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Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
Meggers evansestrada earlyformativeperiodeofcostalecuador
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  • 1. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY V O L U M E I [Whole Volume]
  • 2. Valdivia Bay. looking from the Machalilla Phase site of G-110: La Cabuya northward toward the Yaldivia Valley (upper left), showing typical overcast conditions during the garua season.
  • 3. Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador:THE VALDIVIA AND MACHALILLA PHASESBetty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Emilio Estrada SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Washington 1965
  • 4. A Publication of the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION United States National Museum LIBRARY O F CONGRESS CARD 65-611 7 z U N I T E D STATES G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFICE, WASHINGTON, 1965For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 10401
  • 5. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Anthropology was the subject of the first Smithsonian publication, "Ancient M o n u m e n t s ofthe Mississippi Valley," by E. George Squier and E. H . Davis. Issued in 1848 as volume 1 of theSmithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, it has become a landmark in N o r t h American archeology. Smithsonian interest in anthropology has continued through the years. Several Smithsonianseries have been devoted exclusively to anthropology. I n addition, works on this subject haveappeared regularly in a n u m b e r of the Institutions other series. Among these (with first or in-clusive dates of such appearance) are the Smithsonian Annual Report (from 1865), Smithsonian Mis-cellaneous Collections (from i860), Explorations and Fieldwork of the Smithsonian Institution (1927-1940),Smithsonian Institution War Background Studies (1942-1945), United States National Museum AnnualReport (1884-1904), United States National Museum Bulletin (from 1879), and the Proceedings (from 1878) a n d the Circular (1883-1888) of the United States National Museum. A m o n g the series devoted exclusively to anthropology, some have been short lived, others havecontinued to this day. Contributions to North American Ethnology (vols. 1-7, 9) was issued from 1877to 1895. T h e first through the forty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1879-80 through 1929-30) contained scientific papers, often of monographic length, on the AmericanIndians (the forty-eighth Report, 1930-31, contains a n index to these papers). A n d 16 volumes ofthe Publications of the Institute of Social Anthropology appeared between 1944 a n d 1953. I n 1896 the first Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology was issued. This series soon b e -came a major vehicle for anthropological publication by scientists at the Smithsonian and aroundthe world. I n some 200 Bulletins have appeared monographs and shorter papers on the archeology,ethnology, linguistics, and physical anthropology of the New World, and also basic handbookson the Indians of North America (no. 30) a n d of South America (no. 143), a n d on N o r t h Americanlanguages (no. 40). Within the Bulletin series also have appeared the subseries AnthropologicalPapers, nos. 1-80 (1938-1965) a n d River Basin Surveys Papers, nos. 1-39 (1953-1965). I n 1964, the Bureau of American Ethnology and the U . S . National M u s e u m D e p a r t m e n t ofAnthropology were replaced by the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. It consists of a Divisionof Physical Anthropology and a Division of Cultural Anthropology concerned with archeology,ethnology, and linguistics. It also administers the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys. Unlike theformer Bureau, its activities are not restricted to the native peoples of the New World. Whilecontinuing work in this field, the Office of Anthropology is expanding its research programs inAfrica, Asia, and the Pacific. Such reorganization and expansion make it appropriate to consolidate anthropological publi-cation at the Smithsonian in a new series of worldwide scope: Smithsonian Contributions toAnthropology. This volume inaugurates the new series. W i t h rare exceptions, all future anthropologicalmonographs a n d papers issued by the Smithsonian will appear in this series. I n addition to worksby members of the staff, a select n u m b e r of contributions will be accepted from authors outsidethe Smithsonian Institution. Copies of Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology are distributed by the Smithsonian to libraries,to research institutions, and to recognized specialists in the various fields treated, both in this country,and abroad. Further free distribution is m a d e by the Superintendent of Documents to depositorylibraries in each of the 50 States. Students a n d other interested individuals m a y purchase copies from the Superintendent ofDocuments, as indicated on the opposite page. RICHARD B. WOODBURY, Acting H e a d Smithsonian Office of A n t h r o p o l o g y Museum of N a t u r a l History
  • 6. Preface T h e publication of this report is a m o n u m e n t to the importance of international cooperation in scientific endeavor. T h e archeological sites and complexes were discovered by Ecuadorians, detailed analysis of the developmental sequences was furnished by North Americans, invaluable information for comparative study was provided by Japanese, and a Chilean prepared the report on skeletal remains. T o those of us who are listed as authors, working with all of these people has been a memorable experience not only because the scientific results have been so exciting, but because the context in which they have been derived has been so rewarding. T h e largest contribution has been m a d e by the m a n y Ecuadorians who have assisted with fieldwork a n d preparation of the bulk of material for analysis over the years. Some should be singled out for special mention. Dr. Carlos Zevallos Menendez, then President of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Nucleo del Guayas, arranged for permission under the Ecuadorian antiq- uity laws to conduct the archeological field research. Felix Martinez and later Julio Viteri served as foremen during much of the excavation at G—31. During two seasons of work by Meggers and Evans at G—31 and G—54, Francisco Salcedo generously m a d e available a comfortable house near the site as field headquarters. Washing and preliminary sorting of material from G—84 and G—31, C u t J was done by Walter Molina, part-time aide in the Museo "Victor Emilio Estrada." Staff members of the former Division of Archeology, M u s e u m of Natural History, U . S . National M u s e u m who have over the years assisted in the laborious j o b of washing, numbering and classi- fying Valdivia and Machalilla Phase materials, are M r . George Metcalf, M r . Robert C. Jenkins, and Mrs. Willie M a e Pelham. W e are indebted to personnel of other divisions for identification of stone, bone and shell remains, including Dr. Harald A. Rehder, Division of Mollusks; Dr. H e n r y Setzer, Division of M a m m a l s ; Dr. E. P. Henderson, Division of Meteorites; Dr. Leonard P. Schultz and Dr. William R. Taylor, Division of Fishes. Mr. Henry Wright assisted one summerwith sorting of rocks from G—31: Valdivia into possible and impossible artifacts. Carbon-14 determinations, which confirm the early chronological placement of the Valdiviacomplex, were m a d e over several years at three different laboratories: the United States Geologi-cal Survey Low Frequency Radiation Laboratory, the University of Michigan Laboratory, a n dthe Smithsonian Institution Carbon-Dating Laboratory. W e would like to thank Dr. Meyer R u b i nof the United States Geological Survey for his willingness to accept shell samples for dating at atime when this material was considered unsuitable in m a n y quarters, and Dr. Austin Long of theD e p a r t m e n t of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution Carbon-Dating Laboratory forconsultation a n d advice in the evaluation of the entire series of dates, which led to several of theinterpretations in the section on dating. O u r inferences about the origin of Valdivia Phase pottery would have been poorly supportedh a d it not been for the opportunity to visit J a p a n during M a r c h and April, 1963 to examine col-lections a n d talk with experts on the Early and Middle J o m o n Period. Initial communicationwith J a p a n e s e archeologists was facilitated by advice and introductions from Dr. Chester Chard,University of Wisconsin; Dr. Richard K. Beardsley, University of Michigan, and Dr. E d w a r dNorbeck, William M a r s h Rice University. Informed in advance of our general problem, mem-bers of the staff of the Institute of Cultural Anthropology, University of Tokyo, headed by Prof.Seiichi Izumi, laid out a tentative schedule of visits that permitted us to make best use of our lim-ited time. O u r ability to accomplish so m u c h was largely because of this generous unsolicited aidby Prof. Izumi a n d his colleagues, Prof. Shozo M a s u d a and Prof. Toshihiko Sono. T h r o u g h their
  • 7. PREFACEadvice, we were accompanied on trips outside the Tokyo area by one of their senior g r a d u a t estudents, M r . Hiroaki O k a d a , who served as an efficient guide a n d interpreter, a n d a n amusedinformant on J a p a n e s e inns and outs. O u r search for Valdivia-like pottery led u p a few blindalleys and into several productive fields, and we gratefully acknowledge guidance a n d informationfrom the following individuals: Prof. Sugao Yamanouchi, and Prof. N . W a t a n a b e , D e p a r t m e n t ofPhysical Anthropology, University of T o k y o ; Prof. Sosuke Sugihara, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology,Meiji University; Prof. T e r u y a Esaka, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, Keio University; M r . ChosukeSerizawa, T o k y o ; Prof. J . Edward Kidder, J r . , Archeology Laboratory, International ChristianUniversity; Prof. Kyoichi Arimitsu, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, University of K y o t o ; M r . F u k u -hara and M r . and M r s . Shirakiba, D e p a r t m e n t of Archeology, T e n r i M u s e u m ; M r . YoshimasaK a m a k i and M r . and Mrs. T . M a c a b e , Kurashiki Archeological M u s e u m ; Prof. Teigo Yoshida,Institute of Comparative Education and Culture, University of K y u s h u ; Prof. Morimitsu Ushijimaand M r . Mitsuhiko Higashi, K u m a m o t o Municipal M u s e u m ; Prof. M a t s u m o t o , D e p a r t m e n t ofHistory, University of K u m a m o t o ; Prof. Sadanori Kawaguchi, Goyokuryu H i g h School, K a g o -shima; and M r . M . F u r u t a of Shimabara. Prof. Ichiro Yawata, Archaeological Laboratory, TokyoUniversity of Education, led us on a memorable visit to a n inland Middle J o m o n site n e a r t h etown of Oomiyama. T h e w a r m welcome and open generosity of all these people in providing uswith advice, assistance and freedom to take notes and photographs of anything a n d everything isbeyond the power of words to acknowledge. W e hope that they will receive some satisfaction fromseeing how significant has been their contribution to the conclusions in this report. Financial support for the research has come from a n u m b e r of different organizations, whosecontribution we gratefully record: the American Philosophical Society for Penrose F u n d G r a n t s2012 and 2370; the National Science Foundation for Grants G-9055 a n d G-15641 to the Instituteof Andean Research for a three-year program entitled "Interrelationships of New World Cultures",u n d e r which we were included as Project J : Coastal E c u a d o r ; a n d the National Science F o u n d a -tion Cooperative International Science Activities Program (supplemental funds to G r a n t G S - 3 7 ) ,for sponsoring the trip to J a p a n . T h r o u g h o u t the various periods of field investigation from 1957-1961, a large portion of the field expense was borne by the Museo "Victor Emilio E s t r a d a " . Individuals who deserve special thanks for aid in preparation of the m o n o g r a p h are MissJ u d i t h Hill, Secretary of the former Division of Archeology, United States National M u s e u m , w h o skillfully and uncomplainingly deciphered the rough drafts, improved the consistency of the style a n dformat, and typed rapidly, neatly and efficiently the final copy of the manuscript; M r . George Robert Lewis, Scientific Illustrator, of the former D e p a r t m e n t of Anthropology, United States National Museum, w h o produced the beautiful a n d accurate line drawings; M r . J a c k Scott, H e a d , M u s e u m of Natural History Photo L a b , for production of excellent enlargements from negatives taken u n d e r varying conditions over several years; and Prof. K a z u o T e r a d a , University of Tokyo,who translated statements from Japanese publications. As the first of a new format, this volume presented special problems to the Editorial a n d Publica-tions Division, Smithsonian Institution. W e wish to express our gratitude to M r s . J o a n H o r n and M r . J o h n S. Lea for their constructive suggestions, careful editing for consistency a n d accuracy, and forebearance with our m a n y demands. T o the Government Printing Office, we offer a word of admiration for the remarkably error-free setting of the text a n d tables, their speed of execution ofeach phase of the work, and their high quality reproduction of a wide variety of photographs intoexcellent plates. W e have left until last the recording of our indebtedness to those Ecuadorian colleagues withw h o m we shared the excitement of discovering the early Formative cultures of coastal E c u a d o rand of reconstructing from fragments of pottery, stone and shell, long forgotten historical events:Francisco H u e r t a Rendon, Carlos Zevallos Menendez a n d Olaf Holm. T h e years we workedtogether u n d e r the leadership of Emilio Estrada are treasured memories to all of us—golden yearsbeyond repetition or recall. T h e unexpected death of Estrada in November 1961, shortly followingthe final season of fieldwork, brought an end to m a n y dreams, b u t one at least has developed ina m a n n e r he would have loved to see—the verification of his correlation, timidly proposed m a n yyears ago, between Valdivia and J o m o n . His co-authorship of this report is not simply a tributeit is a position fully earned. BJM _ ., . . . . CESmithsonian Institution Washington, D.C.J u n e 22, 1964
  • 8. Contents INTRODUCTION 1 Theoretical approach to analysis and classification 1 Theoretical approach to interpretation 5 Environmental characteristics 9 T H E VALDIVTA P H A S E 15 Description of sites and excavations 15 G—25: Punta Arenas 15 G - 3 1 : Valdivia 16 G - 5 4 : Buena Vista 20 G - 8 4 : Posorja 21 G - 8 8 : Palmar Norte 21 G-L-2 21 G-L-3 21 G-L-27 22 D a t a from other investigations 22 G - 1 1 5 : San Pablo 22 G-117: LaLibertad 22 T h e site sequence and its implications 23 Description of artifacts 26 Stone artifacts 26 Abraders 26 Blades or knives 26 Bowls 26 Choppers 26 Cores 27 Gravers 27 Grinding stones 27 Hammerstones 27 "Jaketown perforators" 28 Paint stones 28 Pebble polishing stones 28 Polished axes 28 Reamers 29 Saws 29 Scrapers 33 Sinkers 33 Fireburnt rocks 33 Chronological distribution of stone artifact types 34 Shell artifacts 37 Abraders and polishers 37 Beads 38 Bowl or cup 38 Disks 38767-841—65
  • 9. CONTENTS Page no Drilled clam shell pendants Drilled and shaped pendants Drilled pecten pendant Fishhooks 39 Fishhook blanks 40 Scoops, spoons or spatulas Unclassified worked shell Chronological distribution of shell artifact typesBone and teeth artifacts Deer antler awls Antler tip projectile point Fish bone awls Fish vertebra Awls of teeth from saw fish Chronological position of bone and teeth artifacts 42Pottery artifacts 42 Pottery type descriptions 42 P u n t a Arenas Incised 43 Puntas Arenas Plain 43 San Pablo Plain 45 Valdivia Applique Fillet 45 Valdivia Broad-line Incised 47 Valdivia Brushed 51 Valdivia Carved 53 Valdivia Combed 54 Valdivia Cord Impressed 54 Valdivia Corrugated 56 Valdivia Cut and Beveled R i m 57 Valdivia Embossed 57 Valdivia Excised 58 Valdivia Fine-line Incised 60 Valdivia Finger Grooved 61 Valdivia Fingernail Decorated 62 Valdivia Incised 63 Valdivia Modeled 66 Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate 67 Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised 68 Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin 69 Valdivia Pebble Polished 70 Valdivia Plain 72 Valdivia Polished Plain 74 Valdivia Polished Red 76 Valdivia Pseudo-Corrugated 80 Valdivia Punctate 80 Valdivia Red Incised 81 Valdivia Red Zoned Punctate 81 Valdivia Rocker Stamped 82 Valdivia Shell Stamped 34 Valdivia Striated Polished Plain 84 Valdivia Zoned Incised 35 Unclassified Decorated 37 T r a d e pottery of Machalilla Phase types 37 T h e seriated ceramic sequence and its implications 37Figurines 95 T y p e descriptions 95 Palmar Plain 05 Palmar Notched o^ Palmar Incised og Valdivia o< San Pablo 97
  • 10. XL CONTENTS Page Buena Vista 98 Punta Arenas 100 Unclassified 100 Figurine stools 101 Chronological distribution and evolution of figurine types 102 Miscellaneous 107 Worked sherds 107 Unfired clay objects 107 Diagnostic features and period subdivisions of the Valdivia Phase 107T H E MACHALILLA PHASE 110 Description of sites and excavations 110 G-110: LaCabuya 110 G-112 Ill M-28: Machalilla Cemetery Ill Data from other investigations Ill Description of artifacts 112 Stone artifacts 112 Abraders 112 Blades or knives 112 Choppers 112 Cores 112 Gravers 112 Grinding stones 112 Hammerstones 112 "Jaketown perforators" 112 Paint stones 112 Pebble polishing stones 112 Reamers 112 Saws 112 Scrapers 112 Miscellaneous stone 112 Chronological distribution of stone artifacts 113 Shell artifacts 113 Abraders and polishers 113 Bead 113 Bracelet 113 Disks 116 Fishhooks 116 Fishhook blanks 116 Pendant blanks 116 Chronological distribution of shell artifacts 116 Bone and tooth artifacts 116 Pottery artifacts 117 Pottery type description 117 Ayangue Incised 117 Cabuya Black-on-White 119 Cabuya Finger Pressed Rim 120 Cabuya Plain 121 Chorrera Incised 121 Chorrera Plain 122 Machalilla Burnished Line 122 Machalilla Double-line Incised 123 Machalilla Embellished and Red Zoned 124 Machalilla Embellished Shoulder 124 Machalilla Finger Punched 126 Machalilla Incised 127 Machalilla Incised and Punctate 127 Machalilla Incised and Red Zoned 128 Machalilla Plain 129 Machalilla Polished Plain 129
  • 11. TABLES Page 13 Machalilla Polished R e d ° Machalilla Punctate 132 ! Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 134 Machalilla R e d Banded 136 Machalilla R e d Incised 137 Machalilla Striated Polished Plain Chorrera Phase types Rocker stamped Zoned red 139 Zoned red and black 140 Zoned punctate * " Unclassified decorated ! T r a d e pottery of Valdivia Phase origin * 4U Pottery of probable trade origin 141 T h e seriated ceramic sequence and its implications Figurines 144 Machalilla 144 Figurines of trade origin 144 Worked sherds 144 Disks 145 Scrapers 145 Diagnostic features and period subdivisions of the Machalilla Phase 145R E L A T I V E AND ABSOLUTE D A T I N G OF THE VALDIVIA AND M A C H A L I L L A PHASES . . . . 147O R I G I N AND AFFILIATIONS OF THE VALDIVIA AND M A C H A L I L L A PHASES 157LITERATURE CITED 179A P P E N D I X 1: T a b l e s 1-17 183APPENDIX 2 : Skeletal remains from sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases 219 By J U A N R. MUNIZAGA.PLATES 235 Tables TEXTA. Correlation between vessel shapes of Valdivia Phase pottery types a n d generalized forms recognized for the Valdivia Phase 91B. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Embellished and R e d Zoned decoration 124C. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder decoration 126D . Combined temporal distribution of minor motifs of Machalilla Incised and R e d Zoned a n d Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 129E. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of techniques of Machalilla Punctate decoration . 134F. Correlation between vessel shapes of Machalilla Phase pottery types and generalized forms recognized for the Machalilla Phase 142G. Carbon-14 dates for complexes of the early Formative Period 149H . Carbon-14 dates for complexes of the late Formative, Regional Developmental a n d Integration Periods 153 APPENDIX I 1. Frequency of species of mollusks in levels of G—31, Cuts A, F, and H , of the Valdivia Phase 183 2. Frequency of shell artifacts in Valdivia Phase excavations 186 3. Frequency of stone artifacts and n a t u r a l stone in Valdivia Phase excavations . . . . 188 4. Frequency of kinds of faunal remains from Valdivia Phase excavations 189
  • 12. ILLUSTRATIONS Page 5. Frequency of bone and tooth artifacts in Valdivia Phase excavations 189 6. Frequency of pottery types in surface collections and stratigraphic and text excavations at sites of the Valdivia Phase 190 7. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Broad-line Incised 206 8. Frequency of shell artifacts in Machalilla Phase excavations 206 9. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Fine-line Incised 20710. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Incised 20711. Frequency of tetrapod and concave base forms and lobed rims in Valdivia Phase pot- tery irrespective of type 20812. Frequency of decorative motifs of Valdivia Excised 20813. Frequency of Valdivia Phase figurine types and alternative kinds of body and leg treatment 20914. Frequency of generalized vessel forms of the Valdivia Phase 21015. Frequency of generalized vessel forms and unusual appendages in sites of the M a c h a - lilla Phase 21416. Frequency of pottery types in surface collections and stratigraphic excavations at sites of the Machalilla Phase 21617. Frequency of stone artifacts and natural stone in Machalilla Phase excavations . . . 218 APPENDIX 21. Measurements, indices, and module of individual crania comprising the Buena Vista series 2252. Frequency of independently variable traits in the Buena Vista population 2253. Measurements, indices and module of individual crania comprising the San Pablo series . 2264. Comparative distribution of cranial index in populations of Cabezas Largas and Buena Vista 2275. Distribution of individuals by two categories of cranial index in five coastal Andean series 227 Illustrations FIGURES 1. Northwestern South America showing location of geographical features and selected modern towns 10 2. Location of sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases 12 3. Sketch m a p of G—25: P u n t a Arenas, a Period D site of the Valdivia Phase 14 4. Sketch m a p of G—31: Valdivia, occupied during Periods A - C of the Valdivia Phase . 17 5. Sketch m a p of G—54: Buena Vista, a Period C site of the Valdivia Phase 18 6. Profile of the bank at the north edge of G—54 showing layer of sterile dirt overlying the refuse deposit 20 7. Sketch m a p of G—88: Palmar Norte, a Period A - B site of the Valdivia Phase, showing extent of the refuse and location of excavations 23 8. Fragments of clay with twig impressions suggesting wattle and d a u b construction . . 24 9. T e m p o r a l distribution and frequency of species of mollusks in levels of G—31, Cuts A, F and H 26 10. Gravers from Valdivia Phase sites 29 11. Grinding stone fragments from Valdivia Phase sites 30 12. Hammerstones of the Valdivia Phase 31 13. " J a k e t o w n perforators" from Valdivia Phase sites 32 14. Fishhook reamers from the Valdivia Phase 33 15. Sandstone saws from Valdivia Phase sites 34 16. Scrapers from Valdivia Phase sites 35 17. Valdivia Phase pebble sinkers 36 18. T e m p o r a l distribution of stone artifact types during the Valdivia Phase 37
  • 13. XIV ILLUSTRATIONS Page 3 19. Stages in shell fishhook manufacture " 20. T e m p o r a l distribution of shell artifact types during the Valdivia Phase 40 21. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of P u n t a Arenas Incised 43 22. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of P u n t a Arenas Plain 23. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Applique Fillet 46 24. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Forms 1-4 . 25. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Forms 5-10. 50 26. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Brushed ->z 27. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Carved -"j 28. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 55 29. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 56 30. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Embossed 58 31. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Excised 5) 32. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fine-line Incised 61 33. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Finger Grooved 62 34. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fingernail Decorated . . . 63 35. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Incised 64 36. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Modeled 66 37. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types . 67 38. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised . 69 39. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Period C decorated types 71 40. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Pebble Polished 73 41. R i m profiles a n d reconstructed vessel shapes of San Pablo Plain and Valdivia Plain . 75 42. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished Plain 77 43. Profiles of Valdivia Polished R e d base forms 78 44. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished R e d 79 45. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Punctate 81 46. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Rocker Stamped 83 47. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Striated Polished Plain . . 85 48. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Zoned Incised 87 49. Seriation of small cuts at G—31 on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency . . 90 50. Seriation of G—31, Cut J , Sections D and E on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency 90 51. Seriation of G—31, Cut J , Sections D and E with scale enlarged to show changes in frequency of minor early decorated types 90 52. Seriation on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency of Valdivia Phase sites a n d levels of relatively short-term occupation 90 53. Seriation of Valdivia Phase sites and levels selected to represent the general trends of change in pottery type frequency 90 54. T e m p o r a l distribution of vessel shapes of Valdivia Phase pottery types 90 55. Chronological distribution and period of m a x i m u m frequency of Valdivia Phase pot- tery types 93 56. Evolution of Valdivia Phase vessel shapes 94 57. Pottery types represented at G—115 and their period distribution in the Valdivia Phase sequence, based u p o n figure 55 95 58. Typical figurine heads of the San Pablo type 93 59. Typical figurine heads of the Buena Vista type 99 60. Valdivia Phase figurines of unclassified types 100 61. U n i q u e Valdivia Phase stone figurine ^QI 62. T w o examples of a r a r e unclassified type of Valdivia Phase pottery figurine . . . . 101 63. T o p , side and bottom views of two probable pottery figurine stools from the Valdivia Phase .jQ., 64. T e m p o r a l distribution of figurine types and details of body t r e a t m e n t d u r i n g t h e V a l - divia Phase .. (-,4 65. Evolutionary changes in figurine style during the Valdivia Phase . . . . . . 106 66. Sketch m a p of G - l 10: La Cabuya, a Period C site of the Machalilla Phase . Ill 67. Gravers from the Machalilla Phase **~ 68. Small hammerstones from the Machalilla Phase 113 69. Fishhook reamers from the Machalilla Phase 114
