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  • Welcome to Study Group Five presentation on how integration of remote sensor networks referred to commonly as MOTES effect the current business paradigm. In today’s business environment costs are of paramount concern and as with any business endeavor the key to success is the ability of the business entity to be profitable. To that end we shall examine to use remote sensor networks (MOTES) as a technology integration to the way some companies have integrated MOTES into their paradigms of doing business. We have selected the Case Study on Page 256 of the textbook as the foundation for his presentation. These MOTES devices have the potential to add value to the bottom line by reducing man-power costs, cost of monitoring, implementing new ways to track assets and monitor equipment performance.
  • We will look at seven companies varied uses of wireless sensor networks (MOTES) today and the associated impact of these wireless sensor networks on the way these companies do business. We will discuss the MOTES specific application, the technology issues faced by each, the lessons learned, its revelance to business today, and the impact of integration of the MOTES on its business paradigm. The companies we have selected are: Science Application International Corporation (SCAI) Hewlett-Packard (HP) International Business Machine (IBM) Intel General Electric Corporation (GE) Palto Alto Research Corporation (PARC) British Petroleum (BP) We have selected companies based on the textbook case study, and the varied application of MOTES in each of the business applications and shall examine the success or failure of this integration on the business paradigm of the company. We will start of by giving a brief history of the business entity, its application of MOTES, the impact and issues of the implementation and its success or failure of technology implementation on the way of doing business for each.
  • After presentation of the material the references will be listed. And questions and comments will be addressed. Please post your questions to the Study Group Conference Area and we shall respond to comments and questions.
  • As with many new technologies, driving new research starts with the military and later founds use in civilian applications. The research and development of wireless sensor networks started when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) decided to fund a research project on sensor networks for use in military applications. Since then defense applications have been a driver for research and development in sensor networks. In order to develop wireless sensor networks, new technologies from three different areas need to be considered for research: sensors, communication, and computing which includes research in new hardware, software and mathematical algorithms. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been already deployed in many civilian applications as a sensor has become smaller and production costs are much lower. The main technical challenges to overcome have been to be able to produce tiny sensor nodes at low cost and the ability to implement the network with a very efficient energy conservation strategy to extend the lifetime of the wireless network as long as possible since they may need to be deployed in remote and hostile environments where it is expected to collect data through its sensor nodes. Sensors are deployed to monitor data as varied as pressure, sound, light, vibrations, temperature, etc. for industrial, environmental, health and many other applications. SAIC, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Intel, PARC, and BP have been selectd for this case study base on their involvement in the research, development and implementation of wireless sensor networks technology.
  • Motes devices come in all shape and sizes, They can be active devices, usually with a power supply built in or as small as a dime. The newest innovation is a Chinese MOTE the size of a pin head. They can also be piezo-electric so that the inherent vibration of the machinery being monitored provides the electric power for the device.
  • Since its founding SAIC has been involved in research and development of new technologies oriented mostly to national security and the military. With founding from DARPA, the Defense Advance Research Project Agency to develop sensor networks. SAIC oriented their initial research into the promising area of wireless sensor networks (WSN) for military applications. The resulting information gathered from the network of sensors is own by the military. However when SAIC wants to be able to translate and make use of this research into civilian use there are questions as to who owns the information, and there are development issues with privacy requirements and security (Merrill, 2010). Issues that SAIC is still researching. Developing a civilian application adds the question of how to make revenue out of the data collected by the sensors as well as questions associated with development costs and system scalability. Questions such as the return on investment do not occur when the project is developed for the military however is crucial when the investment is in the private sector.
  • Wireless sensor networks technologies have changed the way the business of collecting data is now performed. "This technology enabled a major advance“ (Kharif et al, 2005). New sensor technology makes sensors lifetime Motes sensors can detect moving objects including humans, vehicles, voices and noises. These sensors can be deployed on the ground as well as in ships, cargo tracks and are connected wireless on a remote network which may be able to handle thousands of them. This automated electronic surveillance reduces the need for human surveillance and provides a much bigger area of coverage in almost real time when done through new internet sensor web server technology, an area of research where SAIC has been very involved. SAIC has developed a Sensor Web system application to allow access to the web to sensor networks and archived sensor data using standard protocols and application program interfaces (APIs).
