SocioemotionalDevelopmentSelf, identity, and personalityFamily, peers, and specialissues                              1
Development of Selfand Identity                  2
   Self Esteem     Self-Esteem   is the overall way we evaluate ourselves     Controversy over whether or not self-este...
Self – Esteem Decreases in adolescence Boys generally have higher self-esteem  than girls – mostly likely due to body  i...
Identity FormationThe critical task ofadolescence?                       5
Identity DevelopmentIdentity    What is Identity – a self-portrait composed of many pieces such as:   Vocational/Career  ...
The Facts Neither begins nor ends in adolescence lengthy , life-long process by the end of adolescence, teenagers  shou...
Most substantial changes Late adolescence & early adulthood Tends to follow a MAMA cycle     Moratorium     Achiever  ...
. Erik Erikson ( 1902 - 1994)-5th stage   Identity And Repudiation Versus    Identity Confusion - (12 To 18 Years)     A...
Adolescents should Exit this stage with a clearer sense of self  OR Will have confusion about self – who they  are.., N...
Erikson’s View   Erik Erikson first understood the centrality    of identity for adolescent development     Psychosocial...
James Marcia’sExpansion Of Erikson’s Concepts(statuses of identity) Crisis - when the individual seems to be  actively in...
Identity           13
4 Identity Statuses1. Identity diffused status - no crisis and  no commitment has been made. Example  - no vocational expl...
Statuses continued3. Moratorium status - a crisis is in  progress but no commitment has been  made . Example- some explora...
Changes in statuses MAMA cycle is linked to a sense of identity Young Teenagers - must establish  confidence in parental...
   Identity     Emerging     Adulthood and Beyond          Key changes in identity are more likely to take           pl...
Gender Differences in identityformation (based on Erikson)   Males - industry than intimacy - autonomy    and achievement...
Ethnic Difference(read these sections carefully) Ethnic adolescents often face prejudices  and poverty while trying ASSIM...
Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity -- enduring aspect of the  self that includes a sense of membership  in an ethnic group, ...
Ethnic Identity in ImmigrantGroups   First-generation immigrants are likely to be    secure in their identities and unlik...
 Religious    and Spiritual Development   Downtrend  in religious interest among    adolescents has occurred in the 21st...
Family         23
Families   Parental Monitoring     Should  supervise adolescents’ choice of      social settings, activities, and friend...
Autonomy and Attachment   Adolescent’s push for autonomy and    responsibility puzzles and angers many parents   As the ...
Autonomy, Attachment andControl   Positive relationship = securely attached   behavior in adolescence is acquired throug...
Does adjustment depend ontype of Control? Psychological manipulation and guilt leads  to lower levels of adjustment Pare...
Connectedness and secureattachment   Positive outcomes -     increased self-esteem,    emotional adjustment,     physi...
Families Role   of Attachment: Secure  attachment is an important concept in   adolescents’ relationship with their pare...
The nature of parent – childconflicts•   increased conflict result from :    •Early puberty changes    Cognitive thoughts...
Parent-Adolescent Conflict Much of the conflict involves the everyday  events of family life (e.g., keeping a  bedroom cl...
Conflicts can be positive Move the teenager to autonomy and  control with guidance (let the adolescent  make decision in ...
Old and New Models   Old model -- as adolescents mature they detach    themselves from parents and move into a world    o...
Friends and Peers                34
Developmental changes in peergroup structure in adolescence   Adolescent peer groups are    more heterogeneous    mixed...
Friendships   Sullivan discussed the importance of    adolescent friendships     Friends  are important in shaping the  ...
Adolescence--- spend   more time with their peers. More interest based receive less adult supervision and  control beg...
FUNCTIONS OF PEER GROUPSKelly, J.A. & Hansen , D.J. (1990) Control aggressive impulses Obtain emotional and social suppo...
continued Develop attitudes towards sexuality and  gender role behaviors Strengthen moral judgment and values Improve s...
   Peer Groups     Peer   Pressure         Young adolescents conform more to peer          standards than children do  ...
Crowds and Cliques   CLIQUES - Are smaller ( 4 to 6 people)    and involve greater intimacy among    members and have mor...
Types of Cliques (Brown and Lohr)   Popular ( high esteem group)   Jocks (high esteem group)   Normal   Druggies   No...
Dating andRomanticRelationships                43
 DevelopmentalChanges in Dating and Romantic Relationships     Three stages          Entry into romantic attractions an...
FUNCTIONS OF DATING   Form of recreation   source of status & achievement   learn about close relationships   mate sel...