  • 14. ILLUSTRATIONS 70. Sandstone saws from Machalilla Phase sites 115 71. S n u b nosed scrapers from the Machalilla Phase 116 72. Carnivore tooth perforated for suspension; from the Machalilla Phase 117 73. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Ayangue Incised 118 74. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of rare Machalilla Phase decorated types . 119 75. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Cabuya Plain 121 76. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Chorrera Plain 122 77. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Double-line Incised . . . 123 78. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder . . 125 79. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Finger Punched 127 80. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Incised 128 81. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Incised and R e d Zoned a n d Machalilla Punctate and R e d Zoned 130 82. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Plain 131 83. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Polished Plain 132 84. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Polished R e d 133 85. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Red Banded 135 86. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Red Incised 137 87. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain, Forms 1-10 138 88. R i m profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain, spouted j a r Forms 11 and 12 139 89. Seriation of Machalilla Phase sites on the basis of changes in pottery type frequency . . 140 90. T e m p o r a l distribution of vessel shapes of Machalilla Phase pottery types 140 91. Chronological distribution and period of m a x i m u m frequency of Machalilla Phase pottery types 143 92. Fragmentary head of a Machalilla type figurine from M - 2 8 144 93. Period distribution of pottery types of Machalilla Phase origins in Valdivia Phase sites and of Valdivia Phase origin in Machalilla Phase sites 148 94. Stratigraphic origin of carbon-14 samples from G—31 and G—54 151 95. Differences in agreement between period identification of selected sites and obsidian dates derived by three different scales for conversion of hydration layer thickness into elapsed time 154 96. Early Valdivia Phase ceramic features at Early and Middle J o m o n sites on Kyushu and Honshu 159 97. M a p of J a p a n , showing location of J o m o n sites producing pottery resembling Val- divia Phase types 160 98. Carbon-14 dates for J o m o n sites on Hokkaido and Honshu, with selected Valdivia Phase dates for comparison 161 99. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with similar excised decoration 162100. Similarity between r i m profiles of J o m o n (solid) and early Valdivia (outline) pottery vessels 163101. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar castellated rim treatment 164102. Late J o m o n stone and pottery plaques from Honshu sites with decorative motifs re- sembling those on Valdivia Phase pottery 165103. T h e northern Pacific Ocean, showing direction and speed of principal currents, paths of cyclonic storms and the great circle route between Kyushu, J a p a n and the Guayas coast of Ecuador 168104. Northwestern South America showing location of pottery complexes carbon-14 dated between 5000-4000 years ago and their possible derivation from the early Valdivia Phase 169105. Occurrence of selected Valdivia and Machalilla Phase decorative techniques and ves- sel form elements in other Formative complexes of Colombia and Peru 170106. Late J o m o n stone figurine head from Sakaizaki Shell M o u n d , Kyushu bearing a slight resemblance to some examples of the Buena Vista type of the Valdivia Phase 171107. Chronological position of certain Mesoamerican and Colombian complexes incorpo- rating decorative techniques and motifs resembling Valdivia and Machalilla Phase (Ayangue Incised) types 174
  • 15. ILLUSTRATIONS Page108. Northwestern South America showing location of pottery complexes carbon-14 d a t e d between 4000-3000 years ago a n d possible routes by which they were spread . . . 175109. Northwestern South America, showing location of selected pottery complexes carbon- 14 dated between 3400-3000 years ago a n d possible routes of communication be- tween t h e m *• 221110. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 5 , G-54, Burial 8 222111. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 6 , G-54, Burial 9 223112. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 8 , G-54, Burials 1-7 224113. Stereograph drawing of skull B V - 1 1 , G-54, Burial 8 228114. Stereograph drawing of skull M - l , G - l 10, C u t 1115. Sites reflecting the first occurrence of skull deformation on the coasts of E c u a d o r a n d 23 Peru 1 PLATESFRONTISPIECE: Valdivia Bay, looking from the Machalilla Phase site of G—110: L a C a b u y a n o r t h - w a r d toward the Valdivia Valley (upper left) showing typical overcast conditions d u r i n g garua 1. Typical views of the Guayas coast. 2. Typical views of the Guayas coast. 3. Typical topography and xerophytic vegetation of the coast of Guayas Province. 4. Views of San Pablo Salitre. 5. G - 2 5 : P u n t a Arenas, a Period D site of the Valdivia Phase. 6. Looking north toward the Valdivia Bay from the vicinity of G—31. 7. T h e environment of the Valdivia area. 8. G—31: Valdivia, the type site for the Valdivia Phase. 9. G—31, Cut J at conclusion of excavation. 10. Stratigraphy of G—31, Cut J , southeast face. 11. G—54: Buena Vista, a Period C site of the Valdivia Phase showing topography a n d m o d e r n vegetation. 12. G—54, Burials 1-7 during excavation. 13. T h e environment of the Posorja region. 14. Environment of Palmar Salitre. 15. Flake blades or knives from Valdivia Phase sites, with the cutting edge d o w n w a r d . 16. Miscellaneous stone artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 17. Pebble choppers from the Valdivia Phase. 18. Valdivia Phase stone tools. 19. Miscellaneous objects from Valdivia Phase sites. 20. Fishhook reamers from Valdivia Phase sites showing uniformity in size a n d form. 21. Miscellaneous shell objects from the Valdivia Phase. 22. Shell artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 23. Shell ornaments of the Valdivia Phase. 24. Shell fishhooks of the Valdivia Phase. 25. Bone and tooth artifacts of the Valdivia Phase. 26. T y p e sherds of Punta Arenas Incised. 27. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, vertical parallel bands on body wall. 28. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, curvilinear and intersecting patterns on body wall. 29. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Applique Fillet, variations in r i m treatment. 30. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 31. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 32. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 33. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 34. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 35. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 36. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 37. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 38. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 39. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 40. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised. 41. T y p e sherds of Valdiv a Broad-line Incised.
  • 16. ILLUSTRATIONS 42. Complete vessels of Valdivia Broad-line Incised. 43. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 44. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 45. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 46. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Brushed. 47. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Carved. 48. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 49. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 50. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Combed. 51. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cord Impressed. 52. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Corrugated. 53. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Corrugated. 54. Valdivia Phase decorated types. 55. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cut and Beveled Rim. 56. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Cut and Beveled R i m . 57. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Embossed. 58. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 59. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 60. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Excised. 61. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 62. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 63. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 64. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fine-line Incised. 65. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Finger Grooved. 66. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Fingernail Decorated. 67. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 68. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 69. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 70. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 71. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 72. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 73. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 74. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 75. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 76. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 77. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Incised. 78. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Modeled. 79. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate. 80. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Multiple D r a g - a n d - J a b Punctate. 81. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised, single line on exterior adjacent to rim or carination. 82. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised, single line on exterior adjacent to rim. 83. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. 84. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. 85. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 86. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 87. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 88. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 89. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 90. Complete vessels of Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin. 91. T y p e sherds and a complete vessel of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A. 92. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A. 93. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant A, with supplementary decoration by broad-line incision, or nicked broad-line incision. 94. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Pebble Polished, Variant B. 95. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Phase unpolished plain types. 96. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Polished Plain. 97. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Polished R e d . 98. Typical bases of Valdivia Polished R e d . 99. Complete vessels of Valdivia Phase plain pottery types.767-841—6E
  • 17. ILLUSTRATIONS100. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.101. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Punctate.102. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Incised.103. Valdivia R e d Incised, castellated r i m and tetrapod bowl.104. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Incised.105. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Red Zoned Punctate.106. T y p e sherds of Valdivia R e d Zoned Punctate.107. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.108. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.109. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.110. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.111. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.112. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Rocker Stamped.113. T y p e sherds of several Valdivia Phase decorated pottery types.114. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Zoned Incised.115. T y p e sherds of Valdivia Striated Polished Plain.116. Sherds of Valdivia Phase types from sites of the Machalilla Phase.117. Stone figurines of the Valdivia Phase.118. Stone figurines of the Valdivia Phase.119. Broken pottery figurines of the Valdivia and San Pablo types showing method of construction.120. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variable treatment of the common long b o b hairstyle.121. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variable treatment of the long bob hair style.122. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variation in hair style.123. Figurines of the Valdivia type, showing variation in size, workmanship and stylistic detail.124. Bodies of Valdivia type figurines showing variation in surface finish and typical leg t r e a t m e n t (shown in profile).125. Figurines of the San Pablo type showing variation in hair style.126. Figurines of the Buena Vista type, showing variation in hair treatment.127. Large grinding stone from G—110: L a Cabuya, a Period C site of the Machalilla Phase.128. N a t u r a l pebbles used as polishing stones from Machalilla Phase sites.129. Worked shell from Machalilla Phase sites.130. Shell fishhooks from the Machalilla Phase, showing range in size.131. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.132. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.133. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.134. T y p e sherds of Ayangue Incised.135. M i n o r decorated types of the late Machalilla Phase.136. T y p e sherds of minor Machalilla Phase decorated types.137. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Double-line Incised.138. T r a d e sherds of Machalilla Double-line Incised from the Valdivia Phase site of G—54.139. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.140. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.141. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder.142. Decorated pottery types of the Machalilla Phase.143. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Embellished Shoulder, showing variation in size a n d s h a p e of bosses.144. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Phase decorated types.145. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Incised a n d R e d Zoned and Machalilla P u n c t a t e a n d R e d Z o n e d .146. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Plain.147. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Phase decorated types.148. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Punctate and Red Zoned.149. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, narrow variety.150. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, narrow variety.151. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Red Banded, narrow variety.152. T y p e sherds of Machalilla R e d Banded, wide variety.153. Machalilla R e d Banded sherds from the Valdivia Phase site of G - 5 4 : B u e n a Vista.154. T y p e sherds of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain.155. Stirrup spouts of Machalilla Striated Polished Plain.156. Machalilla Striated Polished Plain stirrup and cylindrical spout fragments.157. Unclassified decorated sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.
  • 18. ILLUSTRATIONS158. Figurines and unclassified decorated sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.159. Worked sherds from Machalilla Phase sites.160. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar technique and motif in broad-line incised designs.161. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar broad-line incised motifs.162. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with broad-line incised designs of similar technique and motif.163. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration in similar technique and motifs.164. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar incised decoration in vertical or horizontal zigzag motif.165. J o m o n a n d Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration combined with one or two rows of punctation at the base of the neck.166. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar combinations of motifs in incised decoration.167. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with incised decoration in similar technique and motif.168. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar execution of zoned punctate decoration.169. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar pseudo-corrugated decoration.170. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by multiple drag-and-jab punctate.171. J o m o n sherds from Yoshida site with multiple drag-and-jab punctate decoration.172. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar shell combed decoration.173. J o m o n vessels with combed decoration from Nanshu Shrine site.174. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar overall texturing by brushing or shell scraping. 175. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with patterned overall shell scraping. 176. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by finger grooving. 177. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with excised decoration in similar technique and motif. 178. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar types of decoration. 179. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by rocker stamping. 180. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with shell stamped decoration. 181. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds showing similar lobed rim treatment. 182. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with folded-over plain or finger-pressed r i m treatment. 183. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar fine-line incised and drag-and-jab punctate decoration. 184. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase pottery with similar relief decoration in the form of a stylized face. 185. Jomon and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by cord impression, and J o m o n vessels resembling Valdivia Phase examples. 186. J o m o n vessels of typical Valdivia Phase shapes. 187. Pre-Jomon and Valdivia Phase stone figurines. 188. Decorated sherds from Puerto Hormiga. 189. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar decoration by nicked and finger-pressed applique ribs. 190. J o m o n and Valdivia Phase sherds with similar nicked broad-line incised decoration. 191. Decorated sherds from Kotosh. 192. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 193. Skulls from t h e Valdivia Phase. 194. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 195. Skulls from the Valdivia Phase. 196. Skull of the Machalilla Phase, showing tabular erecta flattening and crowding of canine teeth.
  • 19. The Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador The Valdivia and JMachalilla Phages
  • 20. Introduction THEORETICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION Archeology, unlike other scientific disciplines, has particles or the chemical elements, they representno universally recognized system of classification and populations that vary through time and place. Car-nomenclature. Each investigator feels free to invent bon-12 is identical in all respects today to what it washis own frame of reference, with the result that data ten million years ago, while the modern horse is notare frequently presented in terms that are not easily only recognizably different from its Eocene predecessorcompared. Since the philosophical approach under- but also variable within the limits of a small inbreed-lying a classification has a significant influence on ing population. Mutation, genetic drift and otherthe conclusions, it seems worthwhile to explain the factors operate under natural selection to produce apoint of view employed in this report and the rationale kaleidoscope of results that may make boundariesbehind selection of certain kinds of information as drawn between varieties and occasionally betweensignificant. species arbitrary (Dobzhansky quoted in Grant, 1963, Any scientist approaching the material encompassed pp. 317-318; Simpson, 1961, pp. 117-119).by his field of specialization must organize it into Simpson (1961, p. 152) has summarized the situa-distinguishable categories whose functions and inter- tion recently:relations can be observed, described and if possible Among evolutionary species there cannot possibly be a generalexplained. Depending on the discreteness of the dichotomy between free interbreeding and no interbreeding.phenomena and their susceptibility to alteration, his Every intermediate stage occurs, and there is no practicallytask varies from easy to difficult. A physicist, for definable point in time when two infraspecific populations suddenly become separate species. Fortunately for the neon-example, has no trouble distinguishing a neutron from tologists, the majority of living populations have either definitelyan electron; in structure and behavior they are defin- passed that hypothetical point or are not yet close to it.able with high precision. Nor is there any argument Nevertheless speciation is actively occurring today, and manyabout whether carbon is different from nitrogen, populations are in the intermediate stages of some, but reduced,which follows it in the periodic sequence of atoms. interbreeding. Again, if there are distinct gaps between ranges of characters, it is sufficiendy probable that isolation is at leastCarbon has several subvarieties, of which radioactive complete enough to warrant specific separation. There remaincarbon-14 is well known to archeologists. No one numerous doubtful cases where decision depends on the per-argues that carbon-12 should not be separated from sonal judgment of each practitioner of the art of classification.carbon-14 for purposes of analysis and description, To insist on an absolute objective criterion would be to denynor is there any disagreement that both belong to the the facts of life, especially the inescapable fact of evolution.same larger category or type. Their behavior can T h e archeologist who attempts to classify potsherdsbe predicted; it is known with what other elements is also confronted with a continually changing class ofthey will combine and in what proportions; and it is phenomena (cf. Vogt, 1960, pp. 19-21), varyingeven known under what circumstances such com- geographically and temporally as a result not only ofbinations are likely to take place. cultural differences respecting function, production, T h e biologist has a more difficult job. T h e types and style, but also of accidental inconsistencies in rawwith which he must deal differ from those of the materials, differential skill of potters, their suscepti-chemist or physicist in that, unlike the elementary bility to influence from exposure to other pottery 1
  • 21. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1styles, and occasional individual deviations from variants are an expression of lack of standardizationtypical forms and decorative patterns. T h e difficulty in production, of differences in sources of r a w m a -of arriving at generally acceptable criteria for sep- terials, of the individuality of the potters, of thearating this continuum into a series of types has re- instability inherent in all evolving systems. At a latersulted in lack of uniformity in the approach to pottery point in time, some variants m a y become sufficientlyclassification not only between workers in different well defined and frequent to w a r r a n t recognition asareas, but even among people dealing with similar separate pottery types, in which case the problem ofmaterial. where to draw the line is between parent a n d offspring A number of commentaries have been published on rather than between contemporaries.the theory of pottery classification, and authors differ Although each pottery type is a combination ofespecially on the precision with which ceramic types many kinds of traits (temper, color, surface treatment,should be described. In our view, part of the problem vessel shape, technique and motif of decoration),comes from a difference in theoretical position: these may be independent variables within the totalarcheologists who see culture as an evolving con- ceramic complex. It is frequently observed t h a ttinuum will find it difficult to define precise categories; gray or tan surfaces m a y occur with coarse or finethose who take a timeless view tend to look for absolute temper, or that a particular technique of decorationtypes, describable in very exact terms. Since we may be applied to polished plain or polished redincline toward the first approach, our pottery type surfaces, or that polished red surfaces m a y be plain orclassification represents an effort to recognize divisions decorated. T h e problem is to decide which combina-within the mass of material recovered from tests and tions of traits make convenient descriptive entitiesexcavations that can serve as a basis for reconstructing and useful categories for chronological and compara-the culture and its history. tive analysis. In m a n y respects our view coincides with the T h e principal subdivision we have m a d e is betweenpopulation approach that has come to prevail in the decorated and undecorated surfaces. Although thisbiological definition of types, and has been well is an obvious basis for distinction, it is one that isstated recently by Simpson (1961, pp. 183-184): often not made in ceramic classification. Failure to It has already been emphasized often enough that taxa are separate decorated from undecorated sherds is usually inherendy variable and that attention to their variability is justified on the ground that it prevents sherds from a essential in their description and necessary in their practical definition. That naturally demands taking into account all vessel decorated on only part of the surface from being available specimens and involves the principle that no one divided between two pottery types. This a r g u m e n t specimen referred to the taxon is, for these purposes, any more can be ignored, however, if the purpose of the classi- important or any more typical than any other. Some specimens fication is to deal with the multitude of sherds recov- are of course more nearly average than others as regards ered from habitation refuse and to show change particular characters in the sense of being nearer the mean, although this is rarely true of all characters of one organism. through time. Failure to separate decorated from The mere fact that a valid average is recognized means that undecorated sherds has a serious disadvantage in t h a t all specimens have been taken into account and none especially it makes it difficult or impossible to ascertain the weighted. exact proportion of the pottery t h a t was decorated,Its application to classification problems in archeology or the frequency of certain kinds of decoration at anywas discussed a decade ago by Ford (1954), to whom particular point in time, both of which can be usedthe reader is referred for more detailed explanation. as a basis for inferences about level of competence in When several thousand sherds, representing the ceramic technology, which in t u r n provides clues tocontents of a level in one of the sections of Cut J at level of sociopolitical organization (Meggers a n dSite G—31: Valdivia, are spread out on a table, it is Evans, 1958). This, in our view, is an advantagepossible to distinguish several kinds of differences. outweighing the strictly puristic superiority of aAmong them are decorated and plain sherds, polished classification that attempts to deal with completeand unpolished surfaces, red-slipped and unslipped vessels.surfaces, coarse and fine sand temper. A classifica- Looking first at the undecorated sherds, differencestion based on one or more of these differences can can be recognized in temper a n d surface finish.accommodate without any difficulty about 75 to 85 Preliminary classification makes as m a n y distinctionspercent of the sherds. There will remain, however, as possible, first in surface finish (unpolished, striateda group of borderline examples, where the surfaces are polished, completely polished or red slipped) a n dneither unpolished nor well polished, where the then in temper (fine, medium or coarse beach sand,temper is intermediate between coarse and fine, where or crushed rock). T e m p o r a l variation in these cate-a type of decoration normally applied to an unslipped gories was tested by classifying several levels fromsurface is found on a red-slipped one, etc. These different depths in an excavation, a n d those features