  • SensorWeb, is an SAIC Software Oriented Architecture web based which have incorporated XML. The development goal is to provide better interoperability between the Department of Defense and other government agencies. SensorWeb provides near real-time access to sensors and systems with sensor-to-sensor and sensor-to-user interoperability (Gerber, 2009). SAIC is participating in the work group effort to build the standards converting metadata and video from different sensors into a standard profile to be used by a common suite of tools for integration of sensors.
  • Based on the expertise that it have acquired while developing applications for the military and national security, SAIC is currently looking vigorously to translate this expertise and get involved in wireless sensor network applications in the civilian sector. SAIC is teaming with Georgetown University (Georgetown University News, 2008) and technology company Gentag with expertise in cell phone RFID-sensor reader technology, to develop a wireless glucose-sensor technology that is expected to take the monitoring of diabetes to a new level. This is an example of finding practical use in the civilian sector of previously developed military applications. The initial SAIC research received funding from DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, to develop the skin-patch technology to monitor the health conditions of soldiers on the battlefield. SAIC supports the University of Maryland’s Mtech VentureAccelerator Program (Sensors Magazine, 2009), providing grants to startup companies who are involved in researching new technologies. SAIC involvement on the venture program provides a venue to support development of new technologies that will eventually benefit SAIC and companies like Resensys and FlexEI.
  • Hewlett-Packard was founded in 1939 by Stanford student Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard. Today, it is one of the largest IT company’s in the world with 304,000 employees and a 2009 revenue of over $114 billion. (http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/abouthp/histnfacts/) As a global leader in information technology, HP invested heavily in the research and utilization of wireless sensor networks and RFID. Internally, RFID was used to track products, prevent counterfeiting, and realize cost saving by increasing efficiencies in their supply chain. From this internal success, HP has begun to offer RFID expertise to allow other companies to benefit from the product, as well as develop new products that use RFID in innovative ways. (http://h20338.www2.hp.com/enterprise/downloads/BRO_HP_and_RFID.pdf, 2004)
  • HPs largest-scale wireless sensor network offering to date is it’s Data Center Smart Grid. The smart grid employs the use of wireless sensors to monitor cooling and power data across facilities, and relay this data in real time back to the data center. From there, this data is aggregated, providing information on power and cooling efficiency. This solution allows companies to lower energy consumption, energy costs, and wasted capacity. (http://h18000.www1.hp.com/products/solutions/converged/dcsg-4aa2-9899enw.pdf, 2009) Another use of wireless sensors networks that HP is currently exploring is what’s known as Mediascape. Mediascape takes interactive media to the next level, allowing user’s multimedia experience to change based on their current context. To do this, user’s create interactive movies and games, which use data from sensors on a PDA and will actually change the media based on the user’s context. Examples include a movie that changes based on a GPS location, or game that will react differently based on the temperature outside. (Sun, 2007)
  • Here is a funny clip of a boy using mediascape through his pda, hopefully this gives a better idea of context gaming. Keep in mind this product is still in beta, so the true potential probably has yet to be realized. (Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUOHfVXkUaI) (Note: To view this video you will need an internet connection and be looking at the slide in slide show view)
  • IBM with a combination of sensor and RFID technologies, monitors inventory of products, helping to keep the stocks level in the supply chain with the goal of increasing sales and obtain a higher customer satisfaction (IBM, 2010). IBM developed a solution for the pharmaceutical industry to help track the movement of drugs through the supply chain. The solution is based on wireless sensors detecting barcodes and RFID readers. IBM research also involves applications such as Light-weight Contour Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks, in which the sensors are used to detect and track chemical pollution.
  • IBM believes that wireless sensor networks are going to continue growing in number of networks deployed as well as in the number of new services and applications that will be using sensors in a wireless environment (IBM, 2010). IBM is combining its technical expertise in sensors networks at their research center in Zurich, Switzerland with their wireless networking expertise to integrate wireless sensor networks with the enterprise intranets and transmit collected sensor data to an IBM WebSphere Application Server. A messaging model makes the data collected by the sensors available to enterprise applications. The IBM application is capable of processing high message volumes and IBM is currently researching new messaging protocols to operate over low-power wireless protocols and location sensing functionality. IBM. (2010). Retrieved from: http://domino.watson.ibm.com/comm/research.nsf/pages/r.communications.innovation2.html
  • IBM development of Mote Runner provides a platform to connect sensors and actuator motes (nodes) within a wireless sensor network (Techeye.net, 2010). The Mote Runner application allows reprogramming of sensors remotely. The target of this software package are the building management companies. IBM is making Mote Runner kit available for free with the intent of “increasing the global adoption of wireless networks by making them easier to program and use”. Mote Runner has also found to be useful by companies like MENSIC, who has adopted Mote Runner. MEMSIC is involved in the development of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS), integrated circuit (IC) products and specialized circuits used as sensors in consumer electronics, automotive, industrial and mobile phone applications.