The Stats   15 years - tend to date in couples, with short    duration relationship (4 months) but frequent    contact. ...
DATING SCRIPTSAre the cognitive models thatadolescents and adults use toguide and evaluate datinginteractions             ...
FEMALES               MALES• STRONG DESIRE FOR    • STEREOTYPICAL   INTIMACY              BEHAVIOR OF• STEREOTYPICAL OF   ...
Sociocultural Aspects of dating Values Religion chaperoned dates, couples or single Internet dating??                 ...
   Dating and Romantic Relationships     Gay   Male and Lesbian Youth         Many date other-sex peers, which can help...
Dating and Adjustment There is a link between dating and  romantic relationships with measures of  adjustment Those who ...
February is teen dating violence month learn more at the CDCwebsite -http://www.cdc.gov/Features/DatingViolence/TEEN DATIN...
Traditions and Changes inAdolescence Around the Globe   Fewer adolescents around the world die from infectious    disease...
Rites of Passage   Rite of passage -- ceremony or ritual that    marks an individual’s transition from one    status to a...
Do we have rites of passage forAmerican adolescents? We do not have universal formal  ceremonies to mark passage from  ad...
Immigration Relatively high rates of immigration  contribute to the growth of ethnic  minorities in the United States Im...
Immigrant Family Issues Many come from collectivist cultures in  which family obligation is strong For adolescents, this...
Ethnicity and SocioeconomicStatus Not all ethnic minority families are poor Economic advantage does not entirely  enable...
The Media There has been a dramatic increase in  media multitasking Television viewing and video-game  playing peak in e...
Adolescent Problems   Juvenile Delinquency     Juvenile Delinquent: an adolescent who      breaks the law or engages in ...
Adolescent Problems   Juvenile Delinquency     Causes    of Delinquency         Lower class culture         Parents le...
Adolescent Problems   Depression and Suicide     Depression      Rates of ever experiencing major depressive disorder r...
Depression   Symptoms may include:    Poor appetite    Sleep disturbance    Loss of pleasure in everyday activities   ...
 Depression         and Suicide   Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in 10-    to 19-year-olds   Far more adoles...
Adolescent Problems   Depression and Suicide       Other Risk Factors           History of family instability and unhap...
Gender Differences in Suicide     Females  were more likely to attempt     Males were more likely to succeed in      com...
The Interrelation of Problems andSuccessful Prevention/InterventionPrograms   Four   problems that affect the most adoles...
The Interrelation of Problems andSuccessful Prevention/InterventionPrograms   Successful     Intervention Programs Includ...
ReferenceSantrock, J. (2012).Essentials of Life-SpanDevelopment. (2nd). New York,NY: McGraw- Hill                         ...
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Essentials adol socioemotional 12

  1. 1. SocioemotionalDevelopmentSelf, identity, and personalityFamily, peers, and specialissues 1
  2. 2. Development of Selfand Identity 2
  3. 3.  Self Esteem  Self-Esteem is the overall way we evaluate ourselves  Controversy over whether or not self-esteem changes during adolescence or if there are gender differences in adolescents’ self-esteem  Narcissism – a self-centered and self-concerned approach toward others 3
  4. 4. Self – Esteem Decreases in adolescence Boys generally have higher self-esteem than girls – mostly likely due to body image and societal/cultural expectations 4
  5. 5. Identity FormationThe critical task ofadolescence? 5
  6. 6. Identity DevelopmentIdentity What is Identity – a self-portrait composed of many pieces such as: Vocational/Career  Sexual Political  Cultural/Ethnic Religious  Interests Relationship  Personality Achievement, Intellectual  Physical 6
  7. 7. The Facts Neither begins nor ends in adolescence lengthy , life-long process by the end of adolescence, teenagers should have vocational commitment, sense of cognitive, spiritual, and gender identity 7
  8. 8. Most substantial changes Late adolescence & early adulthood Tends to follow a MAMA cycle  Moratorium  Achiever  Moratorium  Achiever 8
  9. 9. . Erik Erikson ( 1902 - 1994)-5th stage Identity And Repudiation Versus Identity Confusion - (12 To 18 Years) Achieve a state of identity A) moratorium - a temporary cessation of an activity between childhood and adulthood. B) repudiate - give up 9
  10. 10. Adolescents should Exit this stage with a clearer sense of self OR Will have confusion about self – who they are.., Need this moratorium - as time explore – the self he/she wants to be 10
  11. 11. Erikson’s View Erik Erikson first understood the centrality of identity for adolescent development  Psychosocial moratorium Erikson’s 5th stage: identity versus identity confusion Crisis -- the exploratory period of identity development Commitment -- personal investment in identity 11