  • 22. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONthat showed the greatest variation were selected as the archeologists and the potters on definition of thetype diagnostics. I n the case of Valdivia Phase plain type.types, surface finish is the principal classificatory Differences in standardization can also be detectedcriterion, with temper used to make a secondary in vessel shape and rim profile. In Valdivia Phasedistinction between two types with unpolished sur- ceramics, no two rims are alike, although they tendfaces (Valdivia Plain and San Pablo Plain). Sep- to cluster in groups with similar construction, shapearation of the polished types into coarse and fine and orientation. Certain forms are unique enoughtempered varieties served to multiply the number of to be readily distinguishable, such as the folded-overtypes and obscure the trend in surface treatment rim. T h e majority, however, comprise a continuumwithout adding to chronological information on in which subdivision may be arbitrary. Examplestemper differences illustrated by Valdivia Plain and are the cambered jar rims of Forms 20 and 21, andSan Pablo Plain. bowls of Forms 5 and 7. Distribution about the Decorated types have been viewed as the occasional norm may be relatively tight as in Form 4, or widely application of decoration to the surface of plain vessels. scattered as in Form 3, and rim profiles classified into Technique and motif of decoration have been conse- these forms show these differences in range of varia- tion. In ceramic complexes of later phases, stand- quently selected as the primary criteria of differentia- ardization may be greater and rim profiles show little tion. This approach is justified by the fact that variation in form or diameter. T h e attempt to define decorated polished surfaces, for example, show the vessel shape thus produces information useful for same characteristics of color, temper and surface comparative analysis on different levels of interpre- treatment as do undecorated polished surfaces, the tation. only exception being that decoration was often ap- lied to surfaces at the better finished end of the Another assumption implicit in the point of view range of variation. Surface finish is usually consistent that the ceramic complex as a whole is a developing within a decorated type. Temper is more variable, continuum is that each type will exhibit change through time. This can be measured most easily by and reflects in general the trend of the Phase, in tabulating the frequency of decorative motifs and which fine sand is more characteristic in the early vessel shapes according to stratigraphic levels of periods and coarse temper in the later ones. Since excavated habitation refuse. T h e pottery type de- more than one decorative technique is sometimes scription is thus an ideal average to which a majority present on a single vessel, a hierarchy of priority was of the sherds will conform in a majority of features, established for classificatory purposes in which the but which will not apply completely to all examples rarer techniques were given preference. By this rule, classified as belonging to the type. a sherd bearing rocker stamping was classified as It should be noted that pottery types recognized in Valdivia Rocker Stamped, even if broad-line incision the classification bear no necessary resemblance to was incorporated in the design, since broad-line in- any subdivision the potter himself might have made. cision is common throughout the Valdivia Phase T h e unpolished and polished variants of Valdivia sequence whereas rocker stamping is both rare and Rocker Stamped, for example, may have been con- temporally restricted. Such "cross-overs" are noted sidered separate by the makers, while types that we in the type descriptions where they occur, and serve have distinguished, such as Valdivia Incised and to emphasize the associations between certain tech- Valdivia Nicked Rib or Nubbin, may have beenniques to form a subcomplex characteristic of a considered inseparable by them. In our view thisparticular time period. T h e alternative of separating is an inevitable situation. T h e archeologist can haveout a third type, in this case one combining rocker no way of knowing what the potters conception m a ystamping and broad-line incision, served to proliferate have been, and any attempt to reconstruct it wouldthe n u m b e r of minor decorated types without adding certainly inject ethnocentric factors into the analysisany new information of chronological or descriptive that would distort the outcome as much, or perhapsimportance, and therefore was rejected. By the same more, than a classification developed independentlycriterion of decorative priority, a rare example aber- by examination of the sherd remains.rant in surface finish is considered a member of the T h e attitude just described applies not only to thedecorated type, such as a polished plain surface in analysis of pottery, but to all kinds of artifacts. ItValdivia Red Zoned Punctate or a red-slipped surface underlies the decision to recognize four types ofin Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised. M a n y types pottery figurines in the Valdivia Phase rather thanhave no such deviant members, and this is in itself an several dozen, which could have been isolated descrip-interesting situation, reflecting a higher degree of tively. From a developmental point of view, variationstandardization or perhaps closer agreement between reflects an evolutionary process resembling that
  • 23. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1labeled by biologists and linguists as "drift", and the longlived, others changing rapidly or shortlived. I nclassification attempts to recognize steps at which the course of time, change in all component typesdrift has proceeded far enough to produce a readily may be so marked as to require the recognition of aobserved difference in appearance. A typology of new phase.the pottery figurines based on finer descriptive detail, T h e problem is to create categories that will allowsuch as specific forms of hair treatment, was attempted recognition of significant disconformities as well asbut variability was so great and occurrence so erratic more gradual kinds of transformation. A fine break-that it was abandoned. With a different theoretical down or emphasis on small details m a y produce a norientation, such factors would not have seemed unrealistic impression of lack of continuity. C a t e -detrimental to recognition of more minute classifica- gories should be suitable for historical reconstruction,tory distinctions. for evolutionary investigation, a n d for comparative Another consequence of the view that has just been analysis. It cannot be decided in advance whetherexpressed is selection of terminology. Since Valdivia four phases or ten will describe adequately the his-Phase pottery is the product of unspecialized artisans torical sequence in any particular area, nor is it usefuland made principally for the producers domestic to proceed from the postulate that 100 years is toouse, it is highly variable in all aspects. Firing is short, or 2000 years too long a duration for a particularpoorly controlled, so that a small sherd may show a phase. Change does not proceed at a uniform r a t e ;wide surface and paste color range. Polishing tends what is too long in one context m a y be too short into be more complete on the upper wall than the another. T h e important qualification is culturallower. R i m profiles are unstandardized and curva- continuity or unity. Ideally, the early a n d late por-ture may not be consistent. In recognition of these tions of a phase should show a homogeneity that setsfacts, pottery type descriptions make liberal use of them apart from other contemporary or subsequentwords like "generally", "often", "slightly", etc. phases.Since surface color is the result of uncontrolled firing, Discussion of alternative approaches to establish-it is not described with reference to a color standard. ment of the Valdivia Phase will illustrate some of theIf a type description is to be useful for recording differ- criteria employed to distinguish the phases t h a tences within the pottery complex, for indicating the comprise the coastal Ecuadorian archeological se-quality of the ware, and for reflecting technological quence. T h e Valdivia Phase lasted some 2000 years.competence, then it can best do so by employing a As would be expected, a great deal of change can beterminology in accord with the level of competence of recognized particularly in pottery decoration, a n dthe makers. A highly standardized ceramic complex figurine style. In fact, if decoration were employedshould be described with high precision; an unstand- as the principal basis of classification, as it commonlyardized one is not made more understandable by is in other areas (e.g., Rouse in Venezuela, and Rowebeing so described. and students in Peru), the seriated sequence would Another level of classification is the recognition of undoubtedly be separated into three or four phases.phases, or complexes of archeological materials that However, continuity in plain types, vessel shapes,correspond to extinct societies or cultures. Although settlement pattern, and other features is so great thatit is easy to recognize at certain times and places we have chosen to regard the Phase as a unity thatsignificant groupings of traits representing architec- can be subdivided into four time periods. This per-ture, arts and crafts, burials and other kinds of re- mits us to contrast the Valdivia Phase with themains, it is often uncertain whether such a complex Machalilla Phase, from which it differs totally inequates with a tribal, political or linguistic unit on ceramic complex.the ethnographic level, or is something altogether T h e distinction between the Machalilla Phase anddifferent. For this reason, the term " p h a s e " seems the succeeding Chorrera Phase is less absolute. Apreferable, since it has no connotation. From the number of pottery types continue, others die outstandpoint of typology, definition of a phase in or make their appearance. In some respects, aarcheology might be compared with definition of a Machalilla - Chorrera combined seriation chart isgenus or even a family in biology. A genus is com- similar to that for the Valdivia Phase. Howeverposed of a number of species, which are evolving at here a division into two phases is justified by changesdifferent rates. It may happen in the course of time in settlement pattern and subsistence dependencethat some species will become sufficiently divergent as well as in the ceramic complex. Alterations into be put into a new genus; on the other hand, an vessel shape that are important horizon markersenvironmental change may cause extinction of the elsewhere in the New World include disappearancewhole genus. Similarly, a phase is made up of a of stirrup spout jars and the introduction of annularnumber of types of artifacts, some invariable and based bowls. I n short, a phase corresponds as far as
  • 24. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONpossible to a grouping of traits not only of pottery section on the seriated ceramic sequence of themanufacture, but also settlement pattern, subsistence, Valdivia Phase (pp. 87-89).sociopolitical organization, burial practice, etc., Second, it must be understood that although potterywhich forms a unique entity with temporal persistence types because of their greater abundance are used asand geographical range. This entity can be observed the primary indicators of change, the final seriationin relation to other entities, shedding light on trade represents a compromise that does least violence torelations, acculturative pressures and other interphase all kinds of chronological evidence available. T h erelations, and establishing a basis for cross-dating. relative position of levels arranged first in terms of T h e technique of quantitative analysis of pottery trends in plain types, may be slightly readjusted afterfragments and seriation of surface collections or levels analysis of decorated sherds to minimize disconform-of stratigraphic excavations has been described in ities that may appear. In general, such rearrange-detail by Ford (1962), and it is of interest here to ment alters the position of levels whose plain typeemphasize only two aspects of the process. First, frequency was too similar to suggest which should beevery effort must be made to ensure the reliability of placed earlier. Less frequently, further minor read- justments may be made after classification of rima seriated sequence on which interpretations are to shapes, figurines, or shell and stone artifacts. Dis-be based. A combination of survey with surface col- conformities must be analyzed in terms of the geo-lections, small stratigraphic tests and intensive ex- graphical proximity of the sites and of potential localcavation of deep deposits is most likely to permit factors that may cause deviation from the norm. Arecognition of disturbing factors of cultural or natural sequence finally arrived at is not readily susceptibleorigin that may affect the outcome of analysis in some to alteration. When several carbon-14 dates areof the sites. Differences between the picture presented available, it should be possible to reconcile themby a ceramic sequence derived from a site inhabited a with the seriated sequence, as is the case in thelong time and another derived from seriation of sev- Valdivia Phase. If it is not, the validity of the dateseral sites of short occupation are discussed in the rather than of the sequence is open to question. THEORETICAL APPROACH TO INTERPRETATION Archeology is the science of reconstructing the ologists on the significance that should be attached to development and spread of past cultures from incom- certain kinds of archeological remains results from plete and often r a n d o m bits of direct and inferential absence of a uniform theoretical approach to evalua- evidence. It has frequently been pointed out that the tion of the effect of these variables. data of archeology are a small and unrepresentative T h e seriousness of the situation makes it worth- sample of the once functioning culture, the implication while to look to biology, the scientific discipline whose perhaps being that if surviving evidence were more subject matter is most comparable to anthropology, complete the j o b of historical reconstruction would for possible clarification. Although biology and be greatly simplified. Less attention has been given culture are two distinct categories of phenomena, the to the fact, well documented by living cultures, that content and behavior of these phenomena are of a cultural change does not proceed at a uniform rate, similar level of complexity. Biologists are confronted either in isolation or in acculturation situations. with a vast array of species, differing widely in struc- Some traits are of fleeting popularity, while others ture and in capacity to react to the external world;endure for centuries; some diffuse rapidly, others anthropologists are confronted with a vast array ofdiffuse erratically, popping up in widely separated cultures of differing complexity. Biologists mustregions; some spread with little modification, others classify living and extinct plants and animals intotake on drastically altered forms in different portions meaningful categories that shed light on the processof the area of distribution. As a result, evaluation by which this diversity arose; anthropologists haveof archeological remains is not simply a problem of attempted to do the same for cultures. Biologistsdealing with incomplete and unrepresentative evi- study the relations of fauna and flora with each otherdence, but also of evidence modified to different and the physical environment in order to understanddegrees a n d in different ways at different points in some of the principles underlying extinction, survivaltime. M u c h of the lack of agreement between arche- or modification of species; anthropologists have under-
  • 25. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1taken acculturation and cultural ecological studies for effect of selection will be to eliminate such peripheral variants or off-types as arise by mutation, gene immigration, or recom-similar reasons. O u r problems are thus much alike, bination. A certain range of genotypes of proven adaptiveb u t the material under study has one major difference. fitness is thereby preserved from generation to generation.Anthropologists are unable to free themselves com- This form of selection, known as stabilizing selection, does notpletely from anthropocentrism in dealing with cultural bring about evolutionary changes, but rather maintains anphenomena, with the result that they frequently existing state of adaptedness.resort to explanations like "genius" or "free choice" T h e operation of a similar mechanism in culturewhen confronted with an alternative implying cultural would account for the stability of m a n y primitivedeterminism. Biologists, on the other hand, do not cultures under special environmental conditions, a n dfeel impelled to attribute the development of the the failure of such groups to accept new traits w h e nhorses hoof or a hawks eye to anything but the exposed to opportunities. T h e failure of agriculture tooperation of natural forces. substitute for shell-fish gathering on the southern coast W i t h their advantage of greater objectivity, biolo- of Brazil until almost the end of the aboriginal periodgists have made considerable progress toward un- (Silva and Meggers, 1963, p p . 126-7), a n d the longravelling the complicated fabric of evolution, thereby survival of nonmaterial traits such as myths a m o n gmaking it possible to suggest some of the techniques wandering groups (Meggers, 1964, p p . 514-5) m a yby which it was produced. Four basic or primary be cultural examples of stabilizing selection. If it isevolutionary forces are now recognized: mutation, true that maize was introduced a r o u n d 1400 B.C. ongene flow (or recombination), selection and drift the coast of Peru without causing any i m p o r t a n t(Grant, 1963, p p . 149-151, 431). T h e first two pro- change in cultural pattern (Kidder I I , L u m b r e r a sduce variation by introducing new elements or by and Smith, 1963, p p . 92-3), stabilizing selection m a yaltering the combination of existing elements; in have been the reason.culture their counterparts are invention (discovery) T h e uniformity of a biological population dependsand diffusion (acculturation), which are recognized on maintenance of a constant genetic composition. as fulfilling a similar role in producing cultural varia- Because of r a n d o m fluctuation by chance, the fre-tion (cf. Linton, 1955, p p . 661-2). T h e second two quency of a certain allele at any given time will beforces "sort out this variability and establish the greater or less than the statistical average. Suchvariant types in new frequencies in a population" chance fluctuations are termed "genetic drift" a n d (Grant, 1963, p . 150); in other words, lead to the represent a potential source of great variation u n d e rformation of subspecies, species and increasingly certain circumstances. A biological example pro- divergent forms of life. In cultural anthropology, vided by Grant (1963, p . 278) shows how drift might these processes have received less attention, although operate to alter flower color: drift has been recognized by linguists as an important mechanism leading to change in languages (cf. Vogt, If the gene A controls flower color in a plant, and if the various 1960, 1964). Since three of the biological processes alleles determine a series of shades from blue to white, like deep blue, light blue, pale blue, and white, the large and poly- have cultural parallels, it is reasonable to suppose that morphic parental population will comprise a variable mixture natural selection may also operate in culture in a of individuals having the different shades. As a result of drift m a n n e r similar to its operation in biology, although a fragment of this population may become homogeneous for anthropologists are concerned with the results of one flower color. If drift occurs repeatedly in different segments individual variability in capacity to behave in accord of the original population, a series of derivative colonies might arise which are characterized by different flower colors in pure with the cultural ideal, while biologists deal with form. One daughter colony might be all white, another all the results of genetic variability expressed in alterna- deep blue, and still another all light blue. tive genes and alternative combinations of genes. In other words, drift m a y be responsible for "diver- Although generally thought of as a process of gence between different contemporaneous colonieschange, natural selection in biology is also a process derived from a common ancestral p o p u l a t i o n " (Grant,for maintaining stability, with the result that a species 1963, p . 286). Such divergence m a y be rapid a n dm a y persist in nearly identical form (i.e., with so striking, even when the colonies inhabit similarlittle alteration that it continues to constitute a single environments (Grant, op. cit., p p . 288, 459).species) for millions of years. T h e survival value ofthis kind of selection is explained by Grant (1963, T h e implications of such a theory for culture arep. 213): intriguing. For example, attempts to relate the Valdivia Phase to other early ceramic complexes on Any population of organisms exists in a certain environment and must be fitted or adapted to live successfully in its particular the coasts of Peru, Colombia and P a n a m a has b r o u g h t habitat. If the environment remains stable and if the popula- out the fact that these differ widely from each other, tion has already arrived at a high state of adaptedness, the main although each possesses a few traits linking it with t h e