  • Since it’s founding in 1968, Intel has been one of the trend setters in the world of computer processing and integrated circuits. They are now using expertise from areas such as microprocessors and network interface cards to create Motes, the nodes in a wireless sensor network capable of processing as well as gathering and communicating sensory information. (http://techresearch.intel.com/articles/Exploratory/1503.htm) Intel’s SHIMMER mote is currently finding innovative uses in the health care industry. Home baby monitoring is now possible with motes, allowing parents to keep an eye on a baby’s thermal regulation as well as safeguard against symptoms of SIDS, two of the most common causes of infant death. Personal blood pressure tracking is also available for individuals who are comfortable using a computer to view their results. Hearing assistance is now possible for deaf people through the use of the SHIMMER mote. Transmitters are put near key locations such as a baby’s crib or fire alarm, and any critical audible information is passed to a base station worn by the deaf person themselves. (Baker, et al. 2007)
  • Intel’s Common Sense Project is driven around supporting community action by enabling users to become citizen scientists by developing mobile sensing platforms to attach to their cell phones and collect data from their personal environment. This data is then transmitted back to a centralized backend, where it is joined with other responders data and analyzed. This aggregate data from user’s neighborhood’s will then ideally go on to influence new environment regulations and policies. (Bose, 2009)
  • General Electric Company was established as research company by Thomas Edison in 1900. Since its inception the company has broaden its business sphere of influence into multiple industry markets and grown into multi-billon dollar a year company. For the purposes of this case study we will only examine one facet of this corporations business line, that of remote wireless sensors for use with shipping containers. The remote wireless sensor is referred to as “MOTES”, these sensors can be passive or active. That means that active sensors continually send out a signal to receiver that tracks parameters it is monitoring. Passive sensors only activate when in proximity of a receiver, then transmitting the parameters its monitoring to that receiver. Passive devices require less energy resources than active devices and tend to be smaller in physical size than active devices. It is now possible for a business to integrate into its paradigm the use or remote wireless sensors to monitor and control the efficiency and security of its products and services. In this particular case we are examining the impact of wireless sensors on the business paradigm of General Electric (GE) and Palto Alto Research Center (PARC). Each uses diverse application in its business application. Let us examine this contrast of paradigms. GE is using remote sensors to track shipping containers and to detect if the container has been tampered with. MOTES come in varied configuration and sizes. Early development these were large and costly items. About $100.00 a unit just to monitor if a shipping container had been tampered with. With large scale production and use of passive detectors it is expected that the cost will be reduced to approximately ten dollars per unit (Ricadela 2005). At the current time there is no mandated regulatory requirement for the shipping industry to monitor containers. References: http://www.GE.com/company/history/index.html
  • There is growing interest in the supply chain use of these monitors to increase efficiency and profitability of supply trains (Ricadela, 2005). In Suarez’s article on “Cross Docks and Smart Motes” description of supply chain uses of Smart MOTES used by various suppliers, including large scale retailers such Wal-Mart are described in detail to include the monitoring of not just shipments of goods, but the ability to track items by SKU number through the entire process from leaving the manufacturer to delivery at point of sale. This give tremendous advantage to the “just in time” shipping, keeping costs down and efficiency high. Advantages of such tracking can really effect a business, now items are tracked in detail as to location at any time in the process, transit time, man-power requirements, etc. this advantage allows suppliers to move items of inventory effectively and cost efficiently. Alternate use of these devices can be to monitor not just industrial equipment, but also household appliances. Think of the advantage that this can have, not to have your washer breakdown when you need it most. These MOTES can easily interconnect with the internet, send a signal to the manufacturer to prompt you that your washer is in need of maintenance or repair before it actually breaks down. A great way to have customer loyalty and have continued flow of customers. Most computer manufacturers already do this similar kind of service with the integration of “monitor the health of your PC” with the implementation of MOTES it can now be taken to another level. Benefits also are provided in the form of energy conservation, as MOTES can interface with devices to turn on or off when not in use. Potential implementation of MOTES technology is great but not all applications are cost effective. Shipping container use of MOTES for tampering alert would be a good example of cost effectiveness for the shipping industry. Since there is no mandated requirement to provide Tampering Alerts, the additional $100/unit shipping is not really business justified at this time. However, the voluntary requirements of the US Homeland Security in making this more attractive to shippers as it appears interest in security of containers coming into the US is receiving higher attention priority in the viewpoint of the government. So how does this effect the business paradigm? These wireless sensors can provide great financial incentive for alternate ways of monitoring equipment, when you consider on average hard wiring equipment requires $40.00/ foot the cost savings can be significant for a business to change its paradigm to remote wireless sensors.
