SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY             V O L U M E I [Whole Volume]
Valdivia Bay. looking from the Machalilla Phase site of G-110: La Cabuya northward toward the Yaldivia Valley (upper left)...
Early Formative Period  of Coastal Ecuador:THE VALDIVIA AND MACHALILLA PHASESBetty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Emilio ...
A Publication of the                 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION                   United States National Museum              ...
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology     Anthropology was the subject of the first Smithsonian publication, "Ancient ...
Preface       T h e publication of this report is a m o n u m e n t to the importance of international cooperation in scie...
PREFACEadvice, we were accompanied on trips outside the Tokyo area by one of their senior g r a d u a t estudents, M r . H...
Contents      INTRODUCTION                                                       1          Theoretical approach to analys...
CONTENTS                                                               Page                                               ...
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TABLES                                                                                                            Page    ...
ILLUSTRATIONS                                                                                                    Page 5. F...
XIV                                                   ILLUSTRATIONS                                                       ...
ILLUSTRATIONS 70.   Sandstone saws from Machalilla Phase sites                                                    115 71. ...
ILLUSTRATIONS                                                                                                       Page10...
ILLUSTRATIONS      42.    Complete vessels of Valdivia Broad-line Incised.      43.    T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed....
ILLUSTRATIONS100.   T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.101.   T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.102.   T y p e sherds o...
ILLUSTRATIONS158. Figurines and unclassified decorated sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.159. Worked sherds from Machalil...
The Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador      The Valdivia and JMachalilla Phages
Introduction               THEORETICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION  Archeology, unlike other scientific discip...
SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY                                        VOLUME 1styles, and occasional individual...
WHOLE VOLUME                                        INTRODUCTIONthat showed the greatest variation were selected as       ...
SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY                                    VOLUME 1labeled by biologists and linguists a...
WHOLE VOLUME                                        INTRODUCTIONpossible to a grouping of traits not only of pottery      ...
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Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
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Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador

  1. 1. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY V O L U M E I [Whole Volume]
  2. 2. Valdivia Bay. looking from the Machalilla Phase site of G-110: La Cabuya northward toward the Yaldivia Valley (upper left), showing typical overcast conditions during the garua season.
  3. 3. Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador:THE VALDIVIA AND MACHALILLA PHASESBetty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Emilio Estrada SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Washington 1965
  4. 4. A Publication of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION United States National Museum LIBRARY O F CONGRESS CARD 65-611 7 z U N I T E D STATES G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFICE, WASHINGTON, 1965For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 10401
  5. 5. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Anthropology was the subject of the first Smithsonian publication, "Ancient M o n u m e n t s ofthe Mississippi Valley," by E. George Squier and E. H . Davis. Issued in 1848 as volume 1 of theSmithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, it has become a landmark in N o r t h American archeology. Smithsonian interest in anthropology has continued through the years. Several Smithsonianseries have been devoted exclusively to anthropology. I n addition, works on this subject haveappeared regularly in a n u m b e r of the Institutions other series. Among these (with first or in-clusive dates of such appearance) are the Smithsonian Annual Report (from 1865), Smithsonian Mis-cellaneous Collections (from i860), Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution (1927-1940),Smithsonian Institution War Background Studies (1942-1945), United States National Museum AnnualReport (1884-1904), United States National Museum Bulletin (from 1879), and the Proceedings (from 1878) a n d the Circular (1883-1888) of the United States National Museum. A m o n g the series devoted exclusively to anthropology, some have been short lived, others havecontinued to this day. Contributions to North American Ethnology (vols. 1-7, 9) was issued from 1877to 1895. T h e first through the forty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1879-80 through 1929-30) contained scientific papers, often of monographic length, on the AmericanIndians (the forty-eighth Report, 1930-31, contains a n index to these papers). A n d 16 volumes ofthe Publications of the Institute of Social Anthropology appeared between 1944 a n d 1953. I n 1896 the first Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology was issued. This series soon b e -came a major vehicle for anthropological publication by scientists at the Smithsonian and aroundthe world. I n some 200 Bulletins have appeared monographs and shorter papers on the archeology,ethnology, linguistics, and physical anthropology of the New World, and also basic handbookson the Indians of North America (no. 30) a n d of South America (no. 143), a n d on N o r t h Americanlanguages (no. 40). Within the Bulletin series also have appeared the subseries AnthropologicalPapers, nos. 1-80 (1938-1965) a n d River Basin Surveys Papers, nos. 1-39 (1953-1965). I n 1964, the Bureau of American Ethnology and the U . S . National M u s e u m D e p a r t m e n t ofAnthropology were replaced by the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. It consists of a Divisionof Physical Anthropology and a Division of Cultural Anthropology concerned with archeology,ethnology, and linguistics. It also administers the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys. Unlike theformer Bureau, its activities are not restricted to the native peoples of the New World. Whilecontinuing work in this field, the Office of Anthropology is expanding its research programs inAfrica, Asia, and the Pacific. Such reorganization and expansion make it appropriate to consolidate anthropological publi-cation at the Smithsonian in a new series of worldwide scope: Smithsonian Contributions toAnthropology. This volume inaugurates the new series. W i t h rare exceptions, all future anthropologicalmonographs a n d papers issued by the Smithsonian will appear in this series. I n addition to worksby members of the staff, a select n u m b e r of contributions will be accepted from authors outsidethe Smithsonian Institution. Copies of Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology are distributed by the Smithsonian to libraries,to research institutions, and to recognized specialists in the various fields treated, both in this country,and abroad. Further free distribution is m a d e by the Superintendent of Documents to depositorylibraries in each of the 50 States. Students a n d other interested individuals m a y purchase copies from the Superintendent ofDocuments, as indicated on the opposite page. RICHARD B. WOODBURY, Acting H e a d Smithsonian Office of A n t h r o p o l o g y Museum of N a t u r a l History