  • 26. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONValdivia Phase (fig. 105). T h e operation of a mech- ceptance or rejection of new traits and the necessity foranism of cultural drift could account for such variety. new traits to be compatible with continuing functionAs each biological population is made up of a pool of the whole culture are propositions long recognizedof genes, each culture is made up of a pool of traits, in anthropology. As in biology, the result is a tend-a n d just as each gene has many alleles, each trait has ency to channel changes in a certain direction (cf.m a n y individual variations in expression. In a large Kroeber and Kluckhohn, 1952, p . 189). Since newpopulation, individual differences become averaged elements result principally from modifications andout and their ability to effect marked alterations in combinations of old ones, the chances of duplicationthe cultural complex is minimized. A colony, how- will be greater in groups sharing a similar backgroundever, would be composed of a small group of indi- than in groups without this common heritage. Ac-viduals not likely to represent the total range of the ceptance of the hypothesis that parallelism operatesparent culture. I n pottery, this "sampling error" in culture as in biology consequently seems preferablemight result in rapid divergence either by selection to explaining resemblances as fortuitous, particularlyof some decorative techniques and abandonment of when they appear in several groups with commonothers, or by diminution of the range of variation in ancestry. T h e appearance of nicked broad-line in-surface treatment or vessel shape, or by a combination cision in J a p a n , Ecuador and Colombia subsequentof changes decreasing the heterogeneity of the offshoot. to the presumed date^T of separation between theT h e differences between the ceramic complexes of Jomon, Valdivia and Monagrillo ceramic complexesearly Valdivia Phase, Puerto Hormiga, Monagrillo would fit such a hypothesis.and Guafiape are what might be expected to result Although it is possible to trace the origin and devel-from a process of cultural drift operating in a way opment of many archeological complexes, in othersimilar to genetic drift in biology. cases new and striking cultures appear to spring up T h e existence of cultural drift not only helps to suddenly without clear antecedents. A similar situa-explain divergences between related but isolated tion in biology has led Simpson to the concept ofcultural complexes, but the concept offers a guideline q u a n t u m evolution (Grant, 1963, pp. 458-9; see alsofor assessing cultural connections by making differ- p p . 555-7):entiation rather than similarity the expected result. Simpson argued that the absence or rarity of fairly completeComplexes with common ancestry should share a fossil series connecting new major groups of organisms witiicertain n u m b e r of general characteristics, but need their ancestral stocks would be difficult to explain if theirnot duplicate all or even most of their component population size were as large in the period of their origin as ittraits. In other words, we should not expect to find was in their later history, when the fossil representation becomes more adequate. Furthermore, die geological time available foreven with complete preservation, reproduction of the the divergence of the new major group from its parent stockparent complex in all its variety. O n the contrary, requires a much more rapid evolution during the period ofexistence of close correspondence can be interpreted origination than during the subsequent period of expansion.as reflecting special circumstances, such as organized These facts can be accounted for on die genetically plausible hypothesis that the new major groups—genera, families, orders,population movement, or a conscious effort to main- etc.—originate from small isolated populations undergoingtain the former cultural norm. Drift cannot be used rapid shifts from the ancestral to a new adaptive state, that is,to postulate cultural connections where there is no by quantum evolution.evidence, on the assumption that change has pro-gressed to the logical extreme of complete alteration, Since cultures, like biological populations, must bebut a combination of drift and selection can make adapted to the environment to be effective, and sinceunderstandable the "watered down" appearance of cultural traits seem to be subject like genetic ones tom a n y cultural or ceramic complexes that have moved drift, it can be postulated that cultural traits or com-to new environments and become isolated from the plexes are also subject to q u a n t u m evolution. Inparent group. biology, " q u a n t u m evolution is believed to be the Another interesting and potentially relevant bio- normal process by which new major groups come intological concept is that of parallelism, defined by being" (Grant, 1963, p. 556) and the existence of aSimpson (1961, p. 103) as " t h e independent occur- similar process in culture would account for eventsrence of similar changes in groups from common like the sudden rise of the Inca, or the rapid appear-ancestry and because they had a common ancestry." ance of Mochica in Peru, or the quick florescence ofThis is distinguished from homology, the sharing of the Bahia Phase on coastal Ecuador. Q u a n t u m evolu-traits derived from a common ancestor, and con- tion might also explain the absence of antecedentsvergence, the independent development of similar for the Machalilla Phase, although portions of thetraits by unrelated groups (Oschinsky et ah, 1964). Pacific coasts of Mesoamerica and South AmericaT h e strength of cultural tradition in determining ac- are too little known as yet to rule out the possibility
  • 27. SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1of future discovery. In such instances, something brings about adaptations to existing environmental conditions.happened to give one small local group an advantage Such adaptations may or may not be valuable to their possessors in future environments. The collective processes of naturalover others and when equilibrium was reestablished, selection, while they promote the formation of adaptations ofthe cultural result was markedly different. Such diverse kinds, do not guarantee evolutionary success in therapid shifts are characteristically followed in the long run under what Darwin termed the complex conditions ofpaleontological record by long periods of much slower existence. Indeed, for every gene allele, genotype, or species that is preserved by natural selection on account of its adaptivechange resulting from normal interaction between the properties, many sister alleles, genotypes or species are ex-four primary evolutionary forces, and a similar situa- terminated by the same process.tion is observable in the archeological record. Cultural evolution has often been contrasted with Culture, being the principal instrument of m a n sbiological evolution by picturing it as a tree of inter- adaptation to his physical, social a n d biotic environ-connected and reconnected branches while the bio- ments, is subject to similar continued pressures.logical tree is shown with divergent and redivergent Cultural change can be seen as the result of selectionbranching (e.g., Kroeber, 1948, p . 260). This dis- of more adaptive traits, whether of technology,tinction is not completely accurate, however. Bio- socio-political organization or other aspects of culture.logical evolution is not a simple process of increasing From this point of view, social disorganization m a ydivergence. Biological lines may diverge only slightly be a reflection of loss of adaptive value for the culturaland then run parallel for millions of years, as has the configuration, rather than a primary cause of culturalskunk cabbage in Asia and North America (Grant, breakdown. " C h o i c e " of one value system over1963, p . 443). O r diverging lines may reconverge if another reflects its superiority in terms of integrationthey have not progressed too far for hybridization with other aspects of the culture or in terms of adjust-(op. cit., fig. 79). Biological evolution is a vastly ment to the physical world, rather t h a n conscious orcomplicated process, not because the principles by unconscious h u m a n preference. I n fact, change iswhich it operates are numerous or particularly com- often in unpreferred directions, as is evident in orga-plex, but because few organisms are subject to their nized resistance to automation, desegregation a n dunobstructed operation. Constantly changing en- socialized medicine in the United States today.vironmental or ecological conditions are the rule T h e differential survival of the two early F o r m a t i v erather than the exception, and change may alterna- complexes on the coast of Ecuador can be analyzedtively favor one kind of adaptation and then another. in terms of their relative ability to adjust to a n e wT h e same evolutionary mechanisms may produce environment, since two important changes a p p e a r tostability in one species, variety in another, and ex- coincide approximately with the end of this period.tinction in a third. O n e is the replacement of inlets a n d m a n g r o v e Since the essential element to biological survival is swamps by salitres, and the other is the introduction ofadaptation, the environment is the most influential a new subsistence basis in the form of productive"creative" force (Grant, 1963, p p . 117, 546-8). agriculture. Both the Valdivia a n d MachalillaAlthough variation will arise in seemingly non- Phases were organized around a seafood gathering,adaptive traits through chance fluctuation and drift, hunting, and plant gathering subsistence pattern,important or drastic alterations result from selection possibly supplemented by incipient agriculture as it isof traits made adaptive by changes in the habitat. known to have been practiced by contemporaryThese may be environmental (such as climatic change groups on the coast of Peru. T h e Valdivia Phase h a dor transferral to a new environment) or social (such perfected its adjustment to the particular conditionsas competitive relationships with other groups). So of the southern Ecuadorian coast over nearly twoimportant is adaptation to the survival of any orga- millenia, a n d the relatively slight alteration in com-nism that some biologists suspect that even traits of no munity size, settlement pattern, or technology t h a tobvious adaptive value may in fact have an undetected seems to have taken place during this time implies aadaptive aspect if they persist. Maintenance of high state of adaptation to existing resources, main-adaptation is a complicated process, as Grant (1963, tained by stabilizing selection. T h e Machalilla Phasep. 270) has explained: appeared late on the scene, a n d m a y have been pre- vented by the time factor alone from developing as The environment to which an organic unit must adapt is a intimate an adjustment to local conditions. In complex of many different factors, physical, social, and biotic. addition, location of Machalilla Phase sites on the Each separate factor may carry out its own selective processes separately. The adaptations created by selection for one coast rather than adjacent to salitres suggests lesser aspect of the total environment are not necessarily useful, and dependence on whatever resources the former bays may even be detrimental, in relation to other facets of the en- produced. Although such differences seem insignifi- vironment. Furthermore selection is opportunistic in that it cant, and in terms of the competition between the two
  • 28. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTIONPhases appear not to have given one an important hypothesis, facts are meaningless in themselves.advantage over the other, they (and perhaps others Meaning can be given to them only by an under-not evident in the archeological record) apparently standing of the processes of which they are the tangibleallowed the Machalilla Phase to adjust to a changed manifestation. It is therefore of fundamental im-environment whereas the less flexible Valdivia Phase portance to attempt to discern the invisible patternsbecame extinct. Valdivia Phase pottery, which might and processes that make facts meaningful. In sug-seem equally suitable for culinary purposes, dis- gesting that some of the hypotheses developed inappeared almost completely, while elements of biology may be applicable to cultural phenomena,Machalilla Phase vessel shape and decoration can be we do not mean to imply that attempts to developtraced in the subsequent archeological record of the hypotheses directly from study of culture are worth-Ecuadorian coast for hundreds of years. Since the less ; on the contrary, it is only by this kind of analysispeople of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases were that the applicability of any hypotheses to culturalapparently in friendly communication, it might be phenomena can be adequately evaluated. T h e greatexpected, other things being equal, that both would complexity of culture and our intimate involvementhave participated equally in the transition to the newkind of life. Since they did not, the logical conclusion with it, however, makes objective appraisal tremen-is that other things were not equal, and further that dously difficult. It seems to us that objectivity canthis inequality may have consisted in the differential be increased by borrowing certain concepts developedability of the two cultures to adapt to changed by biologists, and fitting them to archeological data.ecological conditions (cf. Simpson, 1964, pp. 250-251). T o us, the fit looks very good so far, but as long as It should not be necessary to conclude by remarking many things remain unknown, others may be mis-that these ideas are expressed only as suggestions that understood. M u c h work needs to be done before weappear to offer fruitful leads for archeological inter- can be sure that we understand what is happening inpretation. Although facts are the foundation of any the present, much less what has happened in the past. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS K n o w n sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases rainfall. T h e northernmost zone, extending from are limited to the coasts of Guayas and southern Panama southward to Cabo Corrientes on the central M a n a b i Provinces of Ecuador, a distribution that coast of Colombia (fig. 1) is mountainous and densely might be attributed to more intensive archeological forested. T h e Serrania del Baudo, a coastal range survey were it not for the fact that it corresponds to separated from the Andean chain by the valley of a well defined environmental zone. Topography, the Atrato, rises abruptly close to the shore to a height climate, and consequently vegetation set it apart of 1000 or more meters. T h e irregularities of the from adjacent zones on the north, south and east, coast resolve into one small and two large bays. T h e and there is a good probability that the early Forma- smallest and northernmost is Humboldt Bay, which tive Phases were adapted to the specific resources together with the valley behind provides the "first limited to this part of the Ecuadorian coast. Its extensive habitable and cultivable land along thecharacteristics can best be understood in the context shore" (Murphy, 1939, p . 8). Broad beaches in thisof the larger picture, and since inferences about the bay contrast with the beachless condition of this seg-spread of the early complexes also derive to some ment of the coast, where forest typically extends toextent from the geographical and environmental the waters edge.characteristics of western Colombia, it will be appro- Continuing to the south, forest gives way to beachpriate to sketch these briefly as an introduction. again at the larger Golfo de Cupica. In addition to T h e environmental characteristics of the southern providing the best natural harbor on the Pacific coastEcuadorian coast result from its geographical location of Colombia, this bay is at the point where the Atlanticbetween the excessively wet Pacific coast of Colombia drainage is closest to the Pacific. According toa n d the arid desert coast of Peru. T h e transition is M u r p h y (1939, pp. 9-10):accomplished in a series of sharply defined zones In March 1871, Selfridge walked from the beach of Lim6n Baycreated principally by differences in topography and to the headwaters of the River Napipi in an hour and a half.
  • 29. 10 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 FIGURE 1 .—Northwestern South America showing location of geographical features and selected modern towns.
  • 30. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTION 11 Restrepo reports, however, that the continental watershed The general altitude of the land rises, and the shore becomes between the River Chirichire and the Nemequeda, a tributary cliffy . . . . The trees are smaller than in Colombia; arbores- of the Napipi, can be crossed on foot in 20 minutes! cent ferns, lianas, and orchids and other epiphytes tiiin out;T h e Napipi is a tributary of the Rio Atrato, which Euphoribiaceae become prominent, and cactus makes its appearance . . . . As one proceeds past Cape San Franciscoflows northward through wet lowlands to enter the the transition from rain forest to aridity is at first gradual andGolfo de U r a b a and the Caribbean coast of Colombia then fitful . . . . From Cape Pasado to Salango Island the(fig. 1). landscape becomes a patchwork of wet and dry areas, the latter R o u n d i n g another point leads to the Golfo de either being at low altitudes or lying in the rain shadow of headlands that adiabatically extract the moisture of the seaTribuga, described as "filled with dangerous shoals, winds on their southern slopes . . . . At Salango the verdanta n d studded with rocks" (Murphy, 1939, p. 12). land ends, save for a few still smaller specks and gorges chokedBehind the shore, forested hills rise to 1300-1500 with rank and impenetrable tropical vegetation. Beyond Pointmeters. Several short streams flowing from the high- Ayangue there are no more trees near the shore until thelands do not provide access to the Atlantic drainage traveler has rounded the gaunt peninsula of Santa Elena as far as the mangroves, savanas and corridor forest of thesince the southward flowing Rio Baudo intervenes Guayas . . . .between the coast and tributaries of the Atrato system. Cabo Corrientes marks the boundary between the This zone extends to the vicinity of Tumbes, on thenorthern zone of high land and seasonal rainfall, and north coast of Peru, where there is another sharpthe central zone of low land and almost continual transition to barren desert that extends in a strip be-rainfall. M u r p h y (1939, pp. 13-14) describes this tween the foothills and the shore to about 30 degreessector as follows: south latitude, near central Chile. In terms of floral South of Cape Corrientes the mountains retreat from the sea and faunal resources, this zone probably differs more and a broad, clayey, completely forested coastal plain, broken from the regions to the north than any of them do inland by transverse spurs, stretches all the way to northwestern from each other. All, however, seem to offer par- Ecuador. Moderately elevated land at die coast is found at ticular advantages or disadvantages for h u m a n only few localities, such as Palmas Island, the adjacent mainland exploitation. about the mouths of Magdalena and Buenaventura Bays, and the islands with bold red cliffs on each side of the entrance into Before leaving this general survey, it is of interest to Tumaco Road. This is the maritime Choc6, a flooded lowland note that the Caribbean coast of Colombia is in cer- of perpetual rains, of selva and morasses, of hundreds of streams, tain respects very similar to the Guayas coast of many or most of which pour into the Pacific through multiple mouths. The line between earth and ocean becomes tenuous, Ecuador. Not only is the vegetation xerophytic, but for the greater part of the shore is fringed with a maze of the shore is in a similar stage of development, offering mangrove-covered flats and islands, separated by a network of active mangrove flats as well as dried-up old bays. esteros and grading into shifting bars and shallows, which in Seasonal alteration between rainfall and drought is many places extend for miles offshore. likewise characteristic. T h e largest river is the Rio San J u a n , which fraction- T h e southern coast of Ecuador, between the modern ates the Punta Charambira* into a maze of channels towns of Machalilla and Posorja, corresponds to the and small islands. Navigable for several hundred dryest part of the country. Aridity increases from miles, it follows a southward direction along most of north to south and from east to west until the Santaits course, turning sharply westward at the latitude of Elena Peninsula, where semidesert conditions prevail.its mouth. From its headwaters, it is a short over- Between Machalilla and Valdivia, low hills reach theland trip to the headwaters of the Rio Atrato, the shore, broken periodically by flat open plains at thetwo river systems forming an inland waterway between mouths of rivers. Where subjected to poundingthe Pacific and the Caribbean (fig. 1). In addition waves, hills are sliced off to produce nearly verticalto wetness created by the low elevation of much of towering cliffs (pis. 1, 2b) such as that occupied bythe land, part of this zone boasts the highest rainfall the Machalilla Phase site of G—110: La Cabuya.in South America, in some places exceeding 10,000 Except at points, where fallen rocks cover the tidalm m . per year (Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. and A., 1961, zone, the beach at low tide is a broad expanse of firmp . 242). brown sand with few stones or shells. Toward the Approximately at the Rio Esmeraldas comes a sec- south, cliffs are typically reduced in elevation andond and more abrupt change in topography and the beach becomes narrower, reflecting a steepervegetation, as well as a marked climatic shift back to gradient offshore (pi. 2a).an annual cycle between rainy and dry season. Land Typical of this region is evidence of rising shorelineelevation increases sharply, and vegetation takes on in the form of salitres of varying extent (fig. 2), theprogressively xerophytic aspects toward the south. majority barren of vegetation (pis. 3b, 4, 13, 14).M u r p h y (1939, p p . 17-21) describes the transition Dead and dying mangrove indicates this process isthus: still under way, enlarging the already extant salitre of 767-841—65 3
  • 31. 12 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 La Plata Island APPROXIMATE LIMITS OF MAJOR SALITRES Gulf of A VALDIVIA PHASE SITE 3 Guayaquil ;| l O ^ • MACHALILLA PHASE SITE • MODERN CITY •NWfl*JW>w^; FIGURE 2.—Location of sites of the Valdivia and Machalilla Phases.
  • 32. WHOLE VOLUME INTRODUCTION 13El M o r r o near Posorja. All of the known Valdivia yet feasible. Subsistence fishing is done close to shorePhase sites are on the margins of these salitres, sug- in shallow water with nets played out to enclose agesting that they at one time provided optimum segment of water and gradually drawn toward theconditions for a food collecting way of life. At present, beach. This is supplemented by collecting a varietythey are firm surfaced during the dry season, becoming of mollusks at low tide (Appendix 1, table 1). Com-mucky or partly inundated in the rainy season as a mercial fishermen go to deeper water to secure shrimp,result of their low elevation. white sea bass, sail and sword fish, robalo, Spanish Within historic time, increasing aridity has been mackerel, tuna and bonito. Crabs, lobsters andnoted throughout this area of the Guayas Province, tortoises are additional potential sea food resources.but it is not certain whether this is a progressive or T h e most abundant variety of land fauna is birds,cyclical phenomenon. Around Play as there were including doves and ducks which concentrate aroundlarge cattle ranches before the turn of the century; water holes during the dry season. Pelicans, gulls,now cattle find little to drink and less to eat during and white herons are common among larger varieties.the dry season. Vegetation classifications agree in These and other species must have been more abun-designating the southern Ecuadorian coast at the dant in the past, before the habitat was disturbed bypresent time as xerophytic, although differing slightly inroads of civilization, and it is consequently note-in terminology. Eyre (1963, m a p 6), whose large worthy that bird bones are poorly represented inscale analysis allows only two categories for the coast Valdivia Phase refuse (Appendix 1, table 4).as a whole, shows a strip extending from Cabo San Deer can still be hunted and were undoubtedlyFrancisco to the Peruvian border as thorn forest, more abundant before the introduction of cattie.noting in the text (op. cit. p. 231) that it represents Large iguana are excellent eating, as are their eggsthe more arid type known as semidesert scrub. In If the hunting area extended inland to the tropicala more detailed study, Miller (1959, fig. 1) divides forests of the Guayas Basin and interior M a n a b ithe Ecuadorian coast into 8 vegetation belts. Two Province, a larger variety of small mammals wouldof these, coastal xerophytes and tropical subxerophytic have been available. However, absence of such faunalbushwoods, extend from Machalilla to Posorja. remains from the refuse suggests that it was not neces-From Machalilla northward to almost the Colombian sary to go this far afield for food, at least until theborder, the vegetation is classified as tropical sup- latter part of Valdivia Phase Period C (see p . 2 5 ;pressed forest. Among the constituents of the xero- Appendix 1, table 4).phytic vegetation are two species of particular interest. T h e environment of the Guayas and southernO n e is ceiba, or silk cotton, which produces pods Manabi coast was probably somewhat different 4000-filled with silky fibers; the other is a tall bush cotton 5000 years ago than it is today, but there have beenwith small bolls, which may have been collected for no geological or paleobotanical studies on which tothe manufacture of cord. base reconstruction of its characteristics. It would be Rainfall is variable regionally and annually. For of interest to know whether the increasing aridityexample, the station at Ancon near the Santa Elena observed during the past century is a recent trend, aPeninsula (fig. 1) recorded 1,144 m m . rainfall during cyclical and seasonal change, or one that can be pro- 1934 and 153.7 m m . in 1940 (Ferdon, 1950, p . 31). jected farther back in time. In the latter case, itO n the average, however, variation from the wettest would be necessary to picture the climate during theto dryest parts of this xerophytic coastal Ecuadorian Valdivia Phase as wetter, and the vegetation conse-zone during a single year is 125 to 875 mm. (Miller, quently more luxuriant. Of greater significance is 1959, p . 184). T h e dry season lasts 7-11 months, the past condition of the salitres. Today, each rainywith duration decreasing generally from south to season adds a layer of fine silt, since the salitres offernorth. From the Santa Elena Peninsula northward, the lowest place for the accumulation of runoff.the rainy season terminates in 1-2 months of fine, Although they may be partially inundated at suchmisty precipitation known as garua (ibid.). Average times, the elevation is now out of reach of the oceanannual temperature range is 5.3 degrees Centigrade water. T h e absence of an escarpment along theor less (Ferdon, 1950, p. 39). shore, the gradual slope of the beach including the Subsistence and commercial fishing are today the tidal shelf, and the slight elevation of the salitresprincipal activities of coastal residents. Although above present sea level suggest that they were prob-farming is possible a few kilometers inland in southern ably never under deep water. It would appear thatM a n a b i Province and about as far southward as the they were in the past marine inlets that remainedR i o Valdivia, most of the area is too dry for cultivation full at all times, or were inundated at high tide and exposed at low. Another alternative is that theywithout irrigation. Since most of the rivers cease to were overgrown wholly or partly by mangrove as isflow above ground in the dry season, irrigation is not
  • 33. 14 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1the case in many parts of the Guayas estuary today. tion of the salitres as former shallow bays partly orThe fact that shell refuse in archeological sites of the entirely exposed by tidal action. Aerial photographyValdivia culture lacks any species of mangrove mol- of the region and detailed geological studies wouldlusks but does contain many species of shell identified help clarify many of these problems, which todayas intertidal in habitat tends to favor the reconstruc- remain incompletely solved.FIGURE 3. -Sketch map of G-25: Punta Arenas, a Period D site of the Valdivia Phase, showing extent of the refuse and location of excavations.
