically. Managers are doing more clerical work; administrative assistants and secretaries are doing more professional work. Job Satisfaction. Most administrative professionals want to remain in their field and advance into higher support positions or become office managers. They say they are finally receiving recognition for what they do. They are becoming members of the management team. The Future of the Profession. With businesses operating in a global economy, administrative professionals will have opportunities to interact via e-mail, audio- and video-conferencing, and even face-to-face with customers and associates from around the world. The winners will be those professionals who master technology, effectively use their interpersonal and communication skills, who have the ability to track and organize and be creative in solving problems, and most importantly, who have the willingness to learn and grow, and accept challenges. For these administrative professionals, there is a world of opportunity waiting for them! 13
    • APPENDIX B New Administrative Roles Given the multifaceted roles administrative professionals will play in the next decade, the current designation, "administrative assistant," may not be sufficient to convey the scope and depth of their skills and expertise. As a result, new titles that reflect greater specialization will emerge. By 2020, administrative personnel will likely fulfill many of the functions identified below: f Resource Coordinator — Virtual offices that employ numerous contract workers will rely heavily on individuals adept at bringing together the right human resources for a given project — much like movie producers assembling a cast, camera crew and production team. p Workflow Controller — This individual will serve as "mission control" for an organization. Whereas the resource coordinator will assemble project teams, the workflow controller will ensure these professionals have the support and resources required to do their jobs. This position also will facilitate interaction among teams and coordinate the transfer and use of company resources such as computers, communications equipment and other technological tools. In smaller organizations, the same person may perform workflow control and resource coordination. s Knowledge Manager — In the more fluid and project–based office of the future, this central figure will serve as a repository of institutional information, history and best practices. The knowledge manager will ensure continuity and consistency, and help new employees and project professionals adapt to the organization's culture. In addition, the knowledge manager will perform a function similar to that of a librarian, assisting people in locating the documents or data necessary to perform their jobs. a Telecommuting Liaison — As the number of off–site workers increases, companies will designate a telecommuter liaison to connect remote workers with each other and management. In some instances, individuals in this position will work with senior management to develop telecommuting policies, including helping to determine which positions are suited for off–site work. Day–to–day responsibilities will include managing telecommuting schedules and providing technical support and updates to telecommuters regarding changes in operational procedures and company policies. t Virtual–Meetings Organizer — This person will help employees schedule conferences and set up the necessary equipment. The virtual–meetings organizer will be technically proficient and trained in the use of cameras, projection systems, electronic whiteboards, meeting software, audio equipment and related tools. (Office of the Future: 2020, pp. 9-10). 14
    • APPENDIX C Professional Organizations/Information for Administrative Office Professionals General Office Administration: IAAP, International Association of Administrative Professionals 10502 NW Ambassador Drive, P. O. Box 20404 Kansas City, MO 64195-0404, 816-891-6600 Web address: www.iaap-hq.org/ IAAP sponsors the CPS, Certified Professional Secretary, and the CAP, Certified Administrative Professionals testing. Web address: www.iaap-hq.org/ OfficePRO ® magazine, published monthly by IAAP, 816.891.6600, Ext. 236. Web address: www.iaap-hq.org/officepro/ NALS, National Association of Legal Secretaries and Legal Secretaries International 314 East 3rd Street, Suite 210 Tulsa, OK 74120 Sponsor of Accredited Legal Secretary, ALS, Certification. Web address: www.nals.org AAMT, American Association of Medical Transcription 100 Sycamore Avenue Modesto, CA 95354-0550 800.982.2182 or 209.527.9620 Certified Medical Transcriptionist, CMT, testing for Part I (written) and for Part II (practical)is offered by MTCC. Web address: www.aamt.org IAVOA, International Association of Virtual Office Assistants. IAVOA is a co-sponsor of VACertification.com. VACertification.com in an independent evaluation authority for the Virtual Assistance Industry sponsored by Virtual Assistance U (VAU), A Virtual Solution (AVS), U4ALL.com and IAVOA. Web address: www.IAVOA.com Legal Secretaries International, Inc., www.legalsecretaries.org NALS, Inc., www.nals.org 15
