43 administrative law


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43 administrative law

  1. 1. Chapter 43 Administrative Law
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Administrative Law is the rules, orders, and decisions of federal, state, and local government agencies established to perform a specific function. </li></ul>
  3. 3. § 1: Agency Creation and Powers <ul><li>The study of Administrative Law requires an understanding of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling Legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Types of Agencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency Powers and the Constitution. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Enabling Legislation <ul><li>Enabling legislation is a law passed by Congress to specify the name, purposes, functions, and powers of administrative agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal administrative agencies may exercise only those powers that Congress has delegated to them in enabling legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Through similar enabling acts, state legislatures create state administrative agencies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Agencies <ul><li>There are two basic types of administrative agencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Agencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cabinet-level departments of the Executive Branch and their sub-departments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Regulatory Agencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies outside the major executive departments such as the Federal Aviation Administration or the Federal Communications Commission. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Agency Powers and the Constitution <ul><li>Administrative agencies make legislative rules, or substantive rules, that are as legally binding as laws that Congress passed. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative agencies are sometimes referred to as the “fourth branch” of the U.S. government. </li></ul><ul><li>Article I of the U.S. Constitution authorizes delegating such powers to administrative agencies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. § 2: Administrative Process <ul><li>Administrative process includes three functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulemaking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjudication. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rulemaking <ul><li>Rulemaking is the formulation of new regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice and Comment Rulemaking involves three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice of the proposed rulemaking (NPRM). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comment Period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Final Rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case 43.1 : AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utilities Board (1999). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Investigation <ul><li>The purpose of investigations is to ensure that the rule issued is based on a consideration of relevant factors rather than being arbitrary and capricious, which include the powers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct Inspection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue Subpoenas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subpoenas duces tecum requires production of documents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subpoenas ad testificandum requires testimony. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Case 43.2: FTC v. Ken Roberts Co. (2001). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adjudication <ul><li>The law provides a mechanism for administrative adjudication of suspected rule violations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate settlements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Complaints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing before Administrative Law Judge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency Orders. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. § 3: Limitations on Agency Powers <ul><li>All three constitutionally created branches of government have some measure of control over administrative agencies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Judicial Controls <ul><li>The Administrative Procedures Act provides for judicial review of most agency actions. </li></ul><ul><li>A party seeking review must demonstrate standing to sue , there must be actual controversy at issue, and have exhausted all possible administrative remedies. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial review of agency action will frequently address whether the agency has acted beyond its authority or failed to discharge its responsibility. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Executive Controls <ul><li>Executive branch of government exercises control over agencies through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President power to appoint federal officers, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President’s veto power. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Legislative Controls <ul><li>The Congress exercises controls over agencies powers by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enacting and changing enabling legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining funding for the agency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating agency actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing agency enforcement efforts before they take effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amending the Administrative Procedures Act. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. § 4: Public Accountability <ul><li>A number of pieces of legislation make agencies more accountable through public scrutiny. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Information Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government in the Sunshine Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory Flexibility Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Freedom of Information Act <ul><li>This legislation requires the federal government to disclose certain “records” to “any person” on request, even if no reason is given for the request. </li></ul><ul><li>All federal government agencies are required to make their records available electronically. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Government in the Sunshine Act <ul><li>The legislation requires that “every portion of every meeting of an agency” be open to “public observation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate notice of meetings must be given to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed meetings are authorized in a limited number of instances. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Regulatory Flexibility Act <ul><li>Concern over the effects of regulation on the efficiency of businesses, Congress passed the Regulatory Flexibility Act which requires an analysis of the cost a regulation will impose on small business and must consider less burdensome alternatives. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act <ul><li>This Act allows Congress to review new federal regulations for at least sixty-days before they can take effect. </li></ul>
  20. 20. § 5: State Administrative Agencies <ul><li>Cooperation and Conflicts between Parallel Federal and State Agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review of State Agency Actions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case 43.3: Swift v. Sublette County Board of County Commissioners (2002). </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Law on the Web <ul><li>The Administrative Procedures Act (1946). </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Web Locator . </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Law Library (CFR). </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Research Exercises on the Web. </li></ul>
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