  6. 6. Preface T h e publication of this report is a m o n u m e n t to the importance of international cooperation in scientific endeavor. T h e archeological sites and complexes were discovered by Ecuadorians, detailed analysis of the developmental sequences was furnished by North Americans, invaluable information for comparative study was provided by Japanese, and a Chilean prepared the report on skeletal remains. T o those of us who are listed as authors, working with all of these people has been a memorable experience not only because the scientific results have been so exciting, but because the context in which they have been derived has been so rewarding. T h e largest contribution has been m a d e by the m a n y Ecuadorians who have assisted with fieldwork a n d preparation of the bulk of material for analysis over the years. Some should be singled out for special mention. Dr. Carlos Zevallos Menendez, then President of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Nucleo del Guayas, arranged for permission under the Ecuadorian antiq- uity laws to conduct the archeological field research. Felix Martinez and later Julio Viteri served as foremen during much of the excavation at G—31. During two seasons of work by Meggers and Evans at G—31 and G—54, Francisco Salcedo generously m a d e available a comfortable house near the site as field headquarters. Washing and preliminary sorting of material from G—84 and G—31, C u t J was done by Walter Molina, part-time aide in the Museo "Victor Emilio Estrada." Staff members of the former Division of Archeology, M u s e u m of Natural History, U . S . National M u s e u m who have over the years assisted in the laborious j o b of washing, numbering and classi- fying Valdivia and Machalilla Phase materials, are M r . George Metcalf, M r . Robert C. Jenkins, and Mrs. Willie M a e Pelham. W e are indebted to personnel of other divisions for identification of stone, bone and shell remains, including Dr. Harald A. Rehder, Division of Mollusks; Dr. H e n r y Setzer, Division of M a m m a l s ; Dr. E. P. Henderson, Division of Meteorites; Dr. Leonard P. Schultz and Dr. William R. Taylor, Division of Fishes. Mr. Henry Wright assisted one summerwith sorting of rocks from G—31: Valdivia into possible and impossible artifacts. Carbon-14 determinations, which confirm the early chronological placement of the Valdiviacomplex, were m a d e over several years at three different laboratories: the United States Geologi-cal Survey Low Frequency Radiation Laboratory, the University of Michigan Laboratory, a n dthe Smithsonian Institution Carbon-Dating Laboratory. W e would like to thank Dr. Meyer R u b i nof the United States Geological Survey for his willingness to accept shell samples for dating at atime when this material was considered unsuitable in m a n y quarters, and Dr. Austin Long of theD e p a r t m e n t of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution Carbon-Dating Laboratory forconsultation a n d advice in the evaluation of the entire series of dates, which led to several of theinterpretations in the section on dating. O u r inferences about the origin of Valdivia Phase pottery would have been poorly supportedh a d it not been for the opportunity to visit J a p a n during M a r c h and April, 1963 to examine col-lections a n d talk with experts on the Early and Middle J o m o n Period. Initial communicationwith J a p a n e s e archeologists was facilitated by advice and introductions from Dr. Chester Chard,University of Wisconsin; Dr. Richard K. Beardsley, University of Michigan, and Dr. E d w a r dNorbeck, William M a r s h Rice University. Informed in advance of our general problem, mem-bers of the staff of the Institute of Cultural Anthropology, University of Tokyo, headed by Prof.Seiichi Izumi, laid out a tentative schedule of visits that permitted us to make best use of our lim-ited time. O u r ability to accomplish so m u c h was largely because of this generous unsolicited aidby Prof. Izumi a n d his colleagues, Prof. Shozo M a s u d a and Prof. Toshihiko Sono. T h r o u g h their
  7. 7. PREFACEadvice, we were accompanied on trips outside the Tokyo area by one of their senior g r a d u a t estudents, M r . Hiroaki O k a d a , who served as an efficient guide a n d interpreter, a n d a n amusedinformant on J a p a n e s e inns and outs. O u r search for Valdivia-like pottery led u p a few blindalleys and into several productive fields, and we gratefully acknowledge guidance a n d informationfrom the following individuals: Prof. Sugao Yamanouchi, and Prof. N . W a t a n a b e , D e p a r t m e n t ofPhysical Anthropology, University of T o k y o ; Prof. Sosuke Sugihara, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology,Meiji University; Prof. T e r u y a Esaka, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, Keio University; M r . ChosukeSerizawa, T o k y o ; Prof. J . Edward Kidder, J r . , Archeology Laboratory, International ChristianUniversity; Prof. Kyoichi Arimitsu, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, University of K y o t o ; M r . F u k u -hara and M r . and M r s . Shirakiba, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, T e n r i M u s e u m ; M r . YoshimasaK a m a k i and M r . and Mrs. T . M a c a b e , Kurashiki Archeological M u s e u m ; Prof. Teigo Yoshida,Institute of Comparative Education and Culture, University of K y u s h u ; Prof. Morimitsu Ushijimaand M r . Mitsuhiko Higashi, K u m a m o t o Municipal M u s e u m ; Prof. M a t s u m o t o , D e p a r t m e n t ofHistory, University of K u m a m o t o ; Prof. Sadanori Kawaguchi, Goyokuryu H i g h School, K a g o -shima; and M r . M . F u r u t a of Shimabara. Prof. Ichiro Yawata, Archaeological Laboratory, TokyoUniversity of Education, led us on a memorable visit to a n inland Middle J o m o n site n e a r t h etown of Oomiyama. T h e w a r m welcome and open generosity of all these people in providing uswith advice, assistance and freedom to take notes and photographs of anything a n d everything isbeyond the power of words to acknowledge. W e hope that they will receive some satisfaction fromseeing how significant has been their contribution to the conclusions in this report. Financial support for the research has come from a n u m b e r of different organizations, whosecontribution we gratefully record: the American Philosophical Society for Penrose F u n d G r a n t s2012 and 2370; the National Science Foundation for Grants G-9055 a n d G-15641 to the Instituteof Andean Research for a three-year program entitled "Interrelationships of New World Cultures",u n d e r which we were included as Project J : Coastal E c u a d o r ; a n d the National Science F o u n d a -tion Cooperative International Science Activities Program (supplemental funds to G r a n t G S - 3 7 ) ,for sponsoring the trip to J a p a n . T h r o u g h o u t the various periods of field investigation from 1957-1961, a large portion of the field expense was borne by the Museo "Victor Emilio E s t r a d a " . Individuals who deserve special thanks for aid in preparation of the m o n o g r a p h are MissJ u d i t h Hill, Secretary of the former Division of Archeology, United States National M u s e u m , w h o skillfully and uncomplainingly deciphered the rough drafts, improved the consistency of the style a n dformat, and typed rapidly, neatly and efficiently the final copy of the manuscript; M r . George Robert Lewis, Scientific Illustrator, of the former D e p a r t m e n t of Anthropology, United States National Museum, w h o produced the beautiful a n d accurate line drawings; M r . J a c k Scott, H e a d , M u s e u m of Natural History Photo L a b , for production of excellent enlargements from negatives taken u n d e r varying conditions over several years; and Prof. K a z u o T e r a d a , University of Tokyo,who translated statements from Japanese publications. As the first of a new format, this volume presented special problems to the Editorial a n d Publica-tions Division, Smithsonian Institution. W e wish to express our gratitude to M r s . J o a n H o r n and M r . J o h n S. Lea for their constructive suggestions, careful editing for consistency a n d accuracy, and forebearance with our m a n y demands. T o the Government Printing Office, we offer a word of admiration for the remarkably error-free setting of the text a n d tables, their speed of execution ofeach phase of the work, and their high quality reproduction of a wide variety of photographs intoexcellent plates. W e have left until last the recording of our indebtedness to those Ecuadorian colleagues withw h o m we shared the excitement of discovering the early Formative cultures of coastal E c u a d o rand of reconstructing from fragments of pottery, stone and shell, long forgotten historical events:Francisco H u e r t a Rendon, Carlos Zevallos Menendez a n d Olaf Holm. T h e years we workedtogether u n d e r the leadership of Emilio Estrada are treasured memories to all of us—golden yearsbeyond repetition or recall. T h e unexpected death of Estrada in November 1961, shortly followingthe final season of fieldwork, brought an end to m a n y dreams, b u t one at least has developed ina m a n n e r he would have loved to see—the verification of his correlation, timidly proposed m a n yyears ago, between Valdivia and J o m o n . His co-authorship of this report is not simply a tributeit is a position fully earned. BJM _ ., . . . . CESmithsonian Institution Washington, D.C.J u n e 22, 1964
  8. 8. Contents INTRODUCTION 1 Theoretical approach to analysis and classification 1 Theoretical approach to interpretation 5 Environmental characteristics 9 T H E VALDIVTA P H A S E 15 Description of sites and excavations 15 G—25: Punta Arenas 15 G - 3 1 : Valdivia 16 G - 5 4 : Buena Vista 20 G - 8 4 : Posorja 21 G - 8 8 : Palmar Norte 21 G-L-2 21 G-L-3 21 G-L-27 22 D a t a from other investigations 22 G - 1 1 5 : San Pablo 22 G-117: LaLibertad 22 T h e site sequence and its implications 23 Description of artifacts 26 Stone artifacts 26 Abraders 26 Blades or knives 26 Bowls 26 Choppers 26 Cores 27 Gravers 27 Grinding stones 27 Hammerstones 27 "Jaketown perforators" 28 Paint stones 28 Pebble polishing stones 28 Polished axes 28 Reamers 29 Saws 29 Scrapers 33 Sinkers 33 Fireburnt rocks 33 Chronological distribution of stone artifact types 34 Shell artifacts 37 Abraders and polishers 37 Beads 38 Bowl or cup 38 Disks 38767-841—65