  • PARC is the true leader in wireless sensor implementation, both in research and application of this technology. There implementation started with monitoring the parking lot at their headquarter to test how many parameters MOTES could physically acquire. Over the twenty or so year they have been developing this technology it has progressed from a research interest to marketplace mover. Many industrial applications of MOTES were developed by the PARC from vibration analyzsis on rotating equipment, to shipboard monitoring of mechanical and electrical systems. In partnership with many enities PARC seeks to find new applications of this technology. Some of the more interesting applications range from physiological monitoring of chronically ill patients to seismic event monitoring in remote harsh locations.
  • Motes are self-contained compact devices comprising one or more sensors, a chip, a transmitter and a power source, enabling them to communicate between themselves and form a network. Motes are also equipped with infrared sensors that detect movement, and magnetometers to detect the presence of large machinery. Motes are also equipped with On-Demand Video, which activates with alarm is tripped (BP.COM). Motes also reduce the amounts of chemical needed because of there ability to determine exact location of corrosion.
  • Each employee is given this RFID device which have a chip and antenna, that broadcast each employees physical location on a map. The transmitter tracks and sends the information back to a central computer in the company. Employees don’t mind the LASS, they see it as a way for the company to improve their safety. The LASS is being used for lifting accidents, offshore installations, drilling rigs and pipe laying operations. LASS has proved to be one of BP’s most important wireless sensors
  • Current IT issues include security of data, data tampering, release of privacy information, and while currently there is no regulatory requirement for shipping containers to have tamper indicators, it is reasonable to expect in the future that this will be a mandatory requirement. Currently it is a voluntary requirement. Literature search did not indicate that there was any documented significant concerns at this time with malicious data tampering. That current safeguards are effective n this arena. However some shipboard applications did indicate that there was some erroneous data sets at times but not statistically enough to infer that it was a problem at this time. As the application use increases with time privacy will become a concern. Current technological safeguards are apparently sufficient to protect data information and does not appear to be a significant concern at this time for industrial application. As the use of MOTES increases in the healthcare industry I foresee concern to secure the personal health information as required by HIPPA.

Transcript

  • 1. ITEC 610 Team Members Craig Henson Juan Luna Nekia Rice Greg Zeitlin August 8, 2010 Version 1.0 How integration of remote sensor networks (MOTES) effect current business paradigms STUDY GROUP FIVE
  • 2.
    • Case Study Introduction
    • Wireless Networks
    • Selected Companies
      • SAIC
      • Hewlett-Packard
      • IBM
      • Intel
      • General Electric
      • Palo Alto Research
      • BP
  • 3.