  • 34. The Valdivia Phase DESCRIPTION OF SITES AND EXCAVATIONS T e n sites along the coast of Guayas Province have elevated area to the south (fig. 3), surrounded on thebeen identified with the Valdivia Phase (fig. 2). remaining sides by low mud flats. At the time ofEight of these have been examined by the present excavation in January, traces of rainy-season floodingwriters; two are described by other investigators. were already evident along the north edge of the site,All are located close to the shore, typically at the where elevation is about 25 cm. lower than on themargin of salt flats or salitres whose formation indi- east side (pi. 5a). O n the opposite side of the flats,cates an alteration in shoreline subsequent to the close the terrain rises to higher elevation than thatof the Valdivia Phase. Depth of refuse was greatest adjacent to the site.at G - 3 1 : Valdivia, and least in the southernmost T h e surface of the site is extensively eroded, pro-sites, where condition of the cultural remains was ducing irregular gullying of the sides and leaving thealso poorest. Several sites produced skeletal remains, surface liberally sprinkled with small fragments ofattesting to their use as burial grounds as well as badly broken and bleached marine shells. Exposurehabitation areas. T h e deposit typically consisted of is most marked at the north edge, where the bank ispowdery soil containing large amounts of shell, sherd nearly vertical and rises 1.5 meters above the flatsand other kinds of natural and cultural refuse. No (pi. 5a). T h e summit, an area of about 50 by 80evidence was found of walls, floors, or other kinds of meters, is relatively level except for a small rise to thestructures, and no significant natural stratigraphy west. Vegetation cover was limited to small scatteredcould be identified at any of the sites. clumps of low scrub. Habitation refuse is distributed T w o of the sites, G-31 and G-84, were partly around the margins of the knoll, leaving a sterile zoneburied beneath refuse of later occupations, both dating at the center (fig. 3). Preliminary tests in 1956 hadfrom the Regional Developmental Period. T h e re- identified the occupation as belonging to the Valdiviamainder produced only refuse of the Valdivia Phase. Phase, and four stratigraphic excavations, each 2 by 2 meters, were undertaken in 1957 to determine the G-25: Punta Arenas depth and composition of the deposit in more detail. G - 2 5 is located on the peninsula formed by the Cut A was placed in the north corner of the site,intersection of the north shore of the Gulf of Guayaquil sufficiently inward from the bank to avoid the possi-with the Pacific coast, reached by a trail off the main bility of disturbance of the deposit by erosion or land-road between Play as and Posorja. T h e site is slide and redeposition. Level 0-20 cm. containednow separated from the beach by rough terrain, hard gray clay that broke into compact lumps underdissected by gullies and salt flats muddied from inter-mittent flooding during high tide in the dry season the pick. Shell fragments were a b u n d a n t but sherdsa n d under water during the rainy season. Where were sparse and badly eroded. Level 20-40 cm.salt content is not too high, the surface is overgrown continued to produce shell and sparse sherds, but waswith a tangled mass of scrubby vegetation including damper and slightly more sticky in composition.cactus (pi. 5). Habitation refuse occupies a small Sterile gray clay was encountered at 45 cm., becomingn a t u r a l rise connected by a narrow neck to a larger yellowish at 60 cm. 15
  • 35. 16 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Cut B was excavated 28 meters southeast of Cut A, rows originally along property or field boundaries,in a section partly separated from the major portion but now r u n wild and completely covering some partsof the site by erosional gullies. T h e soil was again of the surface. Bare spots abounded with surfaceheavy, compact, gray clay containing shell fragments. sherds, and it was possible to collect a large sample.Sherds were infrequent and very badly eroded. T h e This showed two occupations of the site, an earlierdeposit became sterile at 35 cm. and more extensive one corresponding to the Valdivia Cut C was begun 43 meters southwest of Cut B. Phase, and a later and smaller one representing t h eRefuse and soil conditions were similar to those in Guangala Phase (fig. 4). Valdivia Phase refuse ex-Cut B, but the deposit was shallower and became tended from the foot of the hill southeastward over asterile at 30 cm. 12 meter high knoll and continued eastward along Cut D was placed on the summit of the north bank, the ridge and up the slope behind to an elevation ofwhere conditions of refuse on the eroded slope sug- 15 meters. Overall dimensions of the deposit weregested a greater concentration than in other parts of approximately 160 by 150 meters, narrowing to 70the site already tested. However, refuse proved to be meters at the east end. D e p t h of refuse was greatestequally sparse and sterile clay appeared at a depth at the north edge, where it extended below the presentof 40 cm. surface of the adjacent level ground. T h e Valdivia T h e poor drainage at G-25 and the acid condition portion of the refuse was 3.80 meters thick here. Atof the soil caused extreme erosion of the surfaces of the upper edge of the site, thickness was only 45-65most sherds, making it impossible to identify the cm. In the intervening area, distribution was un-plain types whose principal distinguishing feature is even, and apparently correlated to some extent withsurface finish. Seriation of the site in the Valdivia the contour of the underlying surface. I n the areaPhase sequence (fig. 52) is based consequently on occupied by Cut E, for example, no Valdivia Phaserelative frequency of decorated types, supplemented refuse appeared in the 80 cm. deposit. Testing toby evidence from vessel shape. No figurine frag- the east of Cut E also produced only G u a n g a l a Phasements were encountered. refuse, to a depth of 20-30 cm. I n the vicinity of Cut I, Valdivia Phase refuse reached a depth of 1.30 G-31: Valdivia meters. G—31 occupies a low spur tapering from the west In 1956-57, nine small stratigraphic excavations end of the range of hills forming the southern bound- were m a d e : Cuts A, B, C, and D by Estrada in t h e ary of the Valdivia Valley. Flat sandy beach ex- northwestern part of the site, a n d Cuts E, F , G (pi. tends from the foot of the site to the shore, 125 meters 6b), H and I, by Evans and Meggers in the eastern away. T h e modern village of San Pedro lies immedi- and southwestern portions (fig. 4). T h e results of ately to the south of the site (pi. 7b), while Valdivia is Cuts A, B, F, and H formed the basis for the first adjacent to the north (pi. 6). T h e coast forms a ceramic sequence for the Valdivia Phase. Cuts C gentle curve, but the sweep is so gradual that it and D were in areas of shallow deposits, predominantly cannot be termed a real bay at the present time. Guangala Phase in origin, and Cut E produced only T h e Valdivia River, a small, meandering stream 100 Guangala Phase remains. Material obtained from meters to the north, provided the closest source of Cuts G and I was deposited in the Museo A r q u e o -fresh water. At present it flows into a narrow lagoon logico "Victor Emilio Estrada", where it was subse-paralleling the beach on the northeast side of Valdivia quently classified by Estrada (1958, C u a d r o 2). Avillage, and cut off from the shore by a low sand bar test pit near the summit, south of Cut I, a n d a n ex-across which water passes in either direction (pi. 6). tension of the south side of Cut F produced a l a m eT h e valley is about 2.5 kilometers wide at the number of decorated sherds, which were a d d e d toshore, but constricts rapidly so that 2.0 kilometers the general site sample. None of the excavationsinland it is little more than a narrow pass (pi. 7a). showed any construction features or any evidence ofAbove this, width is erratic, including a series of wide disturbance with one exception. A n intrusive G u a n -level areas that to judge from the frequency of sites gala burial was encountered at a depth of 60 cm. inwere attractive agricultural terrain during the R e - Cut A, above the unmixed Valdivia Phase refuse.gional Developmental Period. Although the soil over the site varied slightly, at the T h e spur occupied by the site rises to a height of time of excavation during the dry season, it was12 meters above the adjacent level surface (fig. 4 ; typically gray sandy clay of fine, powdery, flourlikepi. 8a). Except for a few small huts on the lower consistency throughout the refuse deposit. Sterileflank, the area is free of modern occupation. Aside soil at the bottom of the cuts was characteristicallyfrom scattered brush, prickly pear cactus and scrub limey, very compact, hard clay containing 30 percenttrees, the principal vegetation is agave planted in calcium carbonate by volume, which upon exposure
  • 36. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 17FIGURE 4.—Sketch map of G-31: Valdivia, occupied during Periods A-C of the Valdivia Phase, showing extent of die refuse and location of excavations. The dotted line delimits extent of refuse deposited by a later Guangala Phase reoccupation of the site.dried into an indurated clay of the hardness of low- tional fragments of a castellated rim vessel (pi. 103a,grade mudstone. Color varies from whitish to yellow b) found near the northwest side of Section E. Eachor light brown (this deposit also underlays the refuse section was taken down to and into sterile dirt, andat G-54, and is easily recognized in the photograph the completed trench clearly shows the sloping natureof the bank profile, pi. 11 a). All of the cuts produced of the original surface (pis. 9a, 10). Refuse continuedlarge amounts of shell, fireburnt and unburned stones, to a depth of 2.10 meters in Section A, 2.40 meters insherds, fish and animal bones, crab claws and carapace Section B, 3.10 meters in Section C, 4.20 meters infragments. Everything recovered from Cuts A, F, Section D, and 4.40 meters in Sections E and F. T h eand H was saved for analysis and samples of shell and upper levels, containing Guangala Phase ceramics,animal remains were kept from other excavations. were examined and only Valdivia Phase items or During J a n u a r y 1961, a large trench was excavated unusual objects were saved. T h e remainder of theat the northwest edge of the site, where previous work deposit was sifted (pi. 9b), producing a tremendoushad shown the refuse to be deepest and to represent quantity of sherds as well as shell, stone and otherthe earliest part of the occupation. T h e excavation kinds of refuse. All sherds from Sections D and Eas a whole was designated as Cut J (fig. 4 ; pis. 8b, 9). were classified; from the remaining sections onlyI t consisted of five squares 5 by 5 meters, designated decorated sherds were available for study. T h e fieldas Sections A - E , excavated in arbitrary levels of 30 work was under the supervision of Julio Viteri whocm., making a trench 5 by 25 meters long. A sixth did not notice any unusual features in the deposit,5 meter square (Section E) was added at the north- except for rare small clusters of large rounded cobbleswest side of Section F in the hope of recovering addi- (pi. 9c, d), the significance of which is undetermined.
  • 37. 18 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 G-54: Buena Vista excavated during the summer of 1961, by Evans a n d Meggers. Survey of the Valdivia Valley during the 1957 G—54 is located at a bend in the river, where the 6season revealed a site of the Valdivia Phase along the meter vertical bank is divided into two 3 meter highsouth edge, about one kilometer inland from G—31 steps by a flat terrace 40 meters wide (fig. 5). T h e(fig. 5). Brief testing suggested that the deposit was refuse extends from the edge of the upper terracesuperficial, and classification of a surface collection of480 sherds led to correlation of the occupation with backward and u p the flank of the hill for a distancethe latter part of the seriated sequence (Evans, Meg- of about 70 meters. M a x i m u m lateral extent is a b o u tgers, and Estrada, 1959, T a b l a B). In December of 50 meters. Recent distubance includes a road t h a t1960, during large scale excavations at G—31, the runs from east to west across the widest p a r t of thesite was revisited by Julio Viteri, who discovered and site, a house near the bank, a n d some agave hedges.excavated a group of burials adjacent to the road A second house was constructed just outside the(fig. 5; pi. 12). His investigations showed that the northwest limits. T h e surface is exposed on a largedeposit was in fact rather deep, but masked by a portion of the southern half, a n d cut by erosion where25-30 cm. thick sterile deposit, apparently washed not protected by sparse xerophytic vegetation. Sur-down as talus from the adjacent hillside during flash face sherds occur only here. O n the other side of theflooding. In order to obtain more information on road, weeds and scrub growth obscure the ground,the characteristics of the site and its chronological and surface materials were recovered only from theposition in the Valdivia Phase seriated sequence, bank. At the end of the dry season in J a n u a r y , theseveral stratigraphic excavations and test pits were Valdivia River was reduced to a broken series of i i i i i i 0 5 10 15 20 25 MFIGURE 5.—Sketch map of G-54: Buena Vista, a Period C site of the Valdivia Phase showing extent of the refuse and location of excavations
  • 38. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 19stagnant pools, and the local water supply was at the east side of Cut 2 (fig. 5). A 1.5 by 1.5 meterderived from wells dug in the riverbed. test at the upper (south) edge of the site established Cut 1, 3 by 3 meters, was placed near the edge of the depth of the deposit here as about 75 cm. Onlythe bank, approximately equidistant between the rims, decorated sherds and artifacts were saved fromeast and west limits of the site (fig. 5). Excavation these excavations as the digging was not controlledwas in 20 cm. levels. T h e dirt was sifted and only by levels nor the refuse sifted. During the excava-large, fire-cracked rocks and unworked shells were tions, local residents and their children devoted con-discarded in the field. Coarse, lumpy clay occupied siderable energy to digging into the face of the bank,the upper 30-34 cm. over most of the cut, dropping and all decorated sherds and figurines from thisto 50 cm. at the east corner. This layer was largely activity were also saved. Subsequently, the bankthe sterile talus wash (fig. 6; pi. 11a), but a few was straightened and cleaned to reveal the distinctsherds and shells were discovered. Below, the soil natural stratigraphy, corresponding to the sterilebecame powdery in consistency, light tan to light upper and lower layers and the refuse deposit (fig. 6;gray in color, and contained abundant sherds. Shells pi. 11a). A vertical column of sterile dirt 56 cm. inwere less common than at G - 3 1 , animal bones more width, joining the upper and lower sterile layers nearfrequent (Appendix 1, table 4). Granular medium the center of the cleared zone, seems best accountedgray clay appeared at a depth of 85 cm. at the north for as a disturbance subsequent to laying down of theside, along a sloping surface that was 100 cm. below Valdivia Phase deposit.the original surface at the south side. The upper Seven burials were excavated in February 1961 by20 cm. contained a few sherds. No unusual features Estradas field assistant, Julio Viteri, adjacent to thewere recognized in the refuse deposit. After comple- south side of the road. Details of position of thetion of the stratigraphic excavation, the north and individuals and information on association is limitedwest walls were cut back to enlarge the sample of to what can be seen on the photographs (pi. 12). T h efigurines, decorated sherds, and artifacts of shell and bones were in poor condition and five of the skeletonsstone. Material from the northeast extension of Cut 1 were placed so close together that they are difficult towas retained in two levels, the upper 0-85 cm., the distinguish. Only three skulls were reconstructible,lower 85-120 cm. T h e north side of this abutted two adults (BV-1, 8) and one child (BV-14). Twothe south side of the test trench (fig. 5). (Burials 1 and 4) show the leg bones in sufficient detail Cut 2, also 3 by 3 meters, was located 18 meters to observe that they are tighdy flexed. Both in-south of the road (pi. l i b ) , behind the area where a dividuals are lying on the right side and facing towardgroup of burials had been removed earlier in the the west. Arm position is less easy to recognize but inseason. T h e upper 25-30 cm. were sterile, hard, one case the right arm is extended, so that the h a n dmedium-gray clay. Below 30 cm., excavation was is on or next to the thigh. A polished stone ax wascontrolled in arbitrary levels 10 cm. thick. T h e refuse adjacent to the lower arm (pi. 12b). Detaileddeposit, extending to a depth of 1.20 meters on the description of the cranial characteristics is provided ineast and 1.30 meters on the west, consisted of light Appendix 2 (pp. 219-224; pi. 192 a-c).tan to gray, powdery soil. A thin lens containing Burial 8 was encountered 1 meter east of the edgeb u r n t rock extending laterally for a meter at the of the area occupied by Burials 1—7, 25 cm. below thecenter of the south wall was the only feature en- present surface. Skeletal fragments were distributedcountered. Shells were less numerous than at G—31 over an area 1.00 (east-west) by 0.30 meters, a n dand were identified as predominantly Anomal- portions of the cranium were widely scattered. Care-ocardia, with a few oyster. ful examination showed them to represent four indi- Cut 2 produced evidence of burial pattern at two viduals (BV-5, 7, 9, 11). Original position could notlevels. An inverted Valdivia Incised jar, encountered be determined. No artifacts were associated, andin Level 50-60 cm., contained badly deteriorated the vicinity was free from habitation refuse.fragments of bone, apparently representing an infant. Burial 9 (BV-6; pi. 193 d-f), lying on sterile clay inT h e remains of an adult appeared at a depth of one the northwest corner of Cut 2, occupied an area 50meter in the northwest corner. Details are provided by 46 cm. T h e individual was again lying on thebelow, designated as Burial 9. Subsequent to com-pletion of the stratigraphic excavation, the west half right side with the legs tightly flexed and drawn u pof the north wall of Cut 2 was cut back to increase toward the chest, and the arms extended toward thethe sample of decorated sherds and other artifacts. hips. T h e skull was at the west end. Sherds, shells Additional excavations included two trenches and and fireburnt stones were intermingled with the bones,a test pit. O n e trench was located between the north apparently having filtered downward from the refuseside of Cut 1 and the edge of the bank and another above rather than associated as offerings. 767-841—65 4
  • 39. 20 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 NOIlVdOOOO • 3SVHd tflAIOIVA 3 ^ c§ •s -3 3* &.S -a .> CO —I ^3 > u V J-H 4-» n „ •>. a 0 5, O S sl •X) m u C ^3 O a & 5 <L> «e S 6 31VDS "IVJ.N0ZI80H QNV TV0I±H3A
  • 40. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVTA PHASE 21 Burial 10 ( B V - 4 ; pi. 193 a-c) appeared 50 cm. tributed over an approximately circular area aboutnortheast of Burial 8 at a depth of 40 cm. below the 100 meters in diameter. Three stratigraphic excava-present surface, resting on sterile clay. Remains were tions were made in J u l y 1961 by Estrada, Evans andbadly scattered and deteriorated, and position of the Meggers to determine the nature and depth of thebody could not be ascertained. Sherds and rocks deposit and to obtain a sample of the pottery andwere intermingled with the bones, but appear to repre- other artifacts.sent accidental rather than intentional association. Cut 1, 2.5 by 2.5 meters, was located on a terrace- Burial 11 was encountered beneath a lens of brown like portion of the east slope, at an elevation 8 meterscoarse sandy soil during probing of the bank by local above the salitre floor (fig. 7). Sterile soil, reminiscentresidents. Its position was not identifiable. A figurine of the talus wash situation at G-54, occupied the upperfound nearby was not clearly associated. 30 cm. of the deposit. Level 30-50 cm. contained Burials 12 (BV-10) and 13 (BV-3; pi. 194 a-c) were very powdery, soft, light gray dirt with few shells.adjacent at a depth of 1.00 to 1.10 meters at the west Shells became slightly more abundant farther down,side of the west extension of Cut 1, again lying on but in other respects no difference was evident.sterile clay. Condition of the bones and proximity of Sterile medium-gray clay appeared at 90 cm. on thethe skeletons were such that a clear separation could east side over an irregular surface that dropped tonot be made. Burial 12 appeared to be lying on the 115 cm. in a small pocket at the north edge of theright side, legs tightly flexed, facing toward the west. excavation.Burial 13 appeared to be on the left side, also with the Cut 2, 3 by 3 meters, was placed at the sloping edgelegs tightly flexed, and with the arms extended at the of the summit, about 6 meters above and northwestside. T h e body was facing toward the north. Sherds of Cut 1 (fig. 7), and was excavated in 30 cm. levels.were again wedged around the bones, but no in- Refuse was present from the surface, and also includedtentional offering appeared to be associated. fire-cracked stones and a variety of molluscs. Anomalo- G-84: Posorja cardia formed a lower proportion of the total shells than at G—54, and columella and conch shells were Most of the buildings comprising the modern town far more abundant. Soil was powdery and light gray,of Posorja are on low ground, along the waters edge. as in other Valdivia Phase deposits. Compact sterileInland, the elevation increases rather abruptly (pi. clay appeared at 50 cm. below the surface on the13). Valdivia Phase remains were concentrated on downhill (southeast) side and at 85 cm. on thethe summit of the hill, superimposed by refuse belong- opposite side. Fragments of h u m a n bones were recog-ing to the J a m b e l i Phase of the Regional Develop- nized just above the sterile zone on the southwestmental Period (Estrada, Meggers and Evans, 1964, side, but nothing could be determined about condi-p . 489) and by existing houses. A stratigraphic tions of burial.excavation was undertaken here by Estrada in J a n u -ary 1960. Arbitrary levels of 10 cm. showed Valdivia Cut 3, on the top of the ridge near the point, wasPhase refuse to extend from a depth of 0.40-1.30 begun as a 2 by 2 meter square. Soil was lumpy,meters. N o further details are available on the site medium-gray clay containing sherds, but only to aarea, nature of the deposit, or size of the cut. depth of 20 cm., with sterile clay beneath. Since the sample included types characteristic of the earliest G-88: Palmar Norte part of the Valdivia Phase, the excavation was en- T h e Palmar salitre is a broad low area bounded by larged to cover a 4 by 5 meter area to obtain a more steep sided hills, resembling in general aspect the adequate sample of pottery. lower Valdivia Valley (pi. 14). G-88 occupies a flank at the north side, with refuse extending from the G-L-2 margin of the salitre up the steep slope and over the A low bank at the edge of Lagarto salitre (fig. 2 ; top of a small ridge projecting from the higher hill pi. 3b) produced badly eroded shell fragments and (fig. 7). Only a very small proportion of the site is a few sherds, apparently of Jambeli Phase origin. level, a n d the steepness characteristic of most of the In addition, half of a Valdivia Broad-line Incised bowl area suggests that houses must have been raised on was discovered, of a style associated with Period Dposts. T h e site is shielded from the shore by a pro-jection of the hill. T h e salitre surface is largely (pi. 42e). G-L-3barren, salt content of the soil being too high to permitgrowth of vegetation. Beyond its limits, xerophytic Shells scattered unevenly over a rounded hill de-growth including thorny brush and cactus is charac- fined a habitation site about 18 meters in diameter,teristic and often dense. Habitation refuse was dis- and 2 meters in maximum elevation above the salitre
  • 41. 22 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1floor. T h e presence of mangrove oyster and charac- said to contain a yellowish substance with high organicteristics of the paste of most of the sherds identified content and occasionally shell spoons or unworkedthe principal occupation as J a m b e l i Phase in origin. shells of species used for manufacture of fishhooks.However, one area on the east side produced a few Groups of shell spoons or unworked pearl oystersherds of Valdivia Phase types. Shells in the vicinity shells were repeatedly encountered superimposed (op.were predominantly clam rather than oyster. cit., p . 10). Tabulation and description of the large n u m b e r of G-L-27 artifacts eventually will provide important additional A few Valdivia Phase sherds came from a badly information on the cultural inventory of the Valdiviaeroded knoll at the south edge of Lagarto salitre (fig. Phase. Among objects mentioned in the preliminary2 ; pi. 3b), now reduced to 10 meters in diameter. report are shell fishhooks (Zevallos and Holm, 1960,Nothing could be determined regarding the original pi. 25), spoons (op. cit., pi. 26), and disks (op. cit.,extent of the site. p. 10), the latter possibly fishhook blanks. Stone artifacts include saws and reamers (op. cit., pi. 2 7 ) ; Data from Other Investigations scrapers, blades and " J a k e t o w n perforators" (op. cit., T w o Valdivia Phase sites have been reported by pi. 28); hammerstones, polishing stones, and grindingother investigators, both on the Guayas coast between stones, some of the latter associated with manos (op.the Valdivia Valley and the Santa Elena Peninsula. cit., p p . 7-9).For convenience of reference, they have been incor- More than 2000 pottery figurine fragments wereporated into the site numbering system for Guayas recovered, representing the Valdivia, San Pablo a n dProvince. Buena Vista types. These show variations not repre- G-115: San Pablo sented in the samples from G—31 and G—54, filling A large Valdivia Phase site was discovered at the gaps in the evolutionary continuum on which the margin of the San Pablo salitre (pi. 4) in 1956 by a typology is based (pp. 104-106). T h e r e are also a few group of Ecuadorian archeologists including Francisco examples of stone figurines (op. cit., pi. 20), b u t the Huerta Renddn, Carlos Zevallos Menendez and Olaf Period A Palmar types are absent. Decorated pottery Holm. Extensive excavation during 1959 provided types illustrated or mentioned in the text a r e : Valdivia detailed information on the composition of the site Applique Fillet, Valdivia Brushed, Valdivia Excised, and produced a tremendous quantity of pottery, Valdivia Incised, Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Val- figurines and other cultural remains. Final analysis divia Modeled, Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised, is still in process, but a preliminary report gives infor- Valdivia Nicked R i b or Nubbin, Valdivia Pebble mation relevant to evaluation of the temporal position Polished, Valdivia Punctate, Valdivia R e d Zoned of the site in terms of the seriated sequence. Punctate and Valdivia Rocker Stamped. A few rims T h e site is located about 3 kilometers from the represent jars of Form 14 with a folded-over, finger-present shore, on the inner margin of the salitre. At pressed rim (op. cit., pis. 14-6, 7), a n d lobed bowlspresent, fresh water is available only from wells except (op. cit., pi. 8-2, - 5 ; 9-5, - 8 ) .at the height of the rainy season. Refuse covers arelatively large area but nowhere exceeds 1.30 meters G-117: LaLibertadin depth. Its general composition duplicates that of In 1951, Bushnell reported a small group of pottery,other Valdivia Phase sites, including presence of shell and stone artifacts from La Libertad, which hemarine shell. attributed to a post-conquest date on the basis of A considerable number of burials were encountered European objects presumed to be associated. I r o n -during excavation, a situation most parallel to that at ically, this material belongs to the Valdivia Phase,G—54. Metric data and indices of the skulls are making it not the latest but the earliest on the Ecua-included in Appendix 2 (p. 226). Condition of the dorian coast. T h e site is about 100 meters inlandskeletons is reported to be poor, but those from lower from the Engoroy cemetery, which produced remainslevels were sufficiently intact to show a flexed position. of the Machalilla Phase (fig. 2). Details of theThere were no burial goods (Zevallos and Holm, 1960, original refuse composition have been largely obliter-p. 11 and pi. 6, top). Fragments of h u m a n bones ated by later reuse, b u t the loose, dusty compositionwere also found scattered in the refuse closer to the of the soil and inclusion of marine shells is in accordsurface, some of which are believed to show breakage with the situation at other sites of the Valdivia Phaseprior to deposition (ibid.). (Bushnell, 1951, p p . 123-4). A feature not reported for other Valdivia Phase sites T h e pottery includes Valdivia Applique Fillet,is isolated finds of inverted complete vessels (Zevallos Valdivia R e d Zoned Punctate, Valdivia Pebble Pol-and Holm, 1960, pi. 4, 5, and 7, bot.). These are ished and Valdivia Broad-line Incised (Bushnell, 1951,
  • 42. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 23 fig. 51-52). One rim bears a motif characteristic of The Site Sequence and Its Implications Punta Arenas Incised (op. cit., fig. 52c). The illus- trated example of Valdivia Pebble Polished has broad- line incision superimposed on the pebble-polished The only two sites so far reported for Period A are upper wall, a rare treatment limited to the late part G-31 and G-88, at the northern limit of the Valdivia of the Phase. Rim profiles correspond to cambered Phase area of distribution (fig. 2). G-88 shows a shortjars of Forms 21 and 22 and a bowl of Form 8 (op. occupation dating from the first part of the Phase,cit., fig. 54). perhaps representing temporary removal of a portion The single pottery figurine (op. cit., fig. 52d) is of the populace residing at G—31. The pattern of atypical in style, but similar to some examples of theBuena Vista type in hair treatment and body form. refuse at G-88 differs from that at G—31 in depth as Other artifacts believed by Bushnell to be associated well as continuity, indicating that it was either occu-with the pottery are shell scoops or spoons and a pied by a smaller group that moved around on thepitted hammerstone (Bushnell, 1951, fig. 52 k-1), both site, or that it was intermittentiy abandoned. Periodof which are represented at other sites of the Valdivia B is also best represented at G-31 and G-88, with aPhase. suggestion that inception of settlement at G—115 FIGURE 7.—Sketch map of G-88: Palmer Norte, a Period A-B site of the Valdivia Phase, showing extent of the refuse and location of excavations.