  12. 12. James Marcia’sExpansion Of Erikson’s Concepts(statuses of identity) Crisis - when the individual seems to be actively involved in choosing among alternative occupations and beliefs. Commitment - refers to the degree of personal investment and the individual expresses in an occupation or beliefs . 12
  13. 13. Identity 13
  14. 14. 4 Identity Statuses1. Identity diffused status - no crisis and no commitment has been made. Example - no vocational exploration/no post high school commitment2. Foreclosure status - has not experienced a crisis but has made a commitment. Example - adopts parent’s values.., 14
  15. 15. Statuses continued3. Moratorium status - a crisis is in progress but no commitment has been made . Example- some exploration but no commitment4. Identity achievement status - the person has been through a crisis and made a commitment. Example - exploration and commitment made to vocational interest. 15
  16. 16. Changes in statuses MAMA cycle is linked to a sense of identity Young Teenagers - must establish confidence in parental support, develop a sense of industry, and gain a self- reflective perspective. 16
  17. 17.  Identity  Emerging Adulthood and Beyond  Key changes in identity are more likely to take place in emerging adulthood than in adolescence  Identity does not remain stable throughout life  “MAMA”: repeated cycles of moratorium to achievement 17
  18. 18. Gender Differences in identityformation (based on Erikson) Males - industry than intimacy - autonomy and achievement more important Females - intimacy than industry - emotional bonds and relationships more important 18
  19. 19. Ethnic Difference(read these sections carefully) Ethnic adolescents often face prejudices and poverty while trying ASSIMILATE to a new culture There are often differences in values, behaviors and background between and within cultures - understanding these differences can assist in finding solutions to problems and barriers 19
  20. 20. Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity -- enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership Bicultural identity -- adolescents identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture 20
  21. 21. Ethnic Identity in ImmigrantGroups First-generation immigrants are likely to be secure in their identities and unlikely to change much  they may or may not develop a new identity Second-generation immigrants are more likely to think of themselves as “American”  possibly because citizenship is granted at birth  ethnic identity is likely to be linked to retention of their ethnic language and social networks 21
  22. 22.  Religious and Spiritual Development  Downtrend in religious interest among adolescents has occurred in the 21st century  Religious and identity development  Cognitive Development and Religion in Adolescence  Increase in abstract thinking lets adolescents consider various ideas about religious and spiritual concepts  ThePositive Role of Religion in Adolescents’ Lives 22
  23. 23. Family 23
  24. 24. Families Parental Monitoring  Should supervise adolescents’ choice of social settings, activities, and friends, as well as their academic efforts  Authoritative parenting - parents encourage adolescents to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions 24
  25. 25. Autonomy and Attachment Adolescent’s push for autonomy and responsibility puzzles and angers many parents As the adolescent pushes for autonomy, the wise adult relinquishes control where the adolescent can make reasonable decisions, but continues to guide the adolescent Boys are given more independence than girls Secure attachment may be important in adolescents’ relationships with their parents 25
  26. 26. Autonomy, Attachment andControl Positive relationship = securely attached behavior in adolescence is acquired through appropriate adult interactions and control Connectedness (mutuality and permeability) and Individuality (self-assertion and separateness) – good identity development occurs when these are encouraged by parents. 26
  27. 27. Does adjustment depend ontype of Control? Psychological manipulation and guilt leads to lower levels of adjustment Parental awareness of child’s activities & deviance, and low harshness positively associated with parental connectedness 27
  28. 28. Connectedness and secureattachment Positive outcomes -  increased self-esteem, emotional adjustment,  physical health, and peer relationships. 28
  29. 29. Families Role of Attachment: Secure attachment is an important concept in adolescents’ relationship with their parents Balancing Freedom and Control: Adolescents still need to stay connected to families 29
  30. 30. The nature of parent – childconflicts• increased conflict result from : •Early puberty changes Cognitive thoughts of idealism and logical reasoning focus on independence and identity changes of parent 30
  31. 31. Parent-Adolescent Conflict Much of the conflict involves the everyday events of family life (e.g., keeping a bedroom clean, dressing neatly, getting home by a certain time, use of the phone) The conflicts rarely involve major dilemmas such as drugs or delinquency Conflict with parents often escalates during early adolescence, remains somewhat stable during the high school years, and then lessens as adolescence ends 31