    • Lessons Learned
    • Current IT issues
    • Case Relevancy
    • References
    • Questions/Comments
  • 4. Introduction
    • DARPA initially funded a research project on low power wireless integrated micro sensors for use in military applications
    • SAIC participated on the initial research project with DARPA and continues participating in research and development of wireless sensor network (WSN) for use in defense and civilian applications
    • Other large corporations have followed the trend to continue research and development on wireless networks on what is considered the 21 st century revolutionary technology
  • 5. MOTES Devices
  • 6. SAIC
    • Founded by Dr. J. Robert Beyster in 1969, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), a big government contractor with over 45,000 employees worldwide
    • SAIC has been involved in the development and integration of different wireless sensor networks based on “motes ”
  • 7. SAIC
    • It has developed and implemented remote wireless sensor networks for applications with customers such as:
      • Homeland Security to help monitor U.S. borders, bridges, power plants, and ships by detecting suspicious movements
      • Department of Defense to remotely measure soldiers' stress reactions in battle
    • SAIC has recently developed a Sensor Web system application for the Defense Intelligence Agency based on the Sensor Web Enablement technology connecting wireless sensor networks via internet
  • 8. SAIC
    • SensorWeb system application Diagram
  • 9. SAIC
    • In partnership with Georgetown University is currently developing a micro system for automating blood sugar monitoring with skin patch
    • Currently supports research in the area of wireless sensors providing grants to small companies such as Resensys and FlexEI
    • Resensys develops wireless, distributed sensors
    • FlexEl develops high-density, rechargeable batteries made from thin films
  • 10. Hewlett-Packard
    • Hewlett-Packard was founded by Stanford classmates Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard in 1939.
    • A world leader in IT products and solutions, HP was also a pioneer in the use of RFID. Today, HP offers this expertise in RFID as a solution to companies looking to utilize the technology.
  • 11. Hewlett-Packard
    • HP Data Center Smart Grid
      • Wireless sensors monitor energy consumption
      • Instant benchmarks and feedback allow companies to minimize their global footprint and reduce operating costs.
    • Mediascape
      • Context based interactive media application
      • Users can employ many different sensors to trigger context, including RFID, infrared, heart rate and motion sensors.
  • 12. Hewlett-Packard
  • 13. IBM
    • IBM is the product of a merge of three 19 th century companies in 1911 which created CTR later renamed IBM by longtime CEO Thomas J. Watson Sr. in 1924
    • IBM is one of the most well known and influential American companies with manufacturing facilities, technology research centers and customers all over the world
    • IBM has been involved in the research and development of sensor solutions for industrial tracking, pharmaceutical, distribution supply, etc.
  • 14. IBM
    • IBM has focus its efforts in research on the integration of sensor wireless networks within end-to-end enterprise solutions
    • IBM has developed applications for remote, smart metering and location sensing
    • Sensor network scenarios and applications below:
  • 15. IBM
    • IBM has developed and made available free as recently as in June 2010 a software application for wireless sensor networks named Mote Runner
  • 16. Intel
    • Founded in 1968, Intel is the world’s largest semiconductor chip maker.
    • Experience in creating microprocessors, network interface cards, and flash memory positions them especially well to be leaders in wireless sensor networks.
    • Intel’s SHIMMER mote is finding increased uses in health care including:
      • Home baby monitoring
      • Personal blood pressure tracking
      • Hearing assistance for the deaf
      • Protective gear for firefighters to monitor conditions
  • 17. Intel
    • Intel Common Sense Project
      • Working on development of mobile sensing platforms as tools for citizen science (Bose, 90)
  • 18. General Electric
    • Established in 1900 by Thomas Edison
    • Uses MOTES for tracking and monitoring shipping containers
    • Safeguarding shipping tampering
    • Possible use to monitor appliance status
    • Issue: Marginal profitability for business purposes in shipping however regulatory requirement by governments to “secure” shipping containers may make them mandatory later
    • Cost per unit approximately $100.00 per unit
  • 19. General Electric
    • Issues:
      • Security of data elements
      • Cost benefit
      • Affect on business paradigm
      • Competition
  • 20. Palo Alto Research Center PARC
    • Industrial research facility
    • “A center for commercial innovation, PARC, a Xerox company, works closely with clients to discover, test, and deliver new business opportunities. Global enterprises and early-stage entrepreneurs can gain new insights into customer needs, extend technical capabilities, and acquire valuable new technology assets.” ( http://www.parc.com/about/ )
  • 21. Palo Alto Research Center
    • Remote wireless sensors used for monitoring parking garage
    • Test for how many parameters may be monitored
    • What data can be found to have useful application in business
  • 22. British Petroleum (BP)
    • BP started in 1908 in Persia, being financially backed by William D’Arcy. D’Arcy had gambled most of his fortune on oil. He placed his confidence in George Reynold’s, an explorer that was in charge of drilling in Persia. However, before long D’Arcy had run out of his personal funding for this project and was forced to get outside investor Burmah Oil, in 1904.
    • BP has developed a personal tracking RFID device called Location Aware Safety System (LASS).