  9. 9. CONTENTS Page no Drilled clam shell pendants Drilled and shaped pendants Drilled pecten pendant Fishhooks 39 Fishhook blanks 40 Scoops, spoons or spatulas Unclassified worked shell Chronological distribution of shell artifact typesBone and teeth artifacts Deer antler awls Antler tip projectile point Fish bone awls Fish vertebra Awls of teeth from saw fish Chronological position of bone and teeth artifacts 42Pottery artifacts 42 Pottery type descriptions 42 P u n t a Arenas Incised 43 Puntas Arenas Plain 43 San Pablo Plain 45 Valdivia Applique Fillet 45 Valdivia Broad-line Incised 47 Valdivia Brushed 51 Valdivia Carved 53 Valdivia Combed 54 Valdivia Cord Impressed 54 Valdivia Corrugated 56 Valdivia Cut and Beveled R i m 57 Valdivia Embossed 57 Valdivia Excised 58 Valdivia Fine-line Incised 60 Valdivia Finger Grooved 61 Valdivia Fingernail Decorated 62 Valdivia Incised 63 Valdivia Modeled 66 Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate 67 Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised 68 Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin 69 Valdivia Pebble Polished 70 Valdivia Plain 72 Valdivia Polished Plain 74 Valdivia Polished Red 76 Valdivia Pseudo-Corrugated 80 Valdivia Punctate 80 Valdivia Red Incised 81 Valdivia Red Zoned Punctate 81 Valdivia Rocker Stamped 82 Valdivia Shell Stamped 34 Valdivia Striated Polished Plain 84 Valdivia Zoned Incised 35 Unclassified Decorated 37 T r a d e pottery of Machalilla Phase types 37 T h e seriated ceramic sequence and its implications 37Figurines 95 T y p e descriptions 95 Palmar Plain 05 Palmar Notched o^ Palmar Incised og Valdivia o< San Pablo 97
  10. 10. XL CONTENTS Page Buena Vista 98 Punta Arenas 100 Unclassified 100 Figurine stools 101 Chronological distribution and evolution of figurine types 102 Miscellaneous 107 Worked sherds 107 Unfired clay objects 107 Diagnostic features and period subdivisions of the Valdivia Phase 107T H E MACHALILLA PHASE 110 Description of sites and excavations 110 G-110: LaCabuya 110 G-112 Ill M-28: Machalilla Cemetery Ill Data from other investigations Ill Description of artifacts 112 Stone artifacts 112 Abraders 112 Blades or knives 112 Choppers 112 Cores 112 Gravers 112 Grinding stones 112 Hammerstones 112 "Jaketown perforators" 112 Paint stones 112 Pebble polishing stones 112 Reamers 112 Saws 112 Scrapers 112 Miscellaneous stone 112 Chronological distribution of stone artifacts 113 Shell artifacts 113 Abraders and polishers 113 Bead 113 Bracelet 113 Disks 116 Fishhooks 116 Fishhook blanks 116 Pendant blanks 116 Chronological distribution of shell artifacts 116 Bone and tooth artifacts 116 Pottery artifacts 117 Pottery type description 117 Ayangue Incised 117 Cabuya Black-on-White 119 Cabuya Finger Pressed Rim 120 Cabuya Plain 121 Chorrera Incised 121 Chorrera Plain 122 Machalilla Burnished Line 122 Machalilla Double-line Incised 123 Machalilla Embellished and Red Zoned 124 Machalilla Embellished Shoulder 124 Machalilla Finger Punched 126 Machalilla Incised 127 Machalilla Incised and Punctate 127 Machalilla Incised and Red Zoned 128 Machalilla Plain 129 Machalilla Polished Plain 129
  11. 11. TABLES Page 13 Machalilla Polished R e d ° Machalilla Punctate 132 ! Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 134 Machalilla R e d Banded 136 Machalilla R e d Incised 137 Machalilla Striated Polished Plain Chorrera Phase types Rocker stamped Zoned red 139 Zoned red and black 140 Zoned punctate * " Unclassified decorated ! T r a d e pottery of Valdivia Phase origin * 4U Pottery of probable trade origin 141 T h e seriated ceramic sequence and its implications Figurines 144 Machalilla 144 Figurines of trade origin 144 Worked sherds 144 Disks 145 Scrapers 145 Diagnostic features and period subdivisions of the Machalilla Phase 145R E L A T I V E AND ABSOLUTE D A T I N G OF THE VALDIVIA AND M A C H A L I L L A PHASES . . . . 147O R I G I N AND AFFILIATIONS OF THE VALDIVIA AND M A C H A L I L L A PHASES 157LITERATURE CITED 179A P P E N D I X 1: T a b l e s 1-17 183APPENDIX 2 : Skeletal remains from sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases 219 By J U A N R. MUNIZAGA.PLATES 235 Tables TEXTA. Correlation between vessel shapes of Valdivia Phase pottery types a n d generalized forms recognized for the Valdivia Phase 91B. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Embellished and R e d Zoned decoration 124C. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder decoration 126D . Combined temporal distribution of minor motifs of Machalilla Incised and R e d Zoned a n d Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 129E. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Punctate decoration . 134F. Correlation between vessel shapes of Machalilla Phase pottery types and generalized forms recognized for the Machalilla Phase 142G. Carbon-14 dates for complexes of the early Formative Period 149H . Carbon-14 dates for complexes of the late Formative, Regional Developmental a n d Integration Periods 153 APPENDIX I 1. Frequency of species of mollusks in levels of G—31, Cuts A, F, and H , of the Valdivia Phase 183 2. Frequency of shell artifacts in Valdivia Phase excavations 186 3. Frequency of stone artifacts and n a t u r a l stone in Valdivia Phase excavations . . . . 188 4. Frequency of kinds of faunal remains from Valdivia Phase excavations 189
  12. 12. ILLUSTRATIONS Page 5. Frequency of bone and tooth artifacts in Valdivia Phase excavations 189 6. Frequency of pottery types in surface collections and stratigraphic and text excavations at sites of the Valdivia Phase 190 7. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Broad-line Incised 206 8. Frequency of shell artifacts in Machalilla Phase excavations 206 9. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Fine-line Incised 20710. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Incised 20711. Frequency of tetrapod and concave base forms and lobed rims in Valdivia Phase pot- tery irrespective of type 20812. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Excised 20813. Frequency of Valdivia Phase figurine types and alternative kinds of body and leg treatment 20914. Frequency of generalized vessel forms of the Valdivia Phase 21015. Frequency of generalized vessel forms and unusual appendages in sites of the M a c h a - lilla Phase 21416. Frequency of pottery types in surface collections and stratigraphic excavations at sites of the Machalilla Phase 21617. Frequency of stone artifacts and natural stone in Machalilla Phase excavations . . . 218 APPENDIX 21. Measurements, indices, and module of individual crania comprising the Buena Vista series 2252. Frequency of independently variable traits in the Buena Vista population 2253. Measurements, indices and module of individual crania comprising the San Pablo series . 2264. Comparative distribution of cranial index in populations of Cabezas Largas and Buena Vista 2275. Distribution of individuals by two categories of cranial index in five coastal Andean series 227 Illustrations FIGURES 1. Northwestern South America showing location of geographical features and selected modern towns 10 2. Location of sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases 12 3. Sketch m a p of G—25: P u n t a Arenas, a Period D site of the Valdivia Phase 14 4. Sketch m a p of G—31: Valdivia, occupied during Periods A - C of the Valdivia Phase . 17 5. Sketch m a p of G—54: Buena Vista, a Period C site of the Valdivia Phase 18 6. Profile of the bank at the north edge of G—54 showing layer of sterile dirt overlying the refuse deposit 20 7. Sketch m a p of G—88: Palmar Norte, a Period A - B site of the Valdivia Phase, showing extent of the refuse and location of excavations 23 8. Fragments of clay with twig impressions suggesting wattle and d a u b construction . . 24 9. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of species of mollusks in levels of G—31, Cuts A, F and H 26 10. Gravers from Valdivia Phase sites 29 11. Grinding stone fragments from Valdivia Phase sites 30 12. Hammerstones of the Valdivia Phase 31 13. " J a k e t o w n perforators" from Valdivia Phase sites 32 14. Fishhook reamers from the Valdivia Phase 33 15. Sandstone saws from Valdivia Phase sites 34 16. Scrapers from Valdivia Phase sites 35 17. Valdivia Phase pebble sinkers 36 18. T e m p o r a l distribution of stone artifact types during the Valdivia Phase 37