  32. 32. Conflicts can be positive Move the teenager to autonomy and control with guidance (let the adolescent make decision in areas of life that they understand!) Helps them learn to negotiate conflicts build better relationships 32
  33. 33. Old and New Models Old model -- as adolescents mature they detach themselves from parents and move into a world of autonomy apart from parents  parent-adolescent conflict is intense and stressful throughout adolescence New model emphasizes parents as important attachment figures and support systems  in most families, parent-adolescent conflict is moderate rather than severe  everyday negotiations and minor disputes not only are normal but serve a positive function 33
  34. 34. Friends and Peers 34
  35. 35. Developmental changes in peergroup structure in adolescence Adolescent peer groups are more heterogeneous mixed-sexed groups tend to be larger groups. 35
  36. 36. Friendships Sullivan discussed the importance of adolescent friendships  Friends are important in shaping the development of children and adolescents  Everyone has basic social needs, friends help meet social needs  Teenagers are motivated to seek out close friends  Foreshadows the quality of romantic relationships in adulthood 36
  37. 37. Adolescence--- spend more time with their peers. More interest based receive less adult supervision and control begin interacting with the opposite sex . Conformity to peers – peaks between 8th and 9th grade. 37
  38. 38. FUNCTIONS OF PEER GROUPSKelly, J.A. & Hansen , D.J. (1990) Control aggressive impulses Obtain emotional and social support and become more independent Improve social skills, develop reasoning abilities and learn to express feelings in mature ways 38
  39. 39. continued Develop attitudes towards sexuality and gender role behaviors Strengthen moral judgment and values Improve self-esteem 39
  40. 40.  Peer Groups  Peer Pressure  Young adolescents conform more to peer standards than children do  Adolescents with low self-esteem and high social anxiety are most likely to conform to peers 40
  41. 41. Crowds and Cliques CLIQUES - Are smaller ( 4 to 6 people) and involve greater intimacy among members and have more group cohesion. CROWDS - Is the largest and least personal group . Usually made up of several cliques - both male and female. 41 ))
  42. 42. Types of Cliques (Brown and Lohr) Popular ( high esteem group) Jocks (high esteem group) Normal Druggies Nobodies (lowest esteem group) Independents ( high esteem)#relationship between self-esteem and membership is bidirectional 42
  43. 43. Dating andRomanticRelationships 43
  44. 44.  DevelopmentalChanges in Dating and Romantic Relationships  Three stages  Entry into romantic attractions and affiliations at about 11 to 13 years of age  Exploring romantic relationships at approximately 14 to 16 years of age  Consolidating dyadic romantic bonds at about 17 to 19 years of age 44
  45. 45. FUNCTIONS OF DATING Form of recreation source of status & achievement learn about close relationships mate selection 45
  46. 46. The Stats 15 years - tend to date in couples, with short duration relationship (4 months) but frequent contact. 10 graders- 5 to 6 month duration 12 grade - 8 months Activities : mall, movies, dinner, visiting friends and each other, & school. Adolescent often very strong emotion related to romantic relationships! 46
  47. 47. DATING SCRIPTSAre the cognitive models thatadolescents and adults use toguide and evaluate datinginteractions 47
  48. 48. FEMALES MALES• STRONG DESIRE FOR • STEREOTYPICAL INTIMACY BEHAVIOR OF• STEREOTYPICAL OF “MASCULINITY” IS “FEMININE” HIGH BEHAVIORS IS HIGH• FEMALE SCRIPT • MALE SCRIPT INVOLVES : INVOLVES:1. PRIVATE DOMAIN 1. INITIATING THE DATE2. PARTICIPATING IN 2. CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF DATE PUBLIC DOMAIN3. RESPONDING TO 3. INITIATING SEXUAL SEXUAL GESTURES INTERACTIONS• REACTIVE • PROACTIVE 48
  49. 49. Sociocultural Aspects of dating Values Religion chaperoned dates, couples or single Internet dating?? 49
  50. 50.  Dating and Romantic Relationships  Gay Male and Lesbian Youth  Many date other-sex peers, which can help clarify their sexual orientation or disguise it from others  Sociocultural Contexts and Dating  Differences in dating patterns among ethnic groups in the U.S.  Values, beliefs, and traditions often dictate the age at which dating begins 50
  51. 51. Dating and Adjustment There is a link between dating and romantic relationships with measures of adjustment Those who date are more likely to have  Higher levels of social acceptance  Higher levels of friendship and romantic competence Early dating and “going with” someone is associated with adolescent pregnancy and problems at home and school 51
  52. 52. February is teen dating violence month learn more at the CDCwebsite -http://www.cdc.gov/Features/DatingViolence/TEEN DATING AND VIOLENCE 52