  • 23. British Petroleum (BP)
    • Motes are self-contained compact devices comprising one or more sensors, a chip, a transmitter and a power source, enabling them to communicate between themselves and form a network. Motes are also equipped with infrared sensors that detect movement, and magnetometers to detect the presence of large machinery. Motes are also equipped with On-Demand Video, which activates with alarm is tripped (BP.COM). Motes also reduce the amounts of chemical needed because of there ability to determine exact location of corrosion.
  • 24. British Petroleum (BP) BP has developed a personal tracking RFID device called Location Aware Safety System (LASS). LASS is a transmitter that reports employees location to a map on a specific central computer LASS has improved employee safety and response time
  • 25. Current IT issues
    • Security of data stream
    • Tampering of data
    • Privacy
    • Regulatory requirements - Homeland Security
  • 26. VIII. Questions/Comments
    • What questions do you have?
  • 27. References
    • Blankenhorn, D. (2010). The GE-Intel tie-up needs a big deal to be a big deal. ZDNet Healthcare. 2010, August 2. Retrieved from: http:// www.zdnet.com /blog/healthcare /
    • Bose, S. (2009). Sensor Networks—Motes, Smart Spaces, and Beyond. IEEE Pervasive Computing , pp. 90. doi: 1536-1268/09
    • Devabhaktuni, V., Haslett, J. (2010). Introduction to Theory and Applications of Self Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks. University of Calgary, Department of Electrical & Computer Enguineering, Retrieved from: http://enel.ucalgary.ca/People/Haslett/WCLM/CCHE/WebPage/VijayDevabhaktuni_Wireless_Proceedings.doc
    • Gemong1. (2007). MSCAPE GAME DEMO: ROKU'S REWARD [Video file]. Retrieved from: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = BUOHfVXkUaI
    • Georgetown University. (2008, June 19). No More Finger Pricks?. Georgetown University News .Retrieved from: http://explore.georgetown.edu/news/?ID=34422
    • Gerber, C. (2009). Full Speed Ahead for Full Motion Video - Geospatial Intelligence Forum. 7(5). Retrieved from: http://geospatial-intelligence-forum.com/geospatial-intelligence-forum/205-gif-2009-volume-7-issue-5/2052-full-speed-ahead-for-full-motion-video.html
    • Gorder, P. (2003). Sizing Up Smart Dust. Computer and Size Engineering, 5(6) 6-10. Retrieved from: http://cise.aip.org/dbt/dbt.jsp?KEY=CSENFA&Volume=5
    • Greenemeier, L. (2005). IBM Launches Wireless Shipping Security. InformationWeek . 2005, September. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/government/showArticle.jhtml?articleID =171000325
  • 28. References
    • IBM. (2010). Retrieved from: http://domino.watson.ibm.com/comm/research.nsf/pages/r.communications.innovation2.html
    • Intel, (2010). Retrieved from: htpp://www.intel.com/labs/features/rs01031.htm
    • Kharif, O., Helm, B., Lacy, S. (2005). SPECIAL REPORT: CEO GUIDE TO TECHNOLOGY. Business Week. 2005, July 25. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2005/tc20050726_8027.htm
    • Kirkpatrick, M. (2010). Google, GE & Others Prototype Wireless Shipping Security. InformationWeek. 2005, September. Retrieved from: htpp://www.readwriteweb.com
    • Merrill, W. (2010). Where is the Return on investment in wireless sensor networks?
    • IEEE Communications Society . Retrieved from: http://dl.comsoc.org/wireless/public/2010/feb/pdf/wciindpersp.pdf
    • Ricadela, A. (2005). Sensors Everywhere InfromationWeek. 2005, January. Retrieved from http://www.rense.com/general62/sensors.htm
    • Sensors Magazine. (2009). University of Maryland Startups Receive Funding from SAIC. Sensors Magazine . retrieved from http://www.sensorsmag.com/wireless-applications/news/university-maryland-startups-receive-funding-saic-3747
    • Sun, Q. (2007) Mediascapes: Context-Aware Multimedia Experiences. IEEE MultiMedia , 98-101. doi:1070-986X/07.
    • Techeye.net (2010). IBM announces free software dev kit for sensors. Techeye.net. Retrieved from http://www.techeye.net/software/ibm-announces-free-software-dev-kit-for-sensors#ixzz0vpOabzSE
  • 29. References