  13. 13. XIV ILLUSTRATIONS Page 3 19. Stages in shell fishhook manufacture " 20. T e m p o r a l distribution of shell artifact types during the Valdivia Phase 40 21. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of P u n t a Arenas Incised 43 22. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of P u n t a Arenas Plain 23. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Applique Fillet 46 24. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Forms 1-4 . 25. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Forms 5-10. 50 26. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Brushed ->z 27. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Carved -"j 28. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 55 29. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 56 30. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Embossed 58 31. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Excised 5) 32. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fine-line Incised 61 33. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Finger Grooved 62 34. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fingernail Decorated . . . 63 35. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Incised 64 36. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Modeled 66 37. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 67 38. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised . 69 39. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Period C decorated types 71 40. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Pebble Polished 73 41. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of San Pablo Plain and Valdivia Plain . 75 42. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished Plain 77 43. Profiles of Valdivia Polished R e d base forms 78 44. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished R e d 79 45. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Punctate 81 46. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Rocker Stamped 83 47. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Striated Polished Plain . . 85 48. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Zoned Incised 87 49. Seriation of small cuts at G—31 on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency . . 90 50. Seriation of G—31, Cut J , Sections D and E on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency 90 51. Seriation of G—31, Cut J , Sections D and E with scale enlarged to show changes in frequency of minor early decorated types 90 52. Seriation on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency of Valdivia Phase sites a n d levels of relatively short-term occupation 90 53. Seriation of Valdivia Phase sites and levels selected to represent the general trends of change in pottery type frequency 90 54. T e m p o r a l distribution of vessel shapes of Valdivia Phase pottery types 90 55. Chronological distribution and period of m a x i m u m frequency of Valdivia Phase pot- tery types 93 56. Evolution of Valdivia Phase vessel shapes 94 57. Pottery types represented at G—115 and their period distribution in the Valdivia Phase sequence, based u p o n figure 55 95 58. Typical figurine heads of the San Pablo type 93 59. Typical figurine heads of the Buena Vista type 99 60. Valdivia Phase figurines of unclassified types 100 61. U n i q u e Valdivia Phase stone figurine ^QI 62. T w o examples of a r a r e unclassified type of Valdivia Phase pottery figurine . . . . 101 63. T o p , side and bottom views of two probable pottery figurine stools from the Valdivia Phase .jQ., 64. T e m p o r a l distribution of figurine types and details of body t r e a t m e n t d u r i n g t h e V a l - divia Phase .. (-,4 65. Evolutionary changes in figurine style during the Valdivia Phase . . . . . . 106 66. Sketch m a p of G - l 10: La Cabuya, a Period C site of the Machalilla Phase . Ill 67. Gravers from the Machalilla Phase **~ 68. Small hammerstones from the Machalilla Phase 113 69. Fishhook reamers from the Machalilla Phase 114
  14. 14. ILLUSTRATIONS 70. Sandstone saws from Machalilla Phase sites 115 71. S n u b nosed scrapers from the Machalilla Phase 116 72. Carnivore tooth perforated for suspension; from the Machalilla Phase 117 73. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Ayangue Incised 118 74. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of rare Machalilla Phase decorated types . 119 75. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Cabuya Plain 121 76. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Chorrera Plain 122 77. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Double-line Incised . . . 123 78. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder . . 125 79. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Finger Punched 127 80. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Incised 128 81. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Incised and R e d Zoned a n d Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 130 82. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Plain 131 83. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Polished Plain 132 84. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Polished R e d 133 85. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Red Banded 135 86. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Red Incised 137 87. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain, Forms 1-10 138 88. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain, spouted j a r Forms 11 and 12 139 89. Seriation of Machalilla Phase sites on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency . . 140 90. T e m p o r a l distribution of vessel shapes of Machalilla Phase pottery types 140 91. Chronological distribution and period of m a x i m u m frequency of Machalilla Phase pottery types 143 92. Fragmentary head of a Machalilla type figurine from M - 2 8 144 93. Period distribution of pottery types of Machalilla Phase origins in Valdivia Phase sites and of Valdivia Phase origin in Machalilla Phase sites 148 94. Stratigraphic origin of carbon-14 samples from G—31 and G—54 151 95. Differences in agreement between period identification of selected sites and obsidian dates derived by three different scales for conversion of hydration layer thickness into elapsed time 154 96. Early Valdivia Phase ceramic features at Early and Middle J o m o n sites on Kyushu and Honshu 159 97. M a p of J a p a n , showing location of J o m o n sites producing pottery resembling Val- divia Phase types 160 98. Carbon-14 dates for J o m o n sites on Hokkaido and Honshu, with selected Valdivia Phase dates for comparison 161 99. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with similar excised decoration 162100. Similarity between r i m profiles of J o m o n (solid) and early Valdivia (outline) pottery vessels 163101. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar castellated rim treatment 164102. Late J o m o n stone and pottery plaques from Honshu sites with decorative motifs re- sembling those on Valdivia Phase pottery 165103. T h e northern Pacific Ocean, showing direction and speed of principal currents, paths of cyclonic storms and the great circle route between Kyushu, J a p a n and the Guayas coast of Ecuador 168104. Northwestern South America showing location of pottery complexes carbon-14 dated between 5000-4000 years ago and their possible derivation from the early Valdivia Phase 169105. Occurrence of selected Valdivia and Machalilla Phase decorative techniques and ves- sel form elements in other Formative complexes of Colombia and Peru 170106. Late J o m o n stone figurine head from Sakaizaki Shell M o u n d , Kyushu bearing a slight resemblance to some examples of the Buena Vista type of the Valdivia Phase 171107. Chronological position of certain Mesoamerican and Colombian complexes incorpo- rating decorative techniques and motifs resembling Valdivia and Machalilla Phase (Ayangue Incised) types 174
  15. 15. ILLUSTRATIONS Page108. Northwestern South America showing location of pottery complexes carbon-14 d a t e d between 4000-3000 years ago a n d possible routes by which they were spread . . . 175109. Northwestern South America, showing location of selected pottery complexes carbon- 14 dated between 3400-3000 years ago a n d possible routes of communication be- tween t h e m *• 221110. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 5 , G-54, Burial 8 222111. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 6 , G-54, Burial 9 223112. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 8 , G-54, Burials 1-7 224113. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 1 1 , G-54, Burial 8 228114. Stereograph drawing of skull M - l , G - l 10, C u t 1115. Sites reflecting the first occurrence of skull deformation on the coasts of E c u a d o r a n d 23 Peru 1 PLATESFRONTISPIECE: Valdivia Bay, looking from the Machalilla Phase site of G—110: L a C a b u y a n o r t h - w a r d toward the Valdivia Valley (upper left) showing typical overcast conditions d u r i n g garua 1. Typical views of the Guayas coast. 2. Typical views of the Guayas coast. 3. Typical topography and xerophytic vegetation of the coast of Guayas Province. 4. Views of San Pablo Salitre. 5. G - 2 5 : P u n t a Arenas, a Period D site of the Valdivia Phase. 6. Looking north toward the Valdivia Bay from the vicinity of G—31. 7. T h e environment of the Valdivia area. 8. G—31: Valdivia, the type site for the Valdivia Phase. 9. G—31, Cut J at conclusion of excavation. 10. Stratigraphy of G—31, Cut J , southeast face. 11. G—54: Buena Vista, a Period C site of the Valdivia Phase showing topography a n d m o d e r n vegetation. 12. G—54, Burials 1-7 during excavation. 13. T h e environment of the Posorja region. 14. Environment of Palmar Salitre. 15. Flake blades or knives from Valdivia Phase sites, with the cutting edge d o w n w a r d . 16. Miscellaneous stone artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 17. Pebble choppers from the Valdivia Phase. 18. Valdivia Phase stone tools. 19. Miscellaneous objects from Valdivia Phase sites. 20. Fishhook reamers from Valdivia Phase sites showing uniformity in size a n d form. 21. Miscellaneous shell objects from the Valdivia Phase. 22. Shell artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 23. Shell ornaments of the Valdivia Phase. 24. Shell fishhooks of the Valdivia Phase. 25. Bone and tooth artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 26. T y p e sherds of Punta Arenas Incised. 27. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, vertical parallel bands on body wall. 28. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, curvilinear and intersecting patterns on body wall. 29. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, variations in r i m treatment. 30. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 31. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 32. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 33. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 34. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 35. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 36. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 37. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 38. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 39. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 40. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 41. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised.