  53. 53. Traditions and Changes inAdolescence Around the Globe Fewer adolescents around the world die from infectious diseases and malnutrition now than in the past The experiences of male and female adolescents continue to be quite different Some adolescents grow up in closely knit families with extensive extended kin networks that retain a traditional way of life Some cultures give peers a stronger role in adolescence 53
  54. 54. Rites of Passage Rite of passage -- ceremony or ritual that marks an individual’s transition from one status to another  gain access to sacred adult practices, to knowledge, and to sexuality  often involve some form of ritual death and rebirth, or by means of contact with the spiritual world(Kottak, 2009) 54
  55. 55. Do we have rites of passage forAmerican adolescents? We do not have universal formal ceremonies to mark passage from adolescence to adulthood Certain religions do (e.g., Jewish bar and bat mitzvah, the Catholic confirmation) School graduation ceremonies come the closest Social organizations may have ceremonies like initiations or debuts 55
  56. 56. Immigration Relatively high rates of immigration contribute to the growth of ethnic minorities in the United States Immigrants often experience stressors such as language barriers, separations from support networks, changes in SES status, the dual struggle to preserve identity and to acculturate 56
  57. 57. Immigrant Family Issues Many come from collectivist cultures in which family obligation is strong For adolescents, this obligation may mean assisting parents in their occupations and/ or contributing to the family’s welfare The long hours immigrant youth work in such jobs can be detrimental to their academic achievement 57
  58. 58. Ethnicity and SocioeconomicStatus Not all ethnic minority families are poor Economic advantage does not entirely enable minorities to escape prejudice, discrimination, and bias However, poverty contributes to the stressful life experiences of many ethnic minority adolescents 58
  59. 59. The Media There has been a dramatic increase in media multitasking Television viewing and video-game playing peak in early adolescence and then begin to decline Older adolescents spend more time listening to music and using the computer Increased Internet use  Cyberbullying  Sex crimes 59
  60. 60. Adolescent Problems Juvenile Delinquency  Juvenile Delinquent: an adolescent who breaks the law or engages in behavior that is considered illegal  Males more likely to engage in delinquency than females  Rates among minority groups and lower-SES youth are especially high 60
  61. 61. Adolescent Problems Juvenile Delinquency  Causes of Delinquency  Lower class culture  Parents less skilled in discouraging antisocial behavior  Siblings and delinquent peers 61
  62. 62. Adolescent Problems Depression and Suicide  Depression  Rates of ever experiencing major depressive disorder range from 15 to 20 percent for adolescents  Certain family factors place adolescents at risk for developing depression  Poor peer relationships are associated with adolescent depression  Depressed adolescents recovered faster when they took an antidepressant and received cognitive behavior therapy than when they received either treatment alone 62
  63. 63. Depression Symptoms may include: Poor appetite Sleep disturbance Loss of pleasure in everyday activities Feelings of worthlessness Inattention-thinking/concentration Suicidal thoughts 63
  64. 64.  Depression and Suicide  Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in 10- to 19-year-olds  Far more adolescents contemplate or attempt it unsuccessfully than actually commit it  Females are more likely to attempt suicide, but males are more likely to succeed  Learn more at  Center for Disease Control. (2012) Youth suicide. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pub/youth_suicide.html 64
  65. 65. Adolescent Problems Depression and Suicide  Other Risk Factors  History of family instability and unhappiness  Lack of supportive friendships  Cultural contexts  Genetic factors  Depressive symptoms 65
  66. 66. Gender Differences in Suicide  Females were more likely to attempt  Males were more likely to succeed in committing suicide  Males use more lethal means, such as guns  Females are more likely to cut their wrists or take an overdose of sleeping pills Suicidal adolescents often have depressive symptoms 66
  67. 67. The Interrelation of Problems andSuccessful Prevention/InterventionPrograms  Four problems that affect the most adolescents:  Drug abuse  Juvenile delinquency  Sexual problems  School-related problems 67
  68. 68. The Interrelation of Problems andSuccessful Prevention/InterventionPrograms  Successful Intervention Programs Include:  Intensive individualized attention  Community-wide multiagency collaborative approaches  Early identification and intervention 68
  69. 69. ReferenceSantrock, J. (2012).Essentials of Life-SpanDevelopment. (2nd). New York,NY: McGraw- Hill 69 (c) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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