  • 43. 24 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 corresponds to the latter part of this Period. T h e bulk of the refuse at G-115, and all of that at G - 5 4 belong to Period C, which is also represented by a brief reoccupation of G - 3 1 . G-117, on the S a n t a Elena Peninsula some distance to the south, appears to date from late Period G or early Period D . G - 2 5 and the sites in the Lagarto salitre belong to Period D . T h e area, depth of refuse and geographical distri- bution of known sites indicates that the initial appear- ance of the Valdivia Phase was in the vicinity of t h e Rio Valdivia Valley, possibly at G - 3 1 . D u r i n g Period A, knowledge of pottery making did not spread more than a few kilometers, an expansion t h a t may reflect enlargement and subdivision of the p o p u - lation of the original settlement. Period C, by con- trast, seems to have brought a major alteration in both settlement pattern and artifact inventory. Sites are more extensive and slightly farther from t h e present shore, although not sufficiently distant to permit an inference that land food was becoming more important than sea food. Occupation during Period G expands southward a n d at the end of the period embraces the Santa Elena Peninsula. This represents the widest expansion of the Phase, sug- gesting further enlargement of the population. D u r - ing Period C, Valdivia Phase isolation was broken by the arrival of people of the Machalilla Phase, with whom peaceful relations appear to have been m a i n - tained to judge from the closeness of the sites a n d the amount of pottery interchanged. Upset of this bal- ance marks the end of Period C. Valdivia occupation shifts to the Playas-Posorja region of the southern Guayas coast, where it is represented by shallow sites with sparse refuse, and a ceramic complex markedly inferior to that of Period G. T h e physical location is the same as during Period C, that is, along the margin of a salitre several kilometers from t h e present beach. Little indication of house type exists. Although the temperature is mild, there is a rainy season several months long, followed by a period of " g a r u a " or light mist, which would make some kind of shelter desirable. Small lumps of clay with twig, stick, a n d grass impressions (fig. 8) were identified in the refuse at G - 3 1 , G-54 and G—88, suggesting constructions with wattle-and-daub walls. T h e steepness of the slope at G-88 makes it seem probable t h a t houses were raised on piles. Although large waterworn cobbles were occasionally encountered, they were too few and scattered to indicate use of subterranean structures like those reported from early sites on t h e coast of Peru (Bird, 1948, p . 23). At best, they m a y have been used around hearths, since fireburnt a n dFIGURE 8. -Fragments of clay with twig impressions suggesting broken cobbles are common refuse components. T h e wattle and daub construction. only other evidence of hearths was in the form of
  • 44. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 25rare, small, thin lenses of finely powdered charcoal, {Panamicorbula inflata, Mactra velata), two arks {Areaappearing in the lower levels of G - 3 1 , Cut J , Sections pacifica, Glycymeris inaequalis), a chama (Chama echinata)D a n d E. Since there is abundant ethnographic and three gastropods {Cerithium adjustum, Natica chem-evidence of dwellers of pile houses using a separate nitzil unifasciata, Oliva peruviana). Two gastropodsdirtfloored shelter for cooking, these two bits of {Bulla aspera, Trivia radians) are represented only inevidence do not conflict. Period C levels. T h e land snail {Porphyrobaphe N o conclusive picture can be drawn of changes in iostoma) appears in the upper level identified withsubsistence emphasis because of incompleteness of the Period A and shows a generally consistent increasingevidence. All shell, bone and other organic remains popularity to about 5 percent in Period C, but whetherfrom G—31, Cuts A, F and H were saved for classifi- this can be interpreted as indicating any alterationcation a n d identification (Evans, Meggers and Es- either in environment or collecting habits is not clear.trada, 1959, T a b l a C). Samples of shell were retained T h e habitat of the marine species covers the samefrom other G—31 excavations. All bone from G-54, range from intertidal to tidal pools or below low tideCut 1, and G - 8 8 , Cut 2 was preserved and identified. level throughout the seriated sequence, implying sta-Unfortunately, no sample had been saved from the ble collecting conditions and suggesting that rise ofexcavation at G—84, the only levels representing Period the shoreline was probably subsequent to the end ofD , but it is probably reasonably safe to project most the Valdivia Phase. Particularly interesting in thisof the nonceramic characteristics of late Period C respect is absence of any mangrove oysters {Ostreaupward into Period D . columbiensis), a species abundantly represented in later Shellfish remains are the principal organic com- coastal sites.ponent of refuse at all Valdivia Phase sites. Classi- Bone (including crab carapace) remains are lessfication and analysis of species distribution by levels abundant, and consequently even more susceptiblein cuts where the complete sample had been saved than mollusks to misinterpretation when subsistence (Appendix 1, table 1) suggest little alteration in the trends are sought. Here, the time distribution ispattern of exploitation of this food source (fig. 9). longer, covering all of Periods B and C (Appendix 1,Shells fall into two classes: Pelecypodea and Gastro- table 4). T h e lower levels of G—31, Cut A werepodea, the former including clams, oysters, arks, reduced in area because of excavation problems, andscallops and similar forms, and the latter including the sample from Period A is consequendy very sparse.conchs, snails, cowries and other univalves. Of the Fish and crab remains are abundant throughout, a38 marine species represented, all but 8 inhabit situation that undoubtedly can be projected backwardmudflats or intertidal zones. T h e remainder can be into Period A and forward into Period D. Sea turtlefound just below low tide or in tidal pools. Shellfish and reptilian remains occur in small amounts in levelscould thus have been collected by wading among corresponding to Period B and Period C, and theirrocks and exploring flats at low tide, a practice still absence earlier may be accountable to reduced sizeobservable along the Guayas coast today (Ferdon. of the sample rather than lack of exploitation. Deer1950, p . 19). bones, on the other hand, show such a marked increase Efforts to discern a change in emphasis on the in frequency during Period C as to suggest that morespecies of mollusks collected are frustrating because of emphasis may have been placed on terrestrial huntingthe erratic trends shown by many species (fig. 9). at this time. Restriction of small land m a m m a l andMost common throughout the sequence is the Venus cameloid remains to the same portion of the sequenceclam {Anomalocardia subrugosa Sby), which constitutes lends support to this interpretation, although inade-more than 50 percent of the shells from all but the quacy of the sample from earlier levels cannot beupper two levels. Second in frequency is the Horn ruled out of consideration. Bird remains were identi-shell {Cerithidea valida), which fluctuates wildly from fied only from late Period C. A few bones tentativelylevel to level, but generally occurs in a frequency of identified as dog are also restricted to this part of theabout 14-18 percent. A few of the minor species sequence. Again, the rarity of these kinds of faunashow marked changes in popularity. One of the arks casts doubt on the accuracy of attaching significance{Anadara tuberculosa) is more than twice as frequent to the chronological position of the occurrence.during Period A as it is in Periods B and C, and even Against this reservation is the coincidence of thesemore marked decline characterizes one of the scallops distributions with an apparent change in subsistence{Aequipectan circularis). Spondylus {Spondylus princeps), orientation reflected in other faunal remains. D a t aon the other hand, is rare to absent in Period A, but now available permit only highly tentative interpre-relatively common during Periods B and C. tations about what may have occurred, but they Several other species appear not to have been ex- provide suggestions for examination in the light ofploited during Period A, including two kinds of clams other kinds of evidence.
  • 45. 26 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 DESCRIPTION OF ARTIFACTS Stone Artifacts pebbles of chalcedony, quartzite, opal, and chert* were used as knives or cutting blades and apparently The natural soil components in the region where discarded after use so that they show no clearcutsites of the Valdivia Phase are located are indurated evidence of wear (pi. 15). All except those of quartz-clay (sometimes called mudstone), low grade shale, ite are naturally very sharp due to the concoidalmicaceous schist and sandstone conglomerate. All fracture of the rock, a fact that was apparentiy takenother kinds of rocks found intermixed in the various advantage of, since it is easier to knock off a fewlayers of refuse had to be brought from nearby rivers flakes from a cobble, cut a piece of meat, fish or hideand streams, the beds of which are strewn with well and discard the flake rather than shape a knife orrounded cobbles and pebbles representing a wide blade for repeated use. A flake blade or knife isvariety of quartzite, chalcedony, quartz, jasper, opal, distinguished from a flake scraper by absence of finediorite, chert, basalt, and porphyry. pressure chipping on the cutting edge. There is no At G-31: Valdivia, a source material for the peb- observable wear on the cutting edge of the flakebles and cobbles is the Valdivia River only 300-500 knives or blades.meters to the north, while at G-54: Buena Vista the Flakes often preserve the natural waterworn areasame river is even closer. With such easy access, it of the cobble or pebble on one surface. Shape is veryis not hard to explain the wide variety of waterworn irregular although many are clearly classifiable aspebbles encountered in excavation, some to be used long prismatic flake blades (pi. 15 q, r, u), struck offintact, others to be chipped and flaked into tools, and by percussion blows onto a striking plane on a coreothers to be discarded without evidence of use. Al- after a few percussion blows had cleaned off a facethough cores, chips, and flakes occur in considerable of the cobble or pebble for easy striking and fracture.quantity in the various refuse layers (Appendix 1, Size ranges from 1.5 by 2.0 by 0.5-1.8 cm. to 4.5 bytable 3), there are only a limited number of intention- 7.8 by 1.5 cm.ally shaped artifacts. These have been classified into Bowlstypes and descriptions and are arranged in alphabeticalorder. P L A T E 16 A - B Abraders Two well shaped andesite bowls, with flattened bottom, rounded sides and slightly incurving rim, Pieces of fine to coarse-grained sandstone, coquina were encountered during excavation of G—31, Cut J . and pumice have been roughly shaped and used as One (pi. 16b), from Section B, Level 120-150 cm. abraders. They are not naturally shaped, waterworn equating with late Period B, is about 16 cm. in pebbles like the pebble polishers, but irregular frag- diameter and 11 cm. deep. The other (pi. 16a), fromments used for abrading or rubbing something that Section D, Level 270-300 cm. and representing middlerequired a coarser and faster cutting action. In part, Period A, is more symmetrical and has a more evenlyuse has given the fragments shape; a few are roughly ground and pecked surface. Diameter is about 23shaped by percussion. Form is variable and may be cm., and depth is 7.8 cm.discoidal, rectanguloid, or irregular. Often severalfacets have been worn by extended use, and one side Choppersis usually slightly concave from serving as a whetstone. PLATES 1 6 C , 17For comparison of cutting effectiveness, texture of theabraders can be rated in terms of size of particles in Some quartzite and chalcedony pebbles or cobblessandpaper. By these standards, range is from no. 0 have had a few large flakes knocked off by percussionto no. 4, with most of the abraders equivalent to no. 2 blows producing an edge that is irregular and unevensandpaper. Size is highly variable, representative but would cut effectively with repeated pounding.examples measuring as follows: 0.6-1.3 by 2.9 by The waterworn butt end fits neatly into the cupped4.0 cm., 0.8 by 5.5 by 6.0 cm., 1.5 by 5.0 by 6.0 cm., palm. The cutting edge appears to have been used1.8 by 4.5 by 5.5 cm., 2.0 by 5.5 by 6.0 cm. The repeatedly until dulled from battering. Size variesabraders were used to shape some of the worked shell according to how much of the pebble or cobble hasand bone tools. Blades or K n i v e s *Two obsidian flake blades mentioned in the first Valdivia report (Evans, Meggers, Estrada, 1959, p . 22) proved to be accidental PLATE 15 intrusion from the superimposed Guangala Phase refuse w h e n h y d r a - tion rim thickness was measured (Friedman, Smith, Evans and Irregularly shaped flakes struck off from cobbles or Meggers, I960, p . 508).
  • 46. htLtUYHUUb IHIVALVtb] S A b I K U T U U b SCALLOPS ^ 1 0 10 20 30 4 0 50 % ?* a S a. Q. CUT H, 0 - 2 0 CM 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 CUT F , 0-20 20-40 CUT ri, 120-130 CUT F, 40-60 _CUT H, 13 0 - 1 4 0 • CUT A , 1 6 0 - 1 8 0 i / i i i i i i i : i i ) i IZZZU 180-200 i i i ) ) i i i i ) i -i—r rr~n 200-220 i i i i i i i i i i~r U.,31 220-240 v I I I I i i i i i n i / / / I INTERTIDAL B E L O W LOW T I D E OR T I D A L POOLS DEEP WATERFIGURE 9.—Temporal distribution and frequency of species of mollusks in levels of G-31, Cuts A, F, and H. Seriated sequence is based on changes in pottery type frequency (fig. 49).
  • 47. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 27been struck off to produce an edge. Diameter ranges of wear suggests grinding was a method of foodfrom 3.0-7.0 cm., length 5.1-12.0 cm. preparation of the Valdivia Phase. T h e mano and metate fragments are of sandstone, Cores quartzite, sandstone conglomerate, indurated clay, Cores can be divided into two varieties: 1) portions and coquina. T h e edges or back of several fragmentsof waterworn pebbles and cobbles from which flakes have been shaped by percussion blows giving thehave been struck off leaving part of the natural artifact an ovoid or rectanguloid outline with roundedsurface intact, and 2) prepared cores with a striking corners. One complete mano is a waterworn sand-platform from which small prismatic flakes were stone conglomerate pebble slightly shaped by batter-removed to make scrapers, blades and other cutting ing around the edges and on upper surface so that ittools. Stone materials in the first category include is oval. One side has a well-smoothed, convex sur-quartzite, fine-grained andesite, chalcedony, opal, face from use as a mano. It is 11.0 by 9.0 cm. andjasper; but the second category is restricted to chal- 3.8 cm. thick at the center, tapering to 3.0 cm. thickcedony and opal. Gores range in length from 3-10 at the edges. T h e remaining specimens are too frag-cm. Flake scars along the faces measure 2-5 cm. long mentary for measurement, but contours suggest thata n d 0.8-2.0 cm. wide, with most of the scars under 1.5 neither the grinding slab (metate) nor the hand-heldcm. wide. T h e stone working technique was not stone (mano) were large and both were generallysufficiently standardized so that the striking platform rectanguloid.was m a d e at any regular angle. Rather, it resulted Hammerstonesfrom knocking off several flakes to rid the pebble of FIGURE 12its waterworn smooth edges and give a clean face Hammerstones can be divided into two types: 1)and platform from which to strike flakes. T h e num- unworked waterworn cobbles, and 2) cores. I n theber of clearly identifiable cores was small comparedto the total quantity of stone in the refuse (see Appen- first category are natural pebbles and cobbles ofdix 1, table 3). quartzite, andesite, diorite, chalcedony, diabase, shale, sandstone and indurated clay (mudstone) used for Gravers battering or pounding. Mudstone and sandstone FIGURE 10; PLATE 18 A-J pebbles, so soft that a few blows broke them, probably Small flakes of chalcedony, opal and fine-grained represent hearthstones used because of accessibilityquartz of nondescript shape have a small point on and discarded after use. Repeated pounding some-one edge, usually opposite the bulb of percussion, times knocked off large spalls, creating a bluntsuggesting use as an engraving tool. Examination of cutting edge, and such tools have been classifiedthe points under high magnification binocular micro- as choppers although their first use may have beenscope shows wear along one side in all cases, and in as hammerstones. Some hammerstones were bat-half the cases wear along both sides of the small point. tered on one end and then turned over or around soSome specimens also show wear on a longer edge that several parts of the surface show pitting from usesuggesting additional use as a cutting or scraping (fig. 12f). T h e pebbles vary considerably in naturaltool. None of the flakes are large and none show form, from flattened to spherical to egg-shaped toregular shaping. T h e smallest are 2.0 by 2.8 by 0.3 irregular, but all fit conveniently in the hand orcm., 2.0 by 2.5 by 0.5 cm., 3.0 by 3.0 by 1.0 cm.; the between the fingertips. Diameter ranges betweenlargest 1.0 by 5.2 by 1.5 cm., 4.8 by 3.3 by 1.3 cm., 1.7-5.0 cm., length between 4.0-15.0 cm., with the3.8 by 5.5 by 1.1 cm., 6.0 by 2.5 by 1.3 cm. All of majority from 5-8 cm. long.them have one or two short nibs or points, measuring Core hammerstones are pebbles that have had most1.0-3.0 m m . long, with the length reaching 5.0 m m . or all of the natural surface removed by percussionon three specimens. flaking before being used for battering. T h e smallest in this group measures 1.3 by 2.2 by 3.2 cm. and is Grinding Stones battered on both ends; the largest is 3.0 by 7.5 by FIGURE 11; PLATE 16 D-F 11.5 cm. Form is generally rectanguloid to tri- Since all but one specimen are incomplete, and worn anguloid, and the absence of consistent shape or sizesurfaces are either too small or too variable in con- suggests that rather than a delibertately shaped tool,tour (slightly concave to flat to convex) to permit this variety is a secondary result of the manufacturereliable classification, fragments are all grouped to- of flakes for knives or scrapers, in which the residualgether in a single category of grinding stones. Amount core was sometimes used for hammering.
