Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Communication without words; communication by means of space, gestures, facial expressions...
Importance of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>“ It is estimated that NVC most often conveys a larger share of social infor...
Importance of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>“ Communication of information is essential to support the infrastructure of...
What are the different types of Nonverbal Communication?
Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures and Facial Expressions (Jeremy Wilson) </li></ul><ul><li>Touch  (Sa...
Body & Facial
Kinesics <ul><li>The study of the communicative dimensions of facial and bodily movements </li></ul><ul><li>- Includes:  b...
Body Gestures <ul><li>Emblems </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Regulator...
Emblems <ul><li>Emblems are limited by both time and culture. </li></ul>
Posture <ul><li>1) Slumped posture = low spirits </li></ul><ul><li>2) Erect posture = high spirits, energy and confidence ...
Facial Communication   <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions an...
Facial Management Techniques <ul><li>Intensifying – to exaggerate a feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Deintensifying – to underpla...
Body and facial communication are important in interpersonal communication! It is especially important to pay close attent...
Sources <ul><li>Warfield, A. (2001) Do you speak body language?.  Training and Development , 55(4), 60. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Nonverbal Messages: Touch and Eye Communication Presented by Sarah Kearns
Occulesics <ul><li>Study of the way eyes are used during a communication exchange </li></ul>
3 Characteristics of Eye Messages: <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>
Functions of Eye Contact <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the Attention and Interest of Audience </li></u...
Eye Avoidance <ul><li>Civil Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Signal lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant Stimuli </l...
Culture and Occulesics <ul><li>Singh, McKay, and Singh (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic cultures vs. Western culture ...
Power and Occulesics <ul><li>Aguinis, Simonsen, and Pierce (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is the ability to influence ...
Visual Dominance <ul><li>The use of your eyes to maintain a superior or dominant position (Devito 2001) </li></ul>
Credibility Power <ul><li>The objectively determined truthfulness, follow-through, and accuracy of a power source (Aguinis...
Pupil Dilation <ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Interested </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally Aroused </li></ul>
HAPTICS <ul><li>The study of touch as a means of nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Most primitive form of communic...
Functions of Touch: <ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Playfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Ri...
Touch Avoidance <ul><li>Communication Apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Self Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Variation </...
Gender Differences and Touch <ul><li>Mothers vs. Fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Same sex vs. Opposite Sex </li></ul>
Cultural Differences and Touch <ul><li>Contact Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Noncontact Culture </li></ul>
Haptics and Cooperation <ul><li>Kurzban (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Group Context </li></ul><ul><li>Social Dilemmas </li></ul...
Conclusions <ul><li>Both eye contact and touching have a variety of functions and meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Both are subj...
PARALANGUAGE <ul><li>Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making ...
Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what yo...
Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness, intelligence and objectivity . 111wpm  – least ...
… Silence… The Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time To Think:  Time to formulate responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapon To Hurt ...
Non-verbal Communication Space and Territory Every cubic inch of space is a miracle . --Walt Whitman ( Leaves of Grass , &...
Proxemics <ul><li>Proxemics  is the study of spatial communication and how we use it (Devito) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termed...
Distances <ul><li>Intimate Distance -actual touching to 6-18 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Distance -18 inches to 4 fe...
Dimensions of Space (Athos) <ul><li>More is better than less </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign importance or status based on ho...
Dimensions of Space (con.) <ul><li>Higher is better than lower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery is often in terms of up and d...
Territory <ul><li>Territory  is the possessive reaction to a particular area or objects (Devito) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary...
PARALANGUAGE <ul><li>Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making ...
Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what yo...
Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness, intelligence and objectivity . 111wpm  – least ...
… Silence… The Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time To Think :  Time to formulate responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapon To Hurt...
Theories <ul><li>Protection theory —people establish a buffer zone around themselves as protection against unwanted touchi...
Sources <ul><li>Athos, A.G., Gabarro, J.J. (1978).  Interpersonal  Behavior . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>DeSantis, A. (2001).  Communications 101 , (2 nd  Edition).Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. </li></ul><ul><l...
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252Nonverbal

  1. 2. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Communication without words; communication by means of space, gestures, facial expressions, touching, vocal variation, and silence for example (DeVito) </li></ul>
  2. 3. Importance of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>“ It is estimated that NVC most often conveys a larger share of social information(65% or more) while verbal communication plays a less salient role(35% or less). So much information is communicated nonverbally that frequently the verbal aspect is negligible.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Proceedings of The 1993 International Symposium on LTM , Beijing-Hohhot, Oct.4 - 13,1993 </li></ul>
  3. 4. Importance of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>“ Communication of information is essential to support the infrastructure of society. This basic need has not changed since the first picture signs were incised on clay tablets in the Near Middle East some 6,000 years ago in order to record business transactions” </li></ul><ul><li>Rosemary Sassoon “ Signs, Symbols and Icons” 1997 </li></ul>
  4. 5. What are the different types of Nonverbal Communication?
