今日課程 <ul><li>Chapter 6: Listening and Responding </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8: Communication and Identity </li></ul><ul><li...
Ch 6: Focus Questions <ul><li>How do listening and hearing differ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does effective listening differ w...
聽聽看:傳說是客服專線… <ul><li>語音版 </li></ul><ul><li>Flash  版 </li></ul>02:48
Listening and Responding <ul><li>People tend to more focus on talking </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show: Average person spend...
Hearing & Listening <ul><li>Hearing is a physiological activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound wave & ear drum </li></ul></ul...
The Listening Process <ul><li>Being mindful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on what is happening in the moment </li></ul></ul>...
The Listening Process  (2) <ul><li>Selecting and organizing communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception & Attention </l...
The Listening Process  (3) <ul><li>Responding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs of being involved in interaction </li></ul></ul>...
Obstacles to Effective Listening <ul><li>Situational obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message overload </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Example of Heavy Sentence from University of Chicago, Writing Program The dog, overcome with a sense of futility at the un...
Forms of Ineffective Listening <ul><li>Pseudo-listening </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversationa...
Guidelines for Effective Listening <ul><li>Informational & critical listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful </li></ul><...
Guidelines for Effective Listening <ul><li>Relationship listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Ch 8: Focus Questions <ul><li>What is the self? </li></ul><ul><li>How does communication influence personal identity? </li...
自我  Self :  網路書店搜尋結果 <ul><li>博客來網路書店 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>搜尋結果:前 10 本書 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amazon </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Communication & Personal Identity <ul><li>“ Self” is a process. Continuously evolves and changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The se...
The self arises in communication with others <ul><li>Self is not innate but is acquired (Mead, 1934).  </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Communication with family members <ul><li>Direct definition: Explicitly told </li></ul><ul><li>Identity scripts: Rules of ...
Attachment Styles Secure Dismissive Fearful Anxious/Ambivalent Positive Negative Positive Negative Views of self Views of ...
Communication with Peers <ul><li>Playmates, classmates, friends, partners… </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected appraisals </li></u...
The Johari Window Open Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Blind Area Known to self Unknown to self Known to others Unknown to o...
Communication with society <ul><li>Four aspects of identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender <...
Challenges in Communicating with Ourselves <ul><li>Reflecting critically on social perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethi...
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  1. 1. 今日課程 <ul><li>Chapter 6: Listening and Responding </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8: Communication and Identity </li></ul><ul><li>下週: Chapter 10 & 11 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ch 6: Focus Questions <ul><li>How do listening and hearing differ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does effective listening differ when listening for information and listening to support others? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we improve our listening skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What are effective ways to express support for others? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you control obstacles to effective listening? </li></ul>
  3. 3. 聽聽看:傳說是客服專線… <ul><li>語音版 </li></ul><ul><li>Flash 版 </li></ul>02:48
  4. 4. Listening and Responding <ul><li>People tend to more focus on talking </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show: Average person spends 45%-53% of waking time on listening to others </li></ul><ul><li>Total listening time may even greater (if radio…, background…included) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening as No. 1 quality of effective manager (survey of 1,000 HR professionals) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hearing & Listening <ul><li>Hearing is a physiological activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound wave & ear drum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other messages received at the same time (sight) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Listening Process <ul><li>Being mindful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on what is happening in the moment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ethical commitment; Leaders must want to listen! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing understanding of what others feel & think </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting more complete communication by others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physically receiving communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are more attuned to what is going on around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men tend to direct hearing in a specific way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women likely to notice contexts, details, themes in interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average: 300 words/min understood; 100 in speaking </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Listening Process (2) <ul><li>Selecting and organizing communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception & Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study: Teachers unintentionally give more attention to male than female students… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As we listen: categorize people->assess them ->apply stereotype->choose a script </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions can be wrong. Be ready to revise them! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreting communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing others’ viewpoint doesn’ t mean you agree with them; it does mean you make an earnest effort to grasp what they think and feel. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Listening Process (3) <ul><li>Responding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs of being involved in interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remembering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall of literal messages vs. Recall of interpretation of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory fading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember less than half immediately after we hear it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall 35% after 8 hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Obstacles to Effective Listening <ul><li>Situational obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message complexity (next slide: sentence structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental distractions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recognizing diverse listening styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Nepalese give little vocal feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example of Heavy Sentence from University of Chicago, Writing Program The dog, overcome with a sense of futility at the unfairness of life, and miserable at the inattention of her master, who had become so addicted to TV reality shows that he had not left his recliner in over three days, nevertheless chased the ball. The dog chased the ball, even though she was both overcome with a sense of futility at the unfairness of life and miserable at the inattention of her master, who had become so addicted to TV reality shows that he had not left his recliner in over three days.