  • 48. 28 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 "Jaketown Perforators" Pebble Polishing Stones FIGURE 13 PLATE 19 A-J Several microflint specimens that looked like drills Well-rounded, smooth, waterworn pebbles of awere so classified in the original Valdivia report variety of rock materials were probably used for (Evans, Meggers, Estrada, 1959, p . 22; fig. 13 a - d , polishing pottery. Shape may be hemispherical, 14 a - d ) . However, additional excavation at Val- spherical, egg-shaped, rectanguloid or irregular.divia Phase sites produced enough artifacts for reanal- Those clearly showing use were classified as polishingysis of the type. I n the light of experimental work stones; others that could have been used a few timesdone by Ford and W e b b (1956, pp. 76-79, fig. 25) but not sufficiently to produce polishing planes wereon the Poverty Point materials, all the Valdivia classified as natural waterworn pebbles (Appendix 1,artifacts originally classified as drills {perforadores) table 3). Quartz, chalcedony, jasper, diorite, shale,were examined under a high-magnification binocular mudstone, and even a petrified bone, are represented,microscope (fig. 13 c, f, i, 1, m ) . Only two showed suggesting selection for smoothness and conveniencecircular polish striations on the tapering sides and of shape. Several specimens have been used so m u c hpoint indicating use as a drill; on all others shape that a highly polished beveled edge has formed. T h ewas the end product of use in cutting or working a smallest polishing stones are egg-shaped to sphericalmaterial like bone or antler. T h e edges of the larger quartz pebbles 1.5-1.8 cm. in diameter; this groupflake were chipped off from use creating a specimen usually measures 2.5-3.0 cm. in diameter, with someshaped like an awl or perforator. T h e description as large as 5.3-4.0 cm. T h e largest examples areof the experiment is so vividly expressed by Ford and flat waterworn pebbles measuring at the large end ofW e b b (ibid.) that it does not need repetition here the range 1.5 by 3.0 by 6.5 cm.; 0.9 by 4.0 by 7.5 c m . ;except to indicate that the Valdivia Phase specimens and at the lower end of the range 1.0 by 1.5 by 3.0are so much like the used microflint blades of J a k e - cm.; 1.0 by 2.5 by 2.5 cm.; and 0.8 by 1.5 by 2.0 c m .town and Poverty Point in southeastern United States Polished Axesthat the term "Jaketown perforators" has been ap- PLATE 19 O-Rplied to the Valdivia specimens. T h e "perforators" are all flakes of chalcedony or Three complete specimens were found in strati-opal, of colors ranging from mottled brown and graphic excavations at G—31 (two from C u t J , Sectionwhite, to white, to creamy white, to gray, to black, E, Level 3.00-3.30 meters, one from Cut J , Section B,to rusty rose. Length is 2.2-4.6 cm. T h e butt end, Level 2.70-3.00 meters) and one in association withunmodified from use, is 0.8-1.8 cm. wide and 4-8 m m . Burial 1 at G-54 (pi. 12b). Although no additionalthick; and length of the modified section, creating fragments or complete specimens appeared in anywhat looks like a tapered point, ranges from 1.0- of the other Valdivia Phase sites excavated by Estrada1.8 cm. Evans and Meggers, several are reported from G—115: T h e two specimens that show polish striations re- San Pablo (Zevallos and Holm, 1960, p . 8, a n d per-sulting from circular motions that might reflect use sonal communication). All the examples are peckedas a drill deserve additional comment. I n both cases and then polished from gray-black diorite. T h e twothe form of the tool suggests shaping from use as a smaller axes are wedge shaped with a slightiy flattened,"Jaketown perforator". However, after the tool had oval outline, battered poll a n d a fairly sharp, straightacquired a long tapering point, it was secondarily bit. O n e measures 5.5 cm. long, 4.8 cm. wide atemployed as a drill. If all of the specimens had been bit, and 3.0 cm. wide at the poll (pi. 19p); the othershaped consciously for use as drills, the majorityshould show striations resulting from circular motion is 6.0 cm. long, 3.5 cm. in m a x i m u m width, 3.0 cm.of drilling. wide at bit and 2.5 cm. wide at poll (pi. 19o). O n e specimen shows incipient T-shaped form produced Paint Stones by slightly flaring nubbins at the poll, which would Irregular, angular fragments of hematite are prob- have provided grips to affix the ax to a handle. T h eably the source of the red slip color. All the fragments bit is convex. This specimen (pi. 19q) measures 6.8are a brick red, r u b off easily on the fingers, and crush cm. to 7.5 cm. long, 4.5 cm. wide at bit, a n d 5.5 c m .easily. Pieces recovered from the refuse (see Appen- wide at poll, decreasing to 5.0 cm. at a point 1.5 c m .dix 1, table 3) measure 1.0 by 1.2 by 3.0 cm.; 1.0 by below the expanded flattened poll. T h e fourth speci-1.0 by 2.4 cm.; 0.6 by 0.8 by 1.8 cm.; 1.0 by 1.0 by men (pi. 19r), from G - 5 4 : Buena Vista, is a clearcut1.5 cm.; and 4.0 by 5.0 by 3.0 cm. T-shaped ax with tapered sides a n d a flattened poll
  • 49. WHOLE VOLUME THE VALDIVIA PHASE 29 0 I 2 CM FIGURE 10.—Gravers from Valdivia Phase sites.similar to the previously described specimen but a length from 4.0-6.5 cm., with the majority betweenless strongly curved bit. It measures 5.5-6.0 cm. 5.0-5.5 cm. A cross section through the area oflong, 8.0 cm. wide at poll, 4.8 cm. wide at bit, and largest diameter of the specimens presents two dis-5.5 cm. wide at a point 2.5 cm. below the poll where tinct shapes: circular or oval with flattened sides.the sides of the T are distinctly formed. The end is always circular. Diameters of circular bodies range from 2.5-3.5 cm., oval ones measure Reamers 1.5 by 2.5 cm., 1.2 by 2.0 cm., 1.2 by 2.7 cm., 1.2 by FIGURE 14; P L A T E 20 1.7 cm., and 1.3 by 2.0 cm. A series of artifacts identifiable as reamers for the Sawsmanufacture of shell fishhooks, all show the same type FIGURE 15of concentric wear from a circular motion. Thespecimens are of two materials, fine-grained sandstone Thin slabs of fine-grained sandstone have beenand coquina, the latter composed of coarse, com- ground and polished to produce flat surfaces and onepacted waterworn shell particles cemented together. or more tapered edges that could have been used forThe majority resemble a plumb bob in shape, but a sawing, especially such soft materials as shell. Thefew are egg-shaped. Complete specimens range in slabs are the result of natural cleavage of sandstone,
  • 50. VOLUME 130 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY a • i i i — i 0 I 2 3 4 CM j :j --••f-- ir"" itii&i»iiif ittaksisiaaB&tt/ iatafe v-^-;- afifa bm&mB&Wt&ilatm** FIGURE 11.—Grinding stone fragments from Valdivia Phase sites, a-c, Mano fragments, d, Metate fragment.
  • 51. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 31 I I I » 0 I 2 3 CM FIGURE 12.—Hammerstones of the Valdivia Phase.
  • 52. 32 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1which divides in flat parallel planes. I n some cases a T h e best proportioned saw is 5.4 cm. long, 1.0 c m .m i n i m u m amount of grinding was done to smooth wide at the one end, 1.4 cm. wide at the other, a n dthe surfaces, in other cases cleavage marks are totally 5 m m . thick on the back. T h e u p p e r edge is roughlyobliterated by abrasion. Thickness of the slabs ranges battered and pecked into shape. Cutting edges arefrom 3—11 m m . with the majority 5-6 m m . thick. typically straight, with bevels ranging from a sharp longM a n y of the saws are fragmentary but they all appear taper to a blunt wide angle (cf. cross sections fig. 15a a n dto have been rectanguloid, with the upper edge orback sometimes battered with percussion blows used 15b). O n e specimen has a slightly curved edge (fig.to work the slab into a more convenient shape. Of 15c). M a n y of the fragments of cut shell have groovesthe more complete artifacts, the smallest and thinnest that could have been m a d e by these saws a n d experi-is 3.0 cm. long, 2.2 cm. wide at one end and 2.0 cm. ments with some of the saw fragments showed t h a twide at the other, and 3 m m . thick (fig. 15e). T h e they will cut shell as rapidly as a m o d e r n steel file orlargest is 6.5 cm. long, 7.0 cm. wide and 6 m m . thick. slightly used hacksaw blade. i i i 0 I CM CM c,f,ij-mFIGURE 13.—"Jaketown perforators" from Valdivia Phase sites. Worn end has been enlarged to show chipping resulting solely from
  • 53. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 33 Scrapers clay (mudstone) and coquina. In excavations where F I G U R E 16; P L A T E 18 K - W all materials were saved and tabulated, sandstone and sandstone conglomerate was from two and a Scrapers are usually made from cores or large half to three times more common than mudstone,flakes of quartz, quartzite, chalcedony, opal or chert. with only an occasional occurrence of coquina (Ap-T h e y are irregular in shape and show no consistent pendix 1, table 3). Sandstone and sandstone con-form. Core scrapers are made by reshaping a wedge- glomerate fragments are all very friable and burntout,shaped core, usually ranging in size from 3.3 cm. bright orange to red-orange in color, with angularlong by 3.0 cm. wide by 1.2 cm. thick to 3.5 cm. long irregular cleavage. Size ranges from large piecesby 6.6 cm. wide by 2.2 cm. thick, a series of percussionblows along one side producing a rough concave orslighUy curved cutting or scraping edge. Viewed incross section, most core scrapers may be called plano-convex, humpbacked, or snubnosed (fig. 16 a, b, e, g). In m a n y examples, the curved face is the result of part of the natural surface of the pebble remaining after large flakes were struck off. T h e cutting edge varies in width from 1.8 to 5.5 cm. Flake scrapers represent unretouched flakes chipped by use so that the scraping side of the flake has an indentation or rounded notch (fig. 16 c, d, f, h). T h e classificatory distinction between the flake scraper and the flake blade or knife is the presence of fine chipping a along one edge resulting from its use as a scraper, a feature clearly observable under a microscope. Flakes m a y show scraping wear on a single edge or several edges over a length of 2.5-5.5 cm. Notches are 8-12 m m . wide and 2-5 m m . deep. Flakes show considerable range in size, from 1.5 by 2.0 by 0.5-1.5 cm. to 4.0 by 7.5 by 1.5 cm. Sinkers FIGURE 17 Mudstone cobbles of similar size and shape havenotches or grooves in the sides and/or ends suggestingthat they were tied to fish nets or fish lines as sinkers.All are ovoid, flattened and thickest at the center,tapering toward the edges. Percussion-made notchestypically occur near the middle on two or three of thefour sides. O n two examples, a narrow groove con-nects the end notches. In one case the end of thecobble shows battering as if it had been used as ahammerstone before it was notched and used as asinker (fig. 17c). A groove 1 m m . wide has beenworn beside the notch on one example from friction ofthe cord into the soft stone (fig. 17a). Sinkers rangefrom 4.5-8.0 cm. in length, 3.2 to 6.0 cm. in width,and 1.0-2.5 cm. in maximum thickness. Fireburnt Rocks Scattered throughout the refuse of all ValdiviaPhase sites is a large number of stone fragmentsburned or cracked from exposure to fire. These fire-b u r n t and firecracked stones are of three materials: 0 I 2 CMsandstone and sandstone conglomerates, indurated FIGURE 14.—Fishhook reamers from the Valdivia Phase.
  • 54. 34 SMITHSONIAN CONTRD3UTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 15-20 cm. in diameter to smaller pieces 1-2 cm. of diameter. This situation suggests that hunks in sandstone and sandstone conglomerate were used around a hearth, where they broke as a result of repeated heating and cooling. F u r t h e r crumbling probably occurred from trampling during daily living activity at the site. T h e indurated clay fragments are either broken- down waterworn cobbles brought from the riverbed or angular rocks from talus slopes nearby. Fire has turned the light gray-tan natural color to a light orange or orange-tan. T h e high calcium carbonate content of the mudstone (30 percent by volume) has produced an effect of slackening, creating a brittle and crumbly residue. I n contrast to the irregular fracture of the sandstone, mudstone cobbles a n d fragments tended to spall off conchoidally as the h e a t penetrated inward. Fragments range from large hunks 20-25 cm. in diameter to smaller pieces 1-3 cm. in diameter. T h e coquina fragments are all from larger water- worn pieces with well rounded edges, but none show grinding abrasion. O n e side is fireburnt changing the natural white to cream color into orange, red or tan. Texture is very open a n d porous with particles of fine gravel and shells u p to 1-3 cm. in diameter. Fragments vary in size from 1-15 cm. Chronological Distribution of Stone Artifact Types T h e attempt to analyze the chronological distribution of stone artifact types is h a m p e r e d by the relatively small size of the classified sample a n d its limitation primarily to Periods B a n d C of the Valdivia Phase (Appendix 1, table 3). T h e r e are several reasons for this situation. Most important is the failure of nonceramic refuse material to be saved from excava- tions at G—84, which represents Period D , a n d from G - 3 1 , Cut J , Sections D a n d E, which provided the best pottery samples for Period A. T h e lower levels of G—31, Cut A, which extend into Period A, pro- vided a very small sample because of constriction in the size of the excavation with increasing d e p t h as t h e walls were sloped to prevent collapse. Interdigita- tion of levels from G - 3 1 , C u t B a d d e d some infor- mation, b u t principally to Period B. Because of the small size and consequently somewhat sporadic distribution of the various types by levels, attempts at I I graphic presentation by percentage occurrence were I CM not illuminating. An idea of the temporal d u r a t i o n of different types can be obtained, however, by joining in a vertical bar the earliest a n d latest occurrences of each artifact type as indicated by the seriated sequence FIGURE 15.—Sandstone saws from Valdivia Phase sites. of levels derived from pottery type analysis (fig. 18).
  • 55. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDrVIA PHASE 35 b 0 I 2 3 4 CM FIGURE 16.—Scrapers from Valdivia Phase sites.
  • 56. 36 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 In spite of the small representation of most stone artifact types, the graph produces a picture of nearly total stability throughout the duration of the Valdivia Phase. T h e apparent inception of m a n y artifacts near the middle of Period A rather t h a n at the be- ginning can be explained as the result of i n a d e q u a t e samples from the earlier levels, and there is no reason to doubt that all extending this far back were present at the beginning of Period A. Sinkers, paint stones, saws, and choppers m a y be more recent additions, in view of their somewhat later appearance, b u t there is an alternative possibility that this more limited distribution m a y derive from greater rarity of these objects in the refuse. Since fishing was i m p o r t a n t from the beginning of the Phase, it seems improbable that saws, which are used in fishhook manufacture, and sinkers, which are associated with nets or lines, would have been absent from the early inventory. T h e r e is no change in the appearance of fishhooks in Period B that might correlate with alteration in their method of manufacture by introduction of saws at this time. T h e widespread occurrence of saws in preceramic sites of adjacent Peru a n d Chile also argues for their existence at the beginning of the Valdivia Phase. T h e restriction of paint stones to Period B m a y be also accidental. However, since this is the time of greatest use of red slip on both figurines a n d pottery vessels, it is possible that their occurrence reflects more intensive collecting of this r a w material with resulting increased likelihood of some being lost in the refuse. It is also possible that paint stones h a d some other use during Period B, but at present this is only a matter of speculation. Choppers appear toward the middle of Period B and occur throughout Period C, probably continuing in Period D . Again, this distribution m a y b e a n accidental product of the small sample from early levels. O n the other hand, it m a y be correlated with the increase in deer and other large m a m m a l bones in the refuse during Period C, since choppers might have been a useful addition to blades for dismembering the carcass of a large animal. T h e chronological distribution of polished axes is not definitive. T h e sample is limited to only 4 speci- mens—three from Period A levels of C u t J at G—31 and one T-shaped ax associated with a skeleton at G-54, a Period C occupation—hence t h e b a r on t h e graph (fig. 18) extends from Period A t h r o u g h C. This distribution suggests the possibility of evolution from a parallel-sided a n d slightly expanded form to a I I T-shape. T h e extreme rarity of polished axes in I CM Valdivia Phase refuse in comparison with u n s h a p e d or slightly shaped stone tools m a y indicate they are FIGURE 17.—Valdivia Phase pebble sinkers. of trade origin. O n the other h a n d , polished stone
  • 57. WHOLE VOLUME THE VALDIVIA PHASE 37 FIGURE 18.—Temporal distribution of stone artifact types during the Valdivia Phase. Bars connect earliest and latest occurrence of each type when levels are arranged in the seriated order indicated by changes in pottery type frequency (Appendix 1, table 3). tools are often less abundant than cruder kinds in Cuts A, F and H , only 23 were worked. T h e majority refuse deposits simply because they were more care- of these are utilitarian objects such as fishhooks; beads,fully m a d e and less readily discarded. Some of the pendants and other kinds of ornaments are rare.alternative possibilities of interpretation that cannot For description, shell artifacts have been classifiedbe evaluated on the basis of evidence from G—31 and into types. Frequency and provenience are given inG—54 alone m a y be resolved when the larger sample Appendix 1, table 2.of polished stone axes from G—115: San Pablo has Abraders and Polishersbeen described. I n summary, the Valdivia Phase stone artifact in- PLATES 21 M-P, 22 A-Bventory can be characterized as an assemblage of This category can be divided into two groups: A)crude and undistinctive implements persisting with artifacts cut from a thick piece of Spondylus princepsrare exceptions throughout the seriated sequence Broderip or conch {Strombus granulatus Wood orwithout modification either in the form of individual Strombus galeatus Swainson) and then abraded andtools or in the types represented. Since stone imple- polished into ovoid or rectanguloid form; and B)ments h a d specific practical applications, this con- fragmentary or whole waterworn shells picked u psistency implies that the forms were well adapted to from the beach and used for polishing or rubbing.the functions they served, and that these functions GROUP A.—The consciously cut and abraded speci-did not change in any major respect throughout the mens show striations on all sides left by shaping andValdivia Phase. finer polish on several facets or edges resulting from use as a polishing tool. Several of the pieces are Shell Artifacts rectanguloid or ovoid (pi. 21 m, n), measuring in their Shell was rarely used for the manufacture of arti- maximum dimensions 3.0 by 2.8 cm., 2.5 by 2.5 cm.,facts, although abundantly available as a raw material. and 4.5 by 3.3 cm. Thickness is 1.6, 1.0 and 0.8-1.2Of 17,612 shells collected during excavation of G - 3 1 , cm. One irregular fragment from the hinged end
  • 58. 38 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Drilled Clam Shell Pendantsof a Spondylus from G - 3 1 , Cut B, Level 3.00-3.20 m., PLATE 23 A-B, D-Hshows clearcut evidence of cutting by a sandstone saw(pi. 21o). O n e edge is abraded, suggesting that T e n clam shells, nine belonging to t h e speciesshaping had not been completed. This specimen Dosinia dunkeri Philippi a n d one to Mactrella clisiameasures 4.7 by 4.0 cm., with the thickness varying Dall, have a perforation 1-4 m m . in diameter at t h eaccording to the natural thickness of the shell from hinge end produced by grinding the beak, or u m b o ,the hinge area to the back. A similar fragment, also sufficiently to break through to the interior. Thisof Spondylus, from the same Cut, Level 3.40-3.60 m. process flattened the beak area a n d on several of theshows distinct saw marks on two sides (pi. 21p). shells grinding extended to the adjacent surfaces,It measures 1.0 by 1.2 by 4.0 cm. removing some of the natural ridges. O n l y one frag- G R O U P B.—Some of the waterworn shells cannot be ment does not have the beak completely worn through. However, this specimen a n d four othersidentified as to genus and species, while others retain have perforations 1-3 m m . in diameter on the body,the distinctive colored lip of Spondylus. Except for drilled conically from the exterior. O n the specimenone complete Olivella (pi. 22a), examples appear to with no hole in the beak, the perforation is 1.0 cm.represent bivalves. Outline is oval (pi. 22b) a n d below the beak. O n the others perforations aremeasurements vary from 5.8 by 2.5 by 0.8-1.7 cm. near the lower rim of the shell, 0.8-1.2 cm. inwardthick to 4.0 by 1.5 by 0.7 cm. Use for polishing is from the edge. O n e specimen has two such perfora-suggested by the existence of higher polish on the tions instead of one. Although for purposes of classi-tips and edges rather than on the rest of the waterworn fication these objects have been called pendants, thesurface. extra perforations on the body of the shell in 5 of the Beads 11 specimens suggest they m a y have been fastened to PLATES 23 M-R something. Overall size is controlled by the n a t u r a l size of the clam shell; complete specimens measure Eleven perforated disks probably represent beads. 4.5 by 5.0 cm., a n d several fragments suggest a maxi-Eight are cut from flat portions of large shells, two m u m of about 5.5 by 6.5 cm.from pearl oyster {Pinctada mazatlanica Hanley), onefrom Spondylus, and the remaining six insufficiently Drilled and Shaped Pendantsdiagnostic for identification of species. Diameter is PLATE 23 C, I-K1.1 to 2.8 cm. a n d thickness 1.5-3.0 cm. Perforations Pendants shaped from shell blanks or waterwornare biconical, decreasing from 3-4 m m . in diameter fragments and drilled at the upper end for suspensionat the surface to 1-2 m m . in diameter in the interior. occur scattered throughout various levels of all periodsT h r e e examples were m a d e by cutting off the upper, of Valdivia Phase refuse (see Appendix 1, table 2).spiral end of the Olive shell {Oliva peruviana Lamarck) T h e y are of three general shapes: rectanguloid, ovoida n d grinding the inside until some of the spiral and trianguloid.channels were removed. T h e apex of the spire was T h e rectanguloid group is represented by tworubbed until a perforation was produced. Diameter specimens. O n e , m a d e of a fragment of Spondylusof this variety is 1.5-3.0 cm., thickness 4-6 m m . shell from G - 5 4 , Cut 1, Level 60-80 cm. measures 3.0-4.0 m m . thick, 4.0 cm. long, 2.1 cm. wide at the Bowl or Cup upper end and 1.2 cm. wide at the lower edge. T h e PLATE 22 F biconical perforation, 3 m m . in exterior diameter a n d 2 m m . in diameter at the center, was drilled 9 m m . A large waterworn fragment of a pearl oyster {Pinc- from the upper edge. Another rectanguloid specimentada mazatlanica Hanley) was suitable for use as a from G - 5 4 , Cut 1, Level 80-100 cm. is of conch shellshallow bowl or cup without further reworking. It {Strombus) with the edges well r u b b e d a n d r o u n d e d .measures 10 c m . in diameter and 1.5 cm. deep. T h e T h e natural contour of the shell creates a p e n d a n tshell is 1.0 cm. thick. that curves outward a n d inward sharply. I t is 3.5 Disks cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide, a n d 3 m m . thick. T h e hole, drilled from the exterior 5 m m . from the top edge Several disks of pearl oyster {Pinctada mazatlanica measures 4 m m . in diameter at the surface, taperingHanley) appear to be too evenly smoothed and well to 3 m m . on the interior.shaped on all edges to be classified as shell fishhook T w o ovoid pendants from G - 3 1 , C u t J , Section D ,blanks. T h e y m a y be blanks for pendants or beads. Level 3.00-3.30 meters, are waterworn fragments ofThickness ranges from 1.5-2.5 mm., diameter from conch shell {Strombus) t h a t have been further shaped1.9 to 3.5 cm. by rounding the edges. T h e y are 2.5 cm. long, 2.0
  • 59. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 39cm. wide, a n d 3 m m . thick. A biconical perforation Fishhook Blanks3 m m . in m a x i m u m diameter is 7 m m . from the FIGURE 19 A-D; PLATE 24 A-Gupper edge. Several other ovoid pendants from Cut Worked pieces of pearl oyster {Pinctada mazatlanicaJ , Section E, Level 0.90-1.20 meters are waterworn Hanley) range in shape and size from roughly squaredfragments of shell without further working except for pieces showing the beginnings of careful shaping toperforations 5-8 m m . in diameter at the upper end. circular discs with the center either unworked orDimensions are 2.0 by 1.5 cm. a n d 2.5 by 1.5 cm. A unique pendant (pi. 23i) is a cutoff beak of aconch shell {Strombus) worked into a triangular shapet h a t takes advantage of the natural contour of theshell to produce a pendant with a beak or nose pro-jecting from the exterior surface. T h e object is 5.3cm. long, 4.6 cm. wide at the top, tapering to arounded lower edge 1 cm. wide. T h e beak protrudes 3.7 cm. A single hole, drilled from the exterior on the lower part of the beak, measures 2 m m . in diameter at the surface, decreasing to 1.5 m m . at the opening. Layers of shell flaked off on the inside around the hole as a result of drilling. All edges are well rounded a n d vary in thickness according to the natural con- tours a n d thickness of the shell. Drilled Pecten Pendant PLATE 23 L T h e flat valve of a small scallop {Pecten) is drilledfrom both sides near the beak, creating a perforation2.5 m m . in diameter. N o shaping or polishing wasapplied to surface or edges. Fishhooks FIGURE 19 E-G; PLATE 24, H-Q, Seventeen fishhooks or fishhook fragments camefrom Valdivia Phase excavations, eleven from variouslevels in the seriated sequence (Appendix 1, table 2)and three from the Northeast extension of G—54, Cut1. All are of pearl oyster {Pinctada mazatlanica Hanley)and similar in general size, proportions, and methodof construction. T h e few complete hooks and almostcomplete fragments give details of shape. Outline isnot perfectly circular but slightly oval with a differ-ence of 2 - 5 m m . between the diameter from shank topoint as compared with the diameter from point toback (see fig. 19g; pi. 24 h - j ) . T h e contour on theinterior is more truly circular. T h e point is wellsmoothed a n d sharp, while the shank is flattenedslightly to offer a better grip for the string. Thicknessof the hooks ranges from 1.5-3.5 mm., with the ma- 2 CMjority 2 m m . M a x i m u m width of the back is 5-7 mm.,tapering gradually in one direction toward the sharp-ened point a n d in the other toward the shank 3-4 m m .in width. Exterior diameters of complete hooks are 1.8 by FIGURE 19.—Stages in shell fishhook manufacture, a, Roughed2.0, 1.8 by 2.2, 2.0 by 2.5, 2.3 by 2.5 a n d 2.5 by out blank, b, Initial perforation, c-d, Enlarged perforation.2.8 cm. e-fy Nearly completed hook, g, Completed hook.