  5. 6. Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures and Facial Expressions (Jeremy Wilson) </li></ul><ul><li>Touch (Sarah Kearns) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound (Michael Jenkins) </li></ul><ul><li>Space (Laura Chady) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Body & Facial
  7. 8. Kinesics <ul><li>The study of the communicative dimensions of facial and bodily movements </li></ul><ul><li>- Includes: body movement (body language), gestures, facial expression, eye contact, posture, and speaking volume </li></ul>
  8. 9. Body Gestures <ul><li>Emblems </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrators </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptors </li></ul>
  9. 10. Emblems <ul><li>Emblems are limited by both time and culture. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Posture <ul><li>1) Slumped posture = low spirits </li></ul><ul><li>2) Erect posture = high spirits, energy and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>3) Lean forward = open and interested </li></ul><ul><li>4) Lean away = defensive or disinterested </li></ul><ul><li>5) Crossed arms = defensive </li></ul><ul><li>6) Uncrossed arms = willingness to listen </li></ul><ul><li>7) Hands on hips=impatient </li></ul>
  11. 12. Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions and Culture </li></ul>
  12. 13. Facial Management Techniques <ul><li>Intensifying – to exaggerate a feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Deintensifying – to underplay a feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralizing – to hide a feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Masking – to replace or substitute the expression of one emotion or another </li></ul>
  13. 14. Body and facial communication are important in interpersonal communication! It is especially important to pay close attention to accepted nonverbals in other cultures!
  14. 15. Sources <ul><li>Warfield, A. (2001) Do you speak body language?. Training and Development , 55(4), 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Devito, J. A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book. Hunter College of the City University of New York: Longham. </li></ul><ul><li>Swenson, J. & Casmir, F.L. (1998). The impact of culture-sameness, gender, foreign travel, and academic background on the ability to interpret the facial expression of emotions in others. Communication Quarterly , 46(2), 214-217. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Nonverbal Messages: Touch and Eye Communication Presented by Sarah Kearns
  16. 17. Occulesics <ul><li>Study of the way eyes are used during a communication exchange </li></ul>
  17. 18. 3 Characteristics of Eye Messages: <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>
  18. 19. Functions of Eye Contact <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the Attention and Interest of Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate or Control conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Nature of Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate for Increased Physical Distance </li></ul>
  19. 20. Eye Avoidance <ul><li>Civil Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Signal lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Heighten Other Senses </li></ul>
  20. 21. Culture and Occulesics <ul><li>Singh, McKay, and Singh (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic cultures vs. Western culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status and Confrontational </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Power and Occulesics <ul><li>Aguinis, Simonsen, and Pierce (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is the ability to influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Dominance is (+)-related to credibility power </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Visual Dominance <ul><li>The use of your eyes to maintain a superior or dominant position (Devito 2001) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Credibility Power <ul><li>The objectively determined truthfulness, follow-through, and accuracy of a power source (Aguinis et. Al 1998) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Pupil Dilation <ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Interested </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally Aroused </li></ul>
  25. 26. HAPTICS <ul><li>The study of touch as a means of nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Most primitive form of communication </li></ul>
  26. 27. Functions of Touch: <ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Playfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Task Related </li></ul>
  27. 28. Touch Avoidance <ul><li>Communication Apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Self Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Variation </li></ul>
  28. 29. Gender Differences and Touch <ul><li>Mothers vs. Fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Same sex vs. Opposite Sex </li></ul>
  29. 30. Cultural Differences and Touch <ul><li>Contact Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Noncontact Culture </li></ul>
  30. 31. Haptics and Cooperation <ul><li>Kurzban (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Group Context </li></ul><ul><li>Social Dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Closeness </li></ul><ul><li>Touch increases compliance or cooperation </li></ul>
  31. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>Both eye contact and touching have a variety of functions and meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Both are subject to gender variability </li></ul><ul><li>Both are subject to cultural variability </li></ul>
  32. 33. PARALANGUAGE <ul><li>Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making judgments of credibility, intelligence, and objectivity. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what you say. <ul><li>Now that looks good on you. </li></ul><ul><li>Could you move any slower? </li></ul><ul><li>That was some meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the face that launched a thousand ships? </li></ul>By stressing different words in a sentence, you can change the meaning completely without doing anything to the structure of it.