  16. 16. ILLUSTRATIONS 42. Complete vessels of Valdivia Broad-line Incised. 43. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 44. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 45. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 46. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 47. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Carved. 48. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 49. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 50. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 51. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cord Impressed. 52. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Corrugated. 53. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Corrugated. 54. Valdivia Phase decorated types. 55. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cut and Beveled Rim. 56. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cut and Beveled R i m . 57. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Embossed. 58. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 59. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 60. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 61. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 62. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 63. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 64. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 65. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Finger Grooved. 66. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fingernail Decorated. 67. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 68. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 69. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 70. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 71. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 72. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 73. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 74. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 75. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 76. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 77. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 78. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Modeled. 79. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate. 80. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate. 81. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised, single line on exterior adjacent to rim or carination. 82. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised, single line on exterior adjacent to rim. 83. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. 84. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. 85. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 86. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 87. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 88. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 89. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 90. Complete vessels of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 91. T y p e sherds and a complete vessel of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A. 92. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A. 93. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A, with supplementary decoration by broad-line incision, or nicked broad-line incision. 94. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant B. 95. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Phase unpolished plain types. 96. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Polished Plain. 97. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Polished R e d . 98. Typical bases of Valdivia Polished R e d . 99. Complete vessels of Valdivia Phase plain pottery types.767-841—6E
  17. 17. ILLUSTRATIONS100. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.101. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.102. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Incised.103. Valdivia R e d Incised, castellated r i m and tetrapod bowl.104. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Incised.105. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Red Zoned Punctate.106. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Zoned Punctate.107. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.108. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.109. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.110. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.111. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.112. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.113. T y p e sherds of several Valdivia Phase decorated pottery types.114. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Zoned Incised.115. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Striated Polished Plain.116. Sherds of Valdivia Phase types from sites of the Machalilla Phase.117. Stone figurines of the Valdivia Phase.118. Stone figurines of the Valdivia Phase.119. Broken pottery figurines of the Valdivia and San Pablo types showing method of construction.120. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variable treatment of the common long b o b hairstyle.121. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variable treatment of the long bob hair style.122. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variation in hair style.123. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variation in size, workmanship and stylistic detail.124. Bodies of Valdivia type figurines showing variation in surface finish and typical leg t r e a t m e n t (shown in profile).125. Figurines of the San Pablo type showing variation in hair style.126. Figurines of the Buena Vista type, showing variation in hair treatment.127. Large grinding stone from G—110: L a Cabuya, a Period C site of the Machalilla Phase.128. N a t u r a l pebbles used as polishing stones from Machalilla Phase sites.129. Worked shell from Machalilla Phase sites.130. Shell fishhooks from the Machalilla Phase, showing range in size.131. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.132. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.133. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.134. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.135. M i n o r decorated types of the late Machalilla Phase.136. T y p e sherds of minor Machalilla Phase decorated types.137. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Double-line Incised.138. T r a d e sherds of Machalilla Double-line Incised from the Valdivia Phase site of G—54.139. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.140. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.141. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.142. Decorated pottery types of the Machalilla Phase.143. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder, showing variation in size a n d s h a p e of bosses.144. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Phase decorated types.145. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Incised a n d R e d Zoned and Machalilla P u n c t a t e a n d R e d Z o n e d .146. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Plain.147. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Phase decorated types.148. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Punctate and Red Zoned.149. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, narrow variety.150. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, narrow variety.151. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Red Banded, narrow variety.152. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, wide variety.153. Machalilla R e d Banded sherds from the Valdivia Phase site of G - 5 4 : B u e n a Vista.154. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain.155. Stirrup spouts of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain.156. Machalilla Striated Polished Plain stirrup and cylindrical spout fragments.157. Unclassified decorated sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.
