Edu553 final project


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Edu553 final project

  1. 1. EDU553 Final Project Nonverbal Communication Across Cultures By: Adrienne Horrigan, Stephanie Kershner, & Kelly Wendler
  2. 2. How does nonverbal communication differ among French, Chinese, and Spanish Cultures? How can you use the knowledge of the cultures to facilitate second language acquisition? The BIG Question...
  3. 3. Why This Topic??? <ul><li>Non-Verbal communication is as much a part of our lives as breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t always “hear” the languages around us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to take the time to learn the “signals” from others because they are powerful communicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can glean much useful information from this “silent language”…without saying or hearing a word. </li></ul><ul><li>People all over the world use their heads, hands, and bodies to communicate expressively. </li></ul><ul><li>Many similarities and differences among the cultures we chose to investigate. </li></ul>“ Sixty percent of all our communication is non-verbal, therefore we can not possibly communicate without gestures.” -Edward T. Hall - References: Imai, Gary I. n.d. Gestures: Body Language and Nonverbal Communication . http:// Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: The Do’s and Taboos of Body Language Around the World. John Wiley & Sons, 1991. “ Gestures are the easiest part of a foreign language to learn.” – Joanne P.-
  4. 4. Types of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar throughout the world, regardless of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a form of nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be defined as movements or signals that are used to communicate without words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common examples of gestures used throughout the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>waving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using fingers to count </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Nonverbal Communication (Con’t) <ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is one form of nonverbal communication that does vary from culture to culture and even within that culture from person to person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be defined at the amount of distance needed and the amount of space perceived as belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies from person to person and is influenced by a number of factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level of familiarity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Nonverbal Communication (Con’t) <ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is another form of nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact varies from culture to culture and has a wide range of meanings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Gestures & Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Human Biological Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These gestures come from the biological make-up of humans and mean the same thing regardless of personality, culture, sex, or education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gives a positive message </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blushing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caused when blood flows to the checks during a time of embarrassment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a natural instinct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Fr an ce <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>used since the time of the Renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medieval French literature contains gestures that can include gesturing with the arm, back, chin, elbow, finger, fist, hand, head, shoulder, write, and even the whole body. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contemporary French literature contains gestures that translate emotions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Fr an ce (Continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a sign of equality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making eye contact while passing a stranger could be a request for friendship. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusing to make eye contact is a sign of looking down upon a person. However, brief eye contact is permitted when the person you are looking at is the person who is helping you. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Fr an ce (Continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Contact </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking hands is used as a greeting between two people. There is usually very little eye contact during the hand shake. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French handshakes also consist of a gentle, light, single shake. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double kissing on the check is a nonverbal form of communication between two close people. Double kissing is usually started with the right side. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a touching behaviors study, one that observed people sitting in an outdoor café, researchers observed 110 touches per hour. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Fr an ce (Continued) <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When counting on fingers, one starts counting with the thumb as number one, the index fingers as number two, the middle finger as number three and so on. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Ch ina <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>gestures stem from respect for one’s parents or elders and also for authority </li></ul><ul><li>taught to respect those who lead </li></ul><ul><li>strong loyalty to family and the authority goes from top to bottom in the extended family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ie. Termed “vertical authority” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Ch ina (Continued) <ul><li>Greetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as in our western culture, shaking hands is normal, as is a nod of the head and/or a slight bow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is customary for business cards to be exchanged (printed in your own language AND Chinese) It must be presented using both hands (also with gifts). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often times you will be applauded by a group, it is custom for you to return the applause, as in a “thank you”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While walking in public direct eye contact is avoided unless you are in a smaller community. In this case you may be stared at. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Ch ina (Continued) <ul><li>Touching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese people are not touch oriented, so avoid touching or extended periods of bodily contact (especially if you are a visitor). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public displays of affection are rare, UNLESS you are good friends and of the same sex. In this case you will see hand holding to show a close friendship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though touching is not the norm you will find that in crowds there is quite a bit of pushing and shoving. Do not expect to give or get an apology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is due in part to the fact that the Chinese need much less personal space than in some cultures and will stand much closer in public places. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Ch ina (Continued) <ul><li>Beckoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To motion someone towards you your palm should face downward and your fingers are moved in a scratching motion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use your index finger curling towards you is considered rude and used only for animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When pointing to something the open hand is used rather than just a finger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The feet are never used to gesture or to move something because feet are seen as dirty. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Ch ina (Continued) <ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture is important to the Chinese so slouching is discouraged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence is widely accepted and encouraged as it shows that you are listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word “no” is avoided at all costs, rather, if they consider something to be difficult, or need to say “no” they show this by tipping their head back and sucking in air loudly through their teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On public streets it’s common to spit or blow the nose without a tissue or handkerchief. The government is trying to discourage this but it used to be seen as a way to rid the body of waste-or an act of personal hygiene. Today it’s more seen as low class. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Sp ani sh cul tu res <ul><li>Hand gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish language is rich in hand gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to English hand gestures, but have different meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when making a circle with the index finger and thumb, this does not mean “OK”, but rather means ‘money’, because it looks like a coin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a “thumbs up” signal can mean many different things, but none of them are “good” or “OK”, but rather are insulting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The common English gesture for “come here” (palm up moving the index several times) signals romantic or sexual interested to Spanish speakers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>put their palms down and move all finger to signal “come here” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pointing up and wiggling the index finger symbolizes “no”, just like in many other cultures </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Sp ani sh cul tu res (Continued) <ul><li>Physical Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Spanish speakers meet, they almost always touch, especially if they know each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men often hug if they know each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If one of the people meeting is female, they will exchange “besitos”, or little kisses. They touch cheeks and make small kissing sounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of touching leads Spanish speakers to believe that the other person is cold and distant. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Sp ani sh cul tu res (Continued) <ul><li>Body Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rely heavily on body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often talk over each other, use vigorous hand movements to make a point, and contort their facial expressions to reflect their thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to show interest in what someone is speaking about, they will interrupt the speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place a lot of emphasis on how people present themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often will not express themselves with word, but rather will reveal their message through nonverbal cues </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Nonverbal Gesture Across Cultures… Sp ani sh cul tu res (Continued) <ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to smile a lot and make very little eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the comfortable speaking distance is 6-18 inches from face to face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is considered rude when throwing something at another person, even to simply pass a pen, keys, or cigarette lighter </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion
  22. 22. Resources <ul><li>Imai, Gary I. n.d. Gestures: Body Language and Nonverbal Communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: The Do’s and Taboos of Body Language Around the World. John Wiley & Sons, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Brault, G. (1993). Kinesics and the Classroom: Some Typical French Gestures. American Association of Teachers of French , 36, 374 – 382. </li></ul><ul><li>Burlacu, A.(2010, July 26). Body Language Across the World – Universal , </li></ul><ul><li> Retrieved September 29, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry, K. (2010). Types of Nonverbal Communication , Retrieved September 20, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2010, from http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haynes, J. (1998 – 2004) Communicating with Gestures , Retrieved October 5, </li></ul><ul><li>2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Judy Haynes, Communicating with Gestures, 1998 – 2004, http:// (5 October 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Management Institute (LMI). “Asian Pacific Cultural Values.” Leadership Education for Asian Pacifics. (1990). </li></ul><ul><li>Munter, M. (May/June 1993). Cross-cultural Communication for Managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Business Horizons , 36,pg 69. </li></ul><ul><li>(Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: Do’s and Taboos Around the World. John Wiley & Sons, 1993.) </li></ul><ul><li>(Axtell, Roger E. Gestures: The Do’s and Taboos of Body Language Around the World. John Wiley & Sons, 1991.) </li></ul><ul><li>Joanne, P. (2010, August). List of Nonverbal Communications for the Spanish Speaking. Retrieved September 19, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobson, S. (2010, August). Nonverbal Communication Rules in Spanish Cultures . Retrieved September 19, 2010, from </li></ul>