    • APPENDIX D RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A CAREER TECHNICAL EDUCATION FRAMEWORK (Draft Copy) Developed by Jeffrey S. Aronsky, Business Education Teacher, and Ann Kerman, Director, Santa Clarita Valley School to Career Alliance For the Wm. S. Hart Union High School District Objective: To establish a framework for Career Technical Education in the Wm. S. Hart Union High School District that prepares students with technical skills to succeed in the workplace and life while reinforcing academic standards. Guiding Principles: Career Technical Education includes competency-based applied learning that contributes to a student’s academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning, and problem-solving skills, attitudes, general employability skills, and occupation specific skills needed for further education or for careers in current or emerging employment sectors. Goals:  Empower students with the necessary knowledge and skills to compete in a constantly changing global economy.  Provide a balanced program of education that enables every student to reach his/her full potential including junior high and high school curriculum, ROP and Occupational Center courses.  Provide students with opportunities to explore their interests and unique abilities through multiple learning experiences.  Align District exploratory junior high school courses to lead to high school courses that meet state standards.  Align high school courses throughout the District to the state approved standards in Career Technical Education and integrate with rigorous academic standards.  Align Hart District Career Technical Education courses to the College of the Canyon’s certificates and degrees to allow for seamless transition to postsecondary education. RECOMMENDATION FOR BUSINESS/COMPUTER EDUCATION Junior High Model – Grades 7-8 All junior highs will offer an exploratory elective wheel with courses from the following list: Business/Hospitality – Minimum 2 at each school The following courses and others to be developed will provide students with a basic understanding of tools and materials used in business, in the home and in the hospitality industry. Keyboarding Introduction to Business Marketing Computer Applications 16
    • High School Model – Grades 9-12 (Draft Copy) All comprehensive high schools will offer a baseline of CTE opportunities where students can explore careers and learn transferable skills. Courses will be aligned to state approved CTE standards and be integrated with academic content and applied learning. Each comprehensive high school will offer a sequence of courses to support a minimum of one Career Pathway in each of four cluster areas. Career Pathways will be aligned to the new California Industry Clusters. Cluster C - Business & Technology  Finance and Business  Accounting Services  Banking & Related Services  Business Financial Management  Information Technology  Information Support & Services  Media Support & Services  Network Communications  Programming & Systems Development  Marketing, Sales, and Service  E-Commerce  Entrepreneurship  International Trade  Professional Sales & Marketing RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OTHER CAREER TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS Junior High Model – Grades 7-8 Chorus Band/Orchestra Dance FineArts/Visual Arts – Minimum 2 at each school The following courses and others to be developed will provide students with a basic understanding of the visuals arts and the manipulation of art materials. 2D Art A & B Art 1A & 1B Ceramics Photography 17
    • High School Model – Grades 9-12 (Draft Copy) Cluster D - Public Service & Arts, Media & Design  Arts, Media, and Entertainment Technology  Media & Design Arts  Performing Arts  Production & Managerial Arts  Education, Child Development, and Family Services  Child Development  Consumer Services  Education  Family & Human Services  Fashion and Interior Design  Fashion Design, Manufacturing, & Merchandising  Interior Design, Furnishings, and Maintenance  Public Services  Human Services  Legal & Government Services  Protective Services Tools & Materials – Minimum 2 at each school The following courses and others to be developed will provide students with a basic understanding of tools and materials and manipulation of the same. Wood Intro to Construction Trades Metal Small Engine Repair Drafting Industrial Crafts Tech Lab Electronics Gateway to Technology/Pre-Engineering Aviation Performing Arts – Minimum 2 at each school The following courses and others to be developed will provide students with a basic exploration and manipulation of music and the performing arts. Drama 18
    • ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE MEMBERS (May 1 – June 30, 2005) Special thanks to the individuals listed below who worked very hard in a very short time to get this Administrative Office Management project underway: Donna Anderson, Solano Community College, Fairfield Christine Arenas-Magie, Adolfo Camarillo High School, Oxnard Jeff Aronsky, William S. Hart Middle School, Santa Clarita Kathy Bailey, Whittier High School Brenda Ingram-Cotton, Los Angeles Valley College Kay Orrell, Alan Hancock College, Santa Maria Theresa Savarese, San Diego City College Rebecca Seher, Los Angeles Unified School District Jane M. Thompson, Solano Community College, Fairfield 19