  18. 18. ILLUSTRATIONS158. Figurines and unclassified decorated sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.159. Worked sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.160. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar technique and motif in broad-line incised designs.161. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar broad-line incised motifs.162. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with broad-line incised designs of similar technique and motif.163. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration in similar technique and motifs.164. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar incised decoration in vertical or horizontal zigzag motif.165. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration combined with one or two rows of punctation at the base of the neck.166. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar combinations of motifs in incised decoration.167. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration in similar technique and motif.168. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar execution of zoned punctate decoration.169. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar pseudo-corrugated decoration.170. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by multiple drag-and-jab punctate.171. J o m o n sherds from Yoshida site with multiple drag-and-jab punctate decoration.172. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar shell combed decoration.173. J o m o n vessels with combed decoration from Nanshu Shrine site.174. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar overall texturing by brushing or shell scraping. 175. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with patterned overall shell scraping. 176. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by finger grooving. 177. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with excised decoration in similar technique and motif. 178. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar types of decoration. 179. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by rocker stamping. 180. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with shell stamped decoration. 181. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar lobed rim treatment. 182. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with folded-over plain or finger-pressed r i m treatment. 183. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar fine-line incised and drag-and-jab punctate decoration. 184. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase pottery with similar relief decoration in the form of a stylized face. 185. Jomon and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by cord impression, and J o m o n vessels resembling Valdivia Phase examples. 186. J o m o n vessels of typical Valdivia Phase shapes. 187. Pre-Jomon and Valdivia Phase stone figurines. 188. Decorated sherds from Puerto Hormiga. 189. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by nicked and finger-pressed applique ribs. 190. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar nicked broad-line incised decoration. 191. Decorated sherds from Kotosh. 192. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 193. Skulls from t h e Valdivia Phase. 194. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 195. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 196. Skull of the Machalilla Phase, showing tabular erecta flattening and crowding of canine teeth.
  19. 19. The Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador The Valdivia and JMachalilla Phages
  20. 20. Introduction THEORETICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION Archeology, unlike other scientific disciplines, has particles or the chemical elements, they representno universally recognized system of classification and populations that vary through time and place. Car-nomenclature. Each investigator feels free to invent bon-12 is identical in all respects today to what it washis own frame of reference, with the result that data ten million years ago, while the modern horse is notare frequently presented in terms that are not easily only recognizably different from its Eocene predecessorcompared. Since the philosophical approach under- but also variable within the limits of a small inbreed-lying a classification has a significant influence on ing population. Mutation, genetic drift and otherthe conclusions, it seems worthwhile to explain the factors operate under natural selection to produce apoint of view employed in this report and the rationale kaleidoscope of results that may make boundariesbehind selection of certain kinds of information as drawn between varieties and occasionally betweensignificant. species arbitrary (Dobzhansky quoted in Grant, 1963, Any scientist approaching the material encompassed pp. 317-318; Simpson, 1961, pp. 117-119).by his field of specialization must organize it into Simpson (1961, p. 152) has summarized the situa-distinguishable categories whose functions and inter- tion recently:relations can be observed, described and if possible Among evolutionary species there cannot possibly be a generalexplained. Depending on the discreteness of the dichotomy between free interbreeding and no interbreeding.phenomena and their susceptibility to alteration, his Every intermediate stage occurs, and there is no practicallytask varies from easy to difficult. A physicist, for definable point in time when two infraspecific populations suddenly become separate species. Fortunately for the neon-example, has no trouble distinguishing a neutron from tologists, the majority of living populations have either definitelyan electron; in structure and behavior they are defin- passed that hypothetical point or are not yet close to it.able with high precision. Nor is there any argument Nevertheless speciation is actively occurring today, and manyabout whether carbon is different from nitrogen, populations are in the intermediate stages of some, but reduced,which follows it in the periodic sequence of atoms. interbreeding. Again, if there are distinct gaps between ranges of characters, it is sufficiendy probable that isolation is at leastCarbon has several subvarieties, of which radioactive complete enough to warrant specific separation. There remaincarbon-14 is well known to archeologists. No one numerous doubtful cases where decision depends on the per-argues that carbon-12 should not be separated from sonal judgment of each practitioner of the art of classification.carbon-14 for purposes of analysis and description, To insist on an absolute objective criterion would be to denynor is there any disagreement that both belong to the the facts of life, especially the inescapable fact of evolution.same larger category or type. Their behavior can T h e archeologist who attempts to classify potsherdsbe predicted; it is known with what other elements is also confronted with a continually changing class ofthey will combine and in what proportions; and it is phenomena (cf. Vogt, 1960, pp. 19-21), varyingeven known under what circumstances such com- geographically and temporally as a result not only ofbinations are likely to take place. cultural differences respecting function, production, T h e biologist has a more difficult job. T h e types and style, but also of accidental inconsistencies in rawwith which he must deal differ from those of the materials, differential skill of potters, their suscepti-chemist or physicist in that, unlike the elementary bility to influence from exposure to other pottery 1
  21. 21. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1styles, and occasional individual deviations from variants are an expression of lack of standardizationtypical forms and decorative patterns. T h e difficulty in production, of differences in sources of r a w m a -of arriving at generally acceptable criteria for sep- terials, of the individuality of the potters, of thearating this continuum into a series of types has re- instability inherent in all evolving systems. At a latersulted in lack of uniformity in the approach to pottery point in time, some variants m a y become sufficientlyclassification not only between workers in different well defined and frequent to w a r r a n t recognition asareas, but even among people dealing with similar separate pottery types, in which case the problem ofmaterial. where to draw the line is between parent a n d offspring A number of commentaries have been published on rather than between contemporaries.the theory of pottery classification, and authors differ Although each pottery type is a combination ofespecially on the precision with which ceramic types many kinds of traits (temper, color, surface treatment,should be described. In our view, part of the problem vessel shape, technique and motif of decoration),comes from a difference in theoretical position: these may be independent variables within the totalarcheologists who see culture as an evolving con- ceramic complex. It is frequently observed t h a ttinuum will find it difficult to define precise categories; gray or tan surfaces m a y occur with coarse or finethose who take a timeless view tend to look for absolute temper, or that a particular technique of decorationtypes, describable in very exact terms. Since we may be applied to polished plain or polished redincline toward the first approach, our pottery type surfaces, or that polished red surfaces m a y be plain orclassification represents an effort to recognize divisions decorated. T h e problem is to decide which combina-within the mass of material recovered from tests and tions of traits make convenient descriptive entitiesexcavations that can serve as a basis for reconstructing and useful categories for chronological and compara-the culture and its history. tive analysis. In m a n y respects our view