  34. 35. Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness, intelligence and objectivity . 111wpm – least amount of agreeableness, objectivity and least intelligent 140wpm –average intelligence, agreeableness and objectivity. 191wpm – subjects agreed most with fastest speech; viewed as most intelligent and objective, even when the subjects knew the person was trying to sell them something. Comprehension levels in speeches at 201wpm were at about 95%, dropping only slightly to 90% when upped to 282wpm
  35. 36. … Silence… The Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time To Think: Time to formulate responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Personal Anxiety: Remaining silent around strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Communication: A defense mechanism against saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Emotional Responses: Pouting, Anger, Annoyance, Long Stares into another’s eyes; love. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Specific Effects: Strategically placing pauses after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing To Say: Sometimes you just don’t have anything to say. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Non-verbal Communication Space and Territory Every cubic inch of space is a miracle . --Walt Whitman ( Leaves of Grass , &quot;Miracles&quot;)
  37. 38. Proxemics <ul><li>Proxemics is the study of spatial communication and how we use it (Devito) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termed coined by founder, Edward Hall, in 1968 in his book The Silent Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hall’s research concluded that there are four distances we utilize in everyday interpersonal communication and these are culturally defined </li></ul><ul><li>There are also five dimensions used to assign the importance of space in status </li></ul>
  38. 39. Distances <ul><li>Intimate Distance -actual touching to 6-18 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Distance -18 inches to 4 feet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the “hidden dimension” or your “personal bubble” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Distance - 4 to 12 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Public Distance -12-25 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions by Devito </li></ul>
  39. 40. Dimensions of Space (Athos) <ul><li>More is better than less </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign importance or status based on how much space a person has </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private is better than public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is better not to have to share space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We desire to exclude people to mark boundaries of our space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing doors is an important signal that a conversation is both intimate and important </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Dimensions of Space (con.) <ul><li>Higher is better than lower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery is often in terms of up and down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses that are on higher land are often more expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near is better than far </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is more valued to have a office near the boss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also more valued to be at a position near the host at a dinner party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In is better than out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home field advantage in sports teams </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Territory <ul><li>Territory is the possessive reaction to a particular area or objects (Devito) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary territory —belongs to you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary markers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary territory —not belonging to you, but associated with you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central markers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public territories —areas like parks that belong to all people </li></ul>
  42. 43. PARALANGUAGE <ul><li>Paralanguage cues are used for forming impressions, for identifying emotional states, and for making judgments of credibility, intelligence, and objectivity. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Paralanguage is the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech. It refers to the way you say something, rather than what you say. <ul><li>Now that looks good on you. </li></ul><ul><li>Could you move any slower? </li></ul><ul><li>That was some meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the face that launched a thousand ships? </li></ul>By stressing different words in a sentence, you can change the meaning completely without doing anything to the structure of it.
  44. 45. Persuasion, Comprehension, and How Fast We Speak. Levels of agreeableness, intelligence and objectivity . 111wpm – least amount of agreeableness, objectivity and least intelligent 140wpm –average intelligence, agreeableness and objectivity. 191wpm – subjects agreed most with fastest speech; viewed as most intelligent and objective, even when the subjects knew the person was trying to sell them something. (DeVito 2001) Comprehension levels in speeches at 201wpm were at about 95%, dropping only slightly to 90% when upped to 282wpm
  45. 46. … Silence… The Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time To Think : Time to formulate responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapon To Hurt Others (the silent treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Personal Anxiety : Remaining silent around strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Communication : A defense mechanism against saying things that you cant take back in the heat of the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Emotional Responses : Pouting, Anger, Annoyance, Long Stares into another’s eyes; love. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Specific Effects : Strategically placing pauses after or before sentences to imply importance or seriousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing To Say : Sometimes you just don’t have anything to say. </li></ul>Your Silence communicates just as intensely as anything you verbalize. (Jaworski 1993)
  46. 47. Theories <ul><li>Protection theory —people establish a buffer zone around themselves as protection against unwanted touching or attack, if threatened they want more space around them (Devito) </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium theory —greater the intimacy, the closer the distance and vice versa (Devito) </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy violation theory —people expect others to maintain certain distances, when these are violated the actions are questioned (Devito) </li></ul>
  47. 48. Sources <ul><li>Athos, A.G., Gabarro, J.J. (1978). Interpersonal Behavior . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Bakker, C.B., Bakker, M.K. (1973). No Trespassing! Explorations in Human Territoriality. San Fransciso : Chandler and Sharp Publishers Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Devito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Jimenz, A.C. (2003, March). On space as a capacity. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute , 9(1), 137-154. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.members.aol.com/doder1/proxemi1.htm </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>DeSantis, A. (2001). Communications 101 , (2 nd Edition).Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>DeVito, J.A. (2001). The Interpersonal Communication Book , (9 th Edition). New York: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaworski,A. (1993). The Power of Silence: Social and Pragmatic Perspectives . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. </li></ul>

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