  11. 11. Forms of Ineffective Listening <ul><li>Pseudo-listening </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversational rerouting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selective listening </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive listening </li></ul><ul><li>Ambushing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics: Gathering ammunition to use in attacking a speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literal listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content level vs. Relationship level of meaning </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Guidelines for Effective Listening <ul><li>Informational & critical listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use aids to recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating (e.g., people’s names) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize information </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Guidelines for Effective Listening <ul><li>Relationship listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total listening: more than words, also silence & meaning buried </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspend judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to understand the other’s perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal encouragers: “Really?” “Go on!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing: “It sounds as if..” “You seem to..” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Father-Son conversation on page 170 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( 結尾的對話 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ch 8: Focus Questions <ul><li>What is the self? </li></ul><ul><li>How does communication influence personal identity? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you resist destructive patterns in communication with yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>What are values and risks of self-disclosing communication? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you foster your personal growth? </li></ul>
  15. 15. 自我 Self : 網路書店搜尋結果 <ul><li>博客來網路書店 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>搜尋結果:前 10 本書 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amazon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>搜尋結果:前 10 本書 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Communication & Personal Identity <ul><li>“ Self” is a process. Continuously evolves and changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The self consists of perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views about ourselves, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about others, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about social life that changes over time as we interact with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>自我發展量表 ( 民 80 :江南發 ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. The self arises in communication with others <ul><li>Self is not innate but is acquired (Mead, 1934). </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophesy: expectations, judgment of ourselves (internalized labels) </li></ul><ul><li>Particular others: parents, siblings, peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected appraisals: a process of seeing ourselves through the eyes of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Significant others) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalized others: collection of rules, roles, attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicated by people we interact with, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By media, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By institutions: Judicial system, marriage, education system </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Communication with family members <ul><li>Direct definition: Explicitly told </li></ul><ul><li>Identity scripts: Rules of living and identity of a family </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment styles: Patterns of parenting; how to approach relationship (next slide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure attachment: Consistent, attentive; self-worth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fearful attachment: Rejecting, abusive; unworthy of love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissive attachment: Rejecting, abusive; dismissing others as unworthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious/ambivalent attachment: Inconsistent parenting; assuming others right / self unworthy of love </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Attachment Styles Secure Dismissive Fearful Anxious/Ambivalent Positive Negative Positive Negative Views of self Views of others Consistent, attentive; self-worth Rejecting, abusive; unworthy of love <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent parenting; assuming others right / self unworthy of love </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejecting, abusive; dismissing others as unworthy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Communication with Peers <ul><li>Playmates, classmates, friends, partners… </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Social comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment about talents, qualities, abilities… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revelation of personal information about ourselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopes, fears, experiences, perceptions… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Johari Window: four types of information (knowledge) about us (p. 214) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Johari Window Open Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Blind Area Known to self Unknown to self Known to others Unknown to others
  22. 22. Communication with society <ul><li>Four aspects of identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other social values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence, weight (slimness), height… </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Challenges in Communicating with Ourselves <ul><li>Reflecting critically on social perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical obligation to promote positive social values and a fair social world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual & collective efforts to revise social meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeking personal growth as a communicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set realistic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess yourself fairly (reasonable social comparison) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self disclose appropriately: safe, gradual, reciprocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative a supportive climate for change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uppers: who communicates positively about us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downers: who communicates negatively about us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vultures: an extreme form of downers; who attacks our self-concepts </li></ul></ul></ul>
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