coincides with the T h e principal subdivision we have m a d e is betweenpopulation approach that has come to prevail in the decorated and undecorated surfaces. Although thisbiological definition of types, and has been well is an obvious basis for distinction, it is one that isstated recently by Simpson (1961, pp. 183-184): often not made in ceramic classification. Failure to It has already been emphasized often enough that taxa are separate decorated from undecorated sherds is usually inherendy variable and that attention to their variability is justified on the ground that it prevents sherds from a essential in their description and necessary in their practical definition. That naturally demands taking into account all vessel decorated on only part of the surface from being available specimens and involves the principle that no one divided between two pottery types. This a r g u m e n t specimen referred to the taxon is, for these purposes, any more can be ignored, however, if the purpose of the classi- important or any more typical than any other. Some specimens fication is to deal with the multitude of sherds recov- are of course more nearly average than others as regards ered from habitation refuse and to show change particular characters in the sense of being nearer the mean, although this is rarely true of all characters of one organism. through time. Failure to separate decorated from The mere fact that a valid average is recognized means that undecorated sherds has a serious disadvantage in t h a t all specimens have been taken into account and none especially it makes it difficult or impossible to ascertain the weighted. exact proportion of the pottery t h a t was decorated,Its application to classification problems in archeology or the frequency of certain kinds of decoration at anywas discussed a decade ago by Ford (1954), to whom particular point in time, both of which can be usedthe reader is referred for more detailed explanation. as a basis for inferences about level of competence in When several thousand sherds, representing the ceramic technology, which in t u r n provides clues tocontents of a level in one of the sections of Cut J at level of sociopolitical organization (Meggers a n dSite G—31: Valdivia, are spread out on a table, it is Evans, 1958). This, in our view, is an advantagepossible to distinguish several kinds of differences. outweighing the strictly puristic superiority of aAmong them are decorated and plain sherds, polished classification that attempts to deal with completeand unpolished surfaces, red-slipped and unslipped vessels.surfaces, coarse and fine sand temper. A classifica- Looking first at the undecorated sherds, differencestion based on one or more of these differences can can be recognized in temper a n d surface finish.accommodate without any difficulty about 75 to 85 Preliminary classification makes as m a n y distinctionspercent of the sherds. There will remain, however, as possible, first in surface finish (unpolished, striateda group of borderline examples, where the surfaces are polished, completely polished or red slipped) a n dneither unpolished nor well polished, where the then in temper (fine, medium or coarse beach sand,temper is intermediate between coarse and fine, where or crushed rock). T e m p o r a l variation in these cate-a type of decoration normally applied to an unslipped gories was tested by classifying several levels fromsurface is found on a red-slipped one, etc. These different depths in an excavation, a n d those features
  22. 22. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONthat showed the greatest variation were selected as the archeologists and the potters on definition of thetype diagnostics. I n the case of Valdivia Phase plain type.types, surface finish is the principal classificatory Differences in standardization can also be detectedcriterion, with temper used to make a secondary in vessel shape and rim profile. In Valdivia Phasedistinction between two types with unpolished sur- ceramics, no two rims are alike, although they tendfaces (Valdivia Plain and San Pablo Plain). Sep- to cluster in groups with similar construction, shapearation of the polished types into coarse and fine and orientation. Certain forms are unique enoughtempered varieties served to multiply the number of to be readily distinguishable, such as the folded-overtypes and obscure the trend in surface treatment rim. T h e majority, however, comprise a continuumwithout adding to chronological information on in which subdivision may be arbitrary. Examplestemper differences illustrated by Valdivia Plain and are the cambered jar rims of Forms 20 and 21, andSan Pablo Plain. bowls of Forms 5 and 7. Distribution about the Decorated types have been viewed as the occasional norm may be relatively tight as in Form 4, or widely application of decoration to the surface of plain vessels. scattered as in Form 3, and rim profiles classified into Technique and motif of decoration have been conse- these forms show these differences in range of varia- tion. In ceramic complexes of later phases, stand- quently selected as the primary criteria of differentia- ardization may be greater and rim profiles show little tion. This approach is justified by the fact that variation in form or diameter. T h e attempt to define decorated polished surfaces, for example, show the vessel shape thus produces information useful for same characteristics of color, temper and surface comparative analysis on different levels of interpre- treatment as do undecorated polished surfaces, the tation. only exception being that decoration was often ap- lied to surfaces at the better finished end of the Another assumption implicit in the point of view range of variation. Surface finish is usually consistent that the ceramic complex as a whole is a developing within a decorated type. Temper is more variable, continuum is that each type will exhibit change through time. This can be measured most easily by and reflects in general the trend of the Phase, in tabulating the frequency of decorative motifs and which fine sand is more characteristic in the early vessel shapes according to stratigraphic levels of periods and coarse temper in the later ones. Since excavated habitation refuse. T h e pottery type de- more than one decorative technique is sometimes scription is thus an ideal average to which a majority present on a single vessel, a hierarchy of priority was of the sherds will conform in a majority of features, established for classificatory purposes in which the but which will not apply completely to all examples rarer techniques were given preference. By this rule, classified as belonging to the type. a sherd bearing rocker stamping was classified as It should be noted that pottery types recognized in Valdivia Rocker Stamped, even if broad-line incision the classification bear no necessary resemblance to was incorporated in the design, since broad-line in- any subdivision the potter himself might have made. cision is common throughout the Valdivia Phase T h e unpolished and polished variants of Valdivia sequence whereas rocker stamping is both rare and Rocker Stamped, for example, may have been con- temporally restricted. Such "cross-overs" are noted sidered separate by the makers, while types that we in the type descriptions where they occur, and serve have distinguished, such as Valdivia Incised and to emphasize the associations between certain tech- Valdivia Nicked Rib or Nubbin, may have beenniques to form a subcomplex characteristic of a considered inseparable by them. In our view thisparticular time period. T h e alternative of separating is an inevitable situation. T h e archeologist can haveout a third type, in this case one combining rocker no way of knowing what the potters conception m a ystamping and broad-line incision, served to proliferate have been, and any attempt to reconstruct it wouldthe n u m b e r of minor decorated types without adding certainly inject ethnocentric factors into the analysisany new information of chronological or descriptive that would distort the outcome as much, or perhapsimportance, and therefore was rejected. By the same more, than a classification developed independentlycriterion of decorative priority, a rare example aber- by examination of the sherd remains.rant in surface finish is considered a member of the T h e attitude just described applies not only to thedecorated type, such as a polished plain surface in analysis of pottery, but to all kinds of artifacts. ItValdivia Red Zoned Punctate or a red-slipped surface underlies the decision to recognize four types ofin Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. M a n y types pottery figurines in the Valdivia Phase rather thanhave no such deviant members, and this is in itself an several dozen, which could have been isolated descrip-interesting situation, reflecting a higher degree of tively. From a developmental point of view, variationstandardization or perhaps closer agreement between reflects an evolutionary process resembling that
  23. 23. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1labeled by biologists and linguists as "drift", and the longlived, others changing rapidly or shortlived. I nclassification attempts to recognize steps at which the course of time, change in all component typesdrift has proceeded far enough to produce a readily may be so marked as to require the recognition of aobserved difference in appearance. A typology of new phase.the pottery figurines based on finer descriptive detail, T h e problem is to create categories that will allowsuch as specific forms of hair treatment, was attempted recognition of significant disconformities as well asbut variability was so great and occurrence so erratic more gradual kinds of transformation. A fine break-that it was abandoned. With a different theoretical down or emphasis on small details m a y produce a norientation, such factors would not have seemed unrealistic impression of lack of continuity. C a t e -detrimental to recognition of more minute classifica- gories should be suitable for historical reconstruction,tory distinctions. for evolutionary investigation, a n d for comparative Another consequence of the view that has just been analysis. It cannot be decided in advance whetherexpressed is selection of terminology. Since Valdivia four phases or ten will describe adequately the his-Phase pottery is the product of unspecialized artisans torical sequence in any particular area, nor is it usefuland made principally for the producers domestic to proceed from the postulate that 100 years is toouse, it is highly variable in all aspects. Firing is short, or 2000 years too long a duration for a particularpoorly controlled, so that a small sherd may show a phase. Change does not proceed at a uniform r a t e ;wide surface and paste color range. Polishing tends what is too long in one context m a y be too short into be more complete on the upper wall than the another. T h e important qualification is culturallower. R i m profiles are unstandardized and curva- continuity or unity. Ideally, the early a n d late por-ture may not be consistent. In recognition of these tions of a phase should show a homogeneity that setsfacts, pottery type descriptions make liberal use of them apart from other contemporary or subsequentwords like "generally", "often", "slightly", etc. phases.Since surface color is the result of uncontrolled firing, Discussion of alternative approaches to establish-it is not described with reference to a color standard. ment of the Valdivia Phase will illustrate some of theIf a type description is to be useful for recording differ- criteria employed to distinguish the phases t h a tences within the pottery complex, for indicating the comprise the coastal Ecuadorian archeological se-quality of the ware, and for reflecting technological quence. T h e Valdivia Phase lasted some 2000 years.competence, then it can best do so by employing a As would be expected, a great deal of change can beterminology in accord with the level of competence of recognized particularly in pottery decoration, a n dthe makers. A highly standardized ceramic complex figurine style. In fact, if decoration were employedshould be described with high precision; an unstand- as the principal basis of classification, as it commonlyardized one is not made more understandable by is in other areas (e.g., Rouse in Venezuela, and Rowebeing so described. and students in Peru), the seriated sequence would Another level of classification is the recognition of undoubtedly be separated into three or four phases.phases, or complexes of archeological materials that However, continuity in plain types, vessel shapes,correspond to extinct societies or cultures. Although settlement pattern, and other features is so great thatit is easy to recognize at certain times and places we have chosen to regard the Phase as a unity thatsignificant groupings of traits representing architec- can be subdivided into four time periods. This per-ture, arts and crafts, burials and other kinds of re- mits us to contrast the Valdivia Phase with themains, it is often uncertain whether such a complex Machalilla Phase, from which it differs totally inequates with a tribal, political or linguistic unit on ceramic complex.the ethnographic level, or is something altogether T h e distinction between the Machalilla Phase anddifferent. For this reason, the term " p h a s e " seems the succeeding Chorrera Phase is less absolute. Apreferable, since it has no connotation. From the number of pottery types continue, others die outstandpoint of typology, definition of a phase in or make their appearance. In some respects, aarcheology might be compared with definition of a Machalilla - Chorrera combined seriation chart isgenus or even a family in biology. A genus is com- similar to that for the Valdivia Phase. Howeverposed of a number of species, which are evolving at here a division into two phases is justified by changesdifferent rates. It may happen in the course of time in settlement pattern and subsistence dependencethat some species will become sufficiently divergent as well as in the ceramic complex. Alterations into be put into a new genus; on the other hand, an vessel shape that are important horizon markersenvironmental change may cause extinction of the elsewhere in the New World include disappearancewhole genus. Similarly, a phase is made up of a of stirrup spout jars and the introduction of annularnumber of types of artifacts, some invariable and based bowls. I n short, a phase corresponds as far as
  24. 24. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONpossible to a grouping of traits not only of pottery section on the seriated ceramic sequence of themanufacture, but also settlement pattern, subsistence, Valdivia Phase (pp. 87-89).sociopolitical organization, burial practice, etc., Second, it must be understood that although potterywhich forms a unique entity with temporal persistence types because of their greater abundance are used asand geographical range. This entity can be observed the primary indicators of change, the final seriationin relation to other entities, shedding light on trade represents a compromise that does least violence torelations, acculturative pressures and other interphase all kinds of chronological evidence available. T h erelations, and establishing a basis for cross-dating. relative position of levels arranged first in terms of T h e technique of quantitative analysis of pottery trends in plain types, may be slightly readjusted afterfragments and seriation of surface collections or levels analysis of decorated sherds to minimize disconform-of stratigraphic excavations has been described in ities that may appear. In general, such rearrange-detail by Ford (1962), and it is of interest here to ment alters the position of levels whose plain typeemphasize only two aspects of the process. First, frequency was too similar to suggest which should beevery effort must be made to ensure the reliability of placed earlier. Less frequently, further minor read- justments may be made after classification of rima seriated sequence on which interpretations are to shapes, figurines, or shell and stone artifacts. Dis-be based. A combination of survey with surface col- conformities must be analyzed in terms of the geo-lections, small stratigraphic tests and intensive ex- graphical proximity of the sites and of potential localcavation of deep deposits is most likely to permit factors that may cause deviation from the norm. Arecognition of disturbing factors of cultural or natural sequence finally arrived at is not readily susceptibleorigin that may affect the outcome of analysis in some to alteration. When several carbon-14 dates areof the sites. Differences between the picture presented available, it should be possible to reconcile themby a ceramic sequence derived from a site inhabited a with the seriated sequence, as is the case in thelong time and another derived from seriation of sev- Valdivia Phase. If it is not, the validity of the dateseral sites of short occupation are discussed in the rather than of the sequence is open to question. THEORETICAL APPROACH TO INTERPRETATION Archeology is the science of reconstructing the ologists on the significance that should be attached to development and spread of past cultures from incom- certain kinds of archeological remains results from plete and often r a n d o m bits of direct and inferential absence of a uniform theoretical approach to evalua- evidence. It has frequently been pointed out that the tion of the effect of these variables. data of archeology are a small and unrepresentative T h e seriousness of the situation makes it worth- sample of the once functioning culture, the implication while to look to biology, the scientific discipline whose perhaps being that if surviving evidence were more subject matter is most comparable to anthropology, complete the j o b of historical reconstruction would for possible clarification. Although biology and be greatly simplified. Less attention has been given culture are two distinct categories of phenomena, the to the fact, well documented by living cultures, that content and behavior of these phenomena are of a cultural change does not proceed at a uniform rate, similar level of complexity. Biologists are confronted either in isolation or in acculturation situations. with a vast array of species, differing widely in struc- Some traits are of fleeting popularity, while others ture and in capacity to react to the external world;endure for centuries; some diffuse rapidly, others anthropologists are confronted with a vast array ofdiffuse erratically, popping up in widely separated cultures of differing complexity. Biologists mustregions; some spread with little modification, others classify living and extinct plants and animals intotake on drastically altered forms in different portions meaningful categories that shed light on the processof the area of distribution. As a result, evaluation by which this diversity arose; anthropologists haveof archeological remains is not simply a problem of attempted to do the same for cultures. Biologistsdealing with incomplete and unrepresentative evi- study the relations of fauna and flora with each otherdence, but also of evidence modified to different and the physical environment in order to understanddegrees a n d in different ways at different points in some of the principles underlying extinction, survivaltime. M u c h of the lack of agreement between arche- or modification of species; anthropologists have under-

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