  • 60. VOLUME 140 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY SHELL ARTIFACT TYPES ay *£ z > NDAN1 HOOKS NDANT ERWOR M SHE NDANT LISHE SCOOPS ADERS HOOK OOPS ANKS HAPED PED TIN DS _i w UJ "co XQ. 1 co a. <t to _i Q- o LJ 0- c D u . i i . t n o < 5 o ID o-FIGURE 20.—Temporal distribution of shell artifact types during the Valdivia Phase. D •< No sample available > Bars connect earliest and latest occurrence of each type when levels are arranged in seriated order according to changes in pottery type 1 frequency (Appendix 1, table 2). en z 0 • 1 1 o (/) 1 1 I BDIV H • en B • " I OD or 1 1 UJ o_ A 1 I I 1 m mpartially drilled or reamed out. The blanks show Although use is inferential, these objects have beenbeveled edges from cutting with sandstone saws. singled out for description because they appear to beSometimes cuts overlap each other, other times they restricted to Period B refuse in spite of availability onare separated by jagged broken edges indicating that nearby beaches at all times.the shell was broken after a few cuts were made. The Shaped scoops or spoons, cut from the shell of aroughed out blanks measure 1.7 by 2.5 cm., 2.5 by large gastropod, are reported by Zevallos and Holm4.0 cm., 2.5 by 2.5 cm., 3.3 by 4.0 cm., up to 3.0 by (1960, lam. 26) from extensive excavations at G-115.6.0 cm. Thickness is 1-4 mm. Circular blanks with- Similar objects are reported (Holm, pers. commun.)out perforations in the center or with perforations not to have come from G—31 excavations, but none werecompletely reamed out range in thickness from 2-4 included in the shell samples subjected to systematicmm. and in diameter from 2.5-4.5 cm. The perfora- analysis.tions are 6-15 mm. in diameter. Unclassified Worked Shell PLATE 22 G-E Scoops, Spoons or Spatulas PLATE 21 Q_-T Most of the unidentified objects of shell are pieces Waterworn fragments of shells of various types were of the waterworn central spiral core of conchs (pi.selected for their natural shape and brought to the 22 c-d) brought to the site but showing no evidencehabitation sites (Appendix 1, table 2). One specimen of working or use.shows chipping along the edges to produce a more An eccentrically-shaped piece of pearl oyster is partspatula-like form, but others are not worked and of a larger object of unknown shape, possibly a stylized figurine (pi. 22e). Most of the surface and edges showderive their scoop or spoonlike appearance from the cutting and abrasion, although waterworn spotsnatural curvature of the shell. Complete specimens remain from the original shell surface. Length ismeasure 7.2 cm. long, 2.0 cm. wide at spoon end and 12.5 cm., width 5.5 cm., thickness 1.0-2.0 cm. T h e1.0 cm. wide at upper end, and 7.3 cm. long, 3.0 cm. "leg" end is 6.8 cm. long, tapering from the "thigh"wide at spoon end, and 1.3 cm. at upper end. The 2.3 cm. wide to the "foot", 1.5 cm. wide. It comeswidest fragment is 5.0 cm. wide but only 6.8 cm. long. from G-31, Cut J, Section E, Level 2.70-3.00 meters.
  • 61. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 41Chronological Distribution of Shell Artifact Types B o n e a n d T e e t h ArtifactsDescription of shell artifacts from the Valdivia Phase Bone fragments were rare in the refuse of all Val-must be considered preliminary because unfortunately divia Phase sites, and pieces showing working or uselittle of the material from the large excavation at even rarer. A few of antler or fish were identified,G - 3 1 , C u t J , dating from Periods A and B was pre- suggesting that with better conditions of preservationserved for classification and analysis. Although refuse a large number of implements of this relatively perish-from earlier excavations at G - 3 1 , and from G-54, able material might have been found.Cut 1 a n d G—88, C u t 2 was screened and searched forartifacts, the extreme rarity of worked shell ruled Deer Antler Awlsout the possibility of obtaining a good sample from PLATE 25 A-Dthese small cuts. Eight worked antlers come from stratigraphic levels W h e n levels of the various seriated sequences pro- and miscellaneous tests at G-54. T h e short antlerducing shell artifacts are interdigitated according to has been abraded to remove the rough natural surfacethe trends in pottery types (Appendix 1, table 2), and and to form a flat, chisel-like blade. Degree of a b r a -period subdivisions are drawn, it is possible to gain sion and polish varies considerably on fragments scat-an idea of the temporal distribution of the different tered in the refuse; only those with clearcut evidencekinds of shell artifacts by connecting earliest and of shaping of the point were classified as awls. T h elatest occurrences in a vertical bar (fig. 20). Although base of the awl, corresponding to the root of the antler,the result suggests somewhat more chronological was not reshaped; several specimens show hack marksdifferentiation than was evident in stone artifacts near the base where the ander was cut out of the deer (fig. 18), this m a y be a reflection of the rarity of some skull. Complete specimens measure 10.5 and 10.8of the types rather than restricted occurrence. cm. long, and one fragment 11.2 cm. long would As would be expected, fishhooks and blanks for reconstruct to about 13.0 cm. long. T h e workedfishhook manufacture are present from the beginning area of these three specimens is 8.0, 6.5 and 6.0 cm.of Period A, a distribution paralleled by two kinds long respectively. T h e chisel-like tips show a highof ornaments: beads, and drilled and shaped pend- polish, some of which must be the result of use.ants. Disks seem to begin only near the middle of Antler Tip Projectile PointPeriod A, b u t since they probably represent incom- PLATE 25 Epleted beads, absence earlier can be interpreted asaccidental. Bowls, represented by a single example One antler was cut 2.5 cm. from the tip and thenfrom the end of Period B, and drilled pecten pendants, drilled conically from the cut end to a depth of 1.2represented by a single example from the middle of cm., producing a hollowed cone. Diameter at thePeriod C, can be viewed as unique objects without cut end is 1 cm. Shape and size suggest this m a ycultural importance. have been the tip of a projectile. I t is from G-54, T h e absence of abraders and polishers from the Northeast extension of Cut 1, Level 85-125 cm.first half of Period A is of interest because of the Fish Bone Awlssimilar temporal distribution shown by stone abraders Five fish bones have polishing striations on the(fig. 18). I n both cases, this may be the result of tips and sides suggesting use as awls (called punchesunusually small samples from early Period A ; on the or drills in original report; Evans, Meggers, Estrada,other hand, the coincidence of distribution may re- 1959, p. 17). They show no working to change theflect introduction of a new item in the perishable natural shape. Length is 2.5, 3.2, 3.8, 4.0, a n dmaterial culture inventory, or a new technique of 4.8 cm.manufacturing. Restriction of clam shell pendants Fish Vertebrato Periods B and C m a y represent adoption at the A large fish vertebra has had all the spinous proc-end of Period A of this type of ornament, requiring esses cut off, the edge nicked in several places, and theless work for production than shaped pendants. center hole enlarged. T h e resulting disk is 3.0 cm. in Although distributional evidence is again incon- diameter and 1.7 cm. thick, with a central perforationclusive, it is possible that shaped shell scoops are a 6 m m . in diameter. T h e use of this worked bone isrefinement of the unworked waterworn shells of similar uncertain, but it might have been either a spindlecontour present in refuse of Period B. While no whorl on an eag plug.shaped scoops were included in our classified shellsample, they are reported to occur frequently at Awls of Teeth from Sawfish PLATE 25 F-JG-115 (Zevallos a n d Holm, 1960, p . 8, hun. 4, 7),which can be dated by pottery type and figurine style Five objects were identified as the teeth from theas principally belonging to Period C. sawfish, Pristes. Although the points of two are
  • 62. 42 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1broken off, the others have been slightly abraded shipped to Washington, it was not possible to recheckand shaped into awl points. O n e fragment clearly the occurrence of these new types in certain cuts a n dshows dressing down on the shaft area. T h e one levels. T h e situation is most unfortunate in regardcomplete specimen measures 8.2 cm. long, 1.2 cm. to G - 3 1 , Cut J , which provides the most extensivewide and 0.6 cm. thick. sample for Periods A a n d B. Some of the problems resulting from this incomplete information will beChronological Position of Bone and Teeth Artifacts discussed in the section dealing with interpretation ofT h e scarcity of worked bone and teeth in seriated the seriated sequences and the reconstruction oflevels corresponding to Periods A - C , and the absence Valdivia Phase ceramic evolution (pp. 87-95). Allof any sample from Period D (Appendix 1, table 5) sherds from G - 3 1 , Cuts A, F , and H h a d been re-makes it difficult to recognize significant chronological tained and this material was reclassified.differences. Awls are the principal artifact type. Pottery type descriptions have been arranged inFishbone awls are present in Period B, and probably alphabetical order. Since m a n y have appeared inmissing from Period A only because this part of the publication in Spanish, the Spanish equivalent of thesequence is inadequately represented in excavations type name is provided to facilitate identification a n dwhere the nonceramic refuse was subjected to careful future reference. T h e scale of hardness is M o h s , b u tanalysis. T h e addition of antler and sawfish tooth the word is not repeated in each description. Colorsawls during Period C can be correlated with other of paste and surfaces are given in generalized termsevidence of greater emphasis on terrestrial m a m m a l because it can be shown that over a surface area 5 tohunting during this period, and suggests increased 10 cm. square as m a n y as 10-15 Munsell or a similaruse of skins. type of color designations can be identified, all the T h e only object identifiable as a possible projectile result of poorly controlled firing.point is the hollowed-out antler tip from Period C Appendix 1, table 6 gives the n u m b e r a n d pro-at G - 5 4 . It is impossible to judge whether this re- venience of sherds subjected to detailed classification,flects the introduction of this artifact in Period C, or providing the basis for the seriated sequences; in somethe accidental find of a type of object which, because cases additional selected samples from test trenches orof its relatively perishable nature, rarely survives in pits are also tabulated. T h e unselected sample usedthe refuse. T h e use of antler projectile tips would to establish the sequence of Periods A, B, C a n d Daccount for failure to identify stone points among the of the Valdivia Phase (see p p . 89-90 for breakdownchips and flakes. by periods) totals 219,488 sherds, of which 40,829 or 18.5 percent represent decorated pottery types a n d Pottery Artifacts 178,659 or 81.5 percent plain pottery types.Pottery Type Descriptions T h e pottery type descriptions that follow are based on sherds recovered from all Valdivia Phase sites.T h e classification and description of Valdivia Phase Vessel shape data and decorative motifs are less com-pottery types is the result of intermittent analysis over plete, lacking the tabulations of sherds left in E c u a d o ra period of six years of hundreds of thousands of from G - 3 1 , Cut J , G - 8 8 , Cut 1 a n d G - 5 4 , C u t 2.sherds. T h e basic typology was established from Although the ceramic sample for the Valdivia Phasematerials excavated at G-31 (Cuts A through I) runs to over a quarter of a million classified sherds,during the first season, supplemented by a badly the n u m b e r of complete vessels is less t h a n two dozen.eroded sample from G—25 (Evans, Meggers and Vessel shapes have been reconstructed from rimEstrada, 1959). More extensive excavations at G—31 profiles and body sherds of diagnostic curvature, and (Cut J ) brought to light several rare early decorated their general validity can be checked to a slight extent by reference to illustrations of complete vessels.types not represented in the original small sample. I n each reconstructed vessel shape, the drawing wasUnfortunately, the unpolished plain types from Cut J made in the middle of the size range to offer a commonwere classified in Ecuador by an assistant, who did unit for comparison.not follow the criteria previously established for I n spite of considerable variation t h r o u g h time, it isseparating Valdivia Plain and San Pablo Plain, and possible to describe certain general characteristics ofnone of the rim forms were recorded and tabulated. Valdivia Phase pottery. T e c h n i q u e of manufactureT h e final season of fieldwork, including tests at G-88 is by coiling, with coil-junction fractures c o m m o n ina n d more extensive excavations at G—54, suggested the early part of the Phase. T h e use of short segmentsthe usefulness of making some new distinctions in rather than long coils seems indicated by a tendencydecorative technique. Since only type samples of toward a steplike break. T h e pottery is not fragilesherds from excavations classified in Ecuador were or friable. Surfaces are generally well finished, a n d
  • 63. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 43 • • 0 I 2 3 CM 0 4 8 12 CM RIM SCALE VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 21.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Punta Arenas Incised.in t h e p o l i s h e d t y p e s e q u a l i n e x c e l l e n c e t o t h e b e s t 2. Carinated bowl with rounded bottom, low shoulder,p r o d u c t s of l a t e r p e r i o d s . R e g u l a r i t y of vessel s h a p e slightly concave upper wall, everted rim, flattened orv a r i e s w i t h t h e p o t t e r y t y p e , lips of p l a i n t y p e s b e i n g tapered lip. R i m diameter 10-12 cm. (fig. 21-2). Decoration on exterior above carination.m a r k e d l y u n l e v e l a n d n o n c i r c u l a r w h e r e a s t h o s e of 3. Cambered j a r with rounded body, constricted neck,p o l i s h e d o r d e c o r a t e d t y p e s a r e often level a n d c i r c u - angular cambered rim, rounded lip. R i m diameterl a r . W a l l t h i c k n e s s is n o t u n i f o r m . D e c o r a t i o n ijs b y 8-12 cm. (fig. 21-3). Decoration on r i m exterior.i n c i s i o n , excision, a p p l i q u e , finger g r o o v i n g a n d DECORATION (pi. 2 6 ) :p u n c h i n g , p e b b l e polishing, punctation, a n d rarely, Technique: Shallow, rounded incisions, 1-2 m m . wide, ons t a m p i n g . P a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n is t o t a l l y a b s e n t , b u t polished surface. D e p t h varies from faint to well d e -r e d s l i p p i n g o n o n e o r b o t h surfaces is c o m m o n . T h e fined, b u t not exceeding 0.5 m m . , a n d t h e bed ofp r o p o r t i o n of d e c o r a t e d vessels is v e r y h i g h , w i t h incision is typically unpolished. Edges are not draggeddecoration typically being limited t o t h e neck o n j a r s or thrown u p . Execution is moderately good, witha n d a b a n d b e t w e e n r i m a n d shoulder o n bowls, b u t lines generally parallel b u t not equally spaced, a n d with junctions sometimes overlapping or falling short.s o m e t i m e s c o v e r i n g t h e b o t t o m of b o w l s . T h e o r n a - Termination of incision m a y taper to a point. R e dmentation generally has a n attractive appearance, color added to the incision after firing is retained ona l t h o u g h close i n s p e c t i o n s h o w s u n e q u a l s p a c i n g one example, and may once have been more common.a n d o t h e r e v i d e n c e of l a c k of c a r e o r c o n t r o l i n e x e c u - Punctates of irregular form occasionally occur. O u t -t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , V a l d i v i a p o t t e r y is c o m p e t e n t l y line is elongated, narrow to ovoid. Some were appar-m a d e a n d pleasing in form a n d decoration—far ently made with t h e fingernail; others with a pointedr e m o v e d f r o m w h a t m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d of p e o p l e j u s t object applied at a strong slant. I n two examples, somebeginning to learn t h e pottery art. of the punctates are V-shaped (with curved arms) as though the fingernail had been rocked once (pi. 26 v, x). Motif: Straight parallel lines, 2 - 6 m m . apart, running Punta Arenas Incised horizontally, vertically or diagonally, filling bands or {Punta Arenas Inciso) zones of irregular form. Occasionally, gashlike puncta- tion is substituted in some of t h e bands or zones (pi.PASTE: Similar to P u n t a Arenas Plain; see that type 26 v - y ) , or a small rectangle or stepped element is description for details. incorporated (pi. 26i).SURFACE: TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : None dis- Color: M e d i u m to dark gray; rarely, orange or brown. cernible. Treatment: Polished; surface, on the whole even b u t some CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF T H E T Y P E : Restricted to flaws present. T e m p e r grains not visible. Period D of the Valdivia Phase sequence (figs. 52, 53). Hardness: 3.5-4.FORM: Rim: Direct, cambered, slightly everted or expanded, Punta Arenas Plain with tapered, rounded or flattened lip. {Punta Arenas Ordinario) Body wall thickness: 3-6 m m . PASTE: Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. Method of manufacture: Coiling. Principal vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Temper: M e d i u m waterworn sand, with scattered grains 1. Small bowl, rounded bottom, slightly incurving u p to 3 m m . in diameter; majority around 1 m m . u p p e r wall, expanding rim, rounded lip. R i m diame- A b u n d a n t , producing a more sandy paste than charac- ter 6-10 cm. (fig. 21-1). Decoration on exterior. teristic of Valdivia Plain. !7 617-841—65 5
  • 64. 44 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Texture: Sandy, more granular t h a n Valdivia Plain. FORM: Breaks are jagged b u t not friable. Rim: Direct, expanded, exteriorly thickened or c a m - Color: Dark gray throughout the cross section, or fired bered, with rounded, tapered or flattened lip. Lips are orange at the surface to 1 m m . inward, leaving a gray very unlevel. core. Occasionally, orange throughout the cross sec- Body wall thickness: 3-6 m m . tion. Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. Firing: Typically incompletely oxidized. Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds:SURFACE : 1. J a r with rounded body, slightly constricted concave Color: Typically, light orange or light t a n ; less commonly neck, everted r i m with r o u n d e d lip. W a l l thickness light gray; rarely, m e d i u m or dark gray. Both surfaces typically of similar shade; rarely, one m a y be orange m a y expand slightly on the everted portion of t h e and the other gray. rim. R i m diameter 12-16 cm. (fig. 2 2 - 1 ) . Treatment: Poorly smoothed leaving unevenness, pits and 2. R o u n d e d j a r with constricted m o u t h a n d everted other defects. Smoothing tracks are usually visible. expanded r i m with tapered lip. R i m diameter 10-16 Interior of bowls is smoother than the exterior. cm. (fig. 2 2 - 2 ) . Hardness: 3.5-4. 3. R o u n d e d j a r with constricted m o u t h a n d everted, ( ( ( ( <v«u 0 4 VESSEL 8 12 CM SCALE I i I I 1i I 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE FIGURE 22.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Punta Arenas Plain.
  • 65. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 45 exteriorly thickened rim with rounded or tapered lip. Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: W i t h t h e R i m diameter 10-16 cm. (fig. 22-3). exception of F o r m 3, which is absent in San Pablo 4. R o u n d e d j a r with short concave-sided neck, angular Plain, all vessel shapes a r e t h e same as those associated cambered rim, flattened or tapered lip. Wall thick- with Valdivia Plain (p. 72); see that pottery type for ness is typically increased at t h e camber a n d m a y detailed description a n d fig. 41 for r i m profiles a n d continue to t h e lip. R i m diameter 10-14 cm. (fig. reconstructed vessel shapes. 22-4). TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN T H E T Y P E : Between 1 5. Bowl with flattened bottom, walls curving upward and 3 percent of the sherds from the latter part of Period C to direct r i m with rounded, tapered or flattened lip. have very a b u n d a n t whitish quartz a n d feldspar tem- R i m diameter 8-20 cm. (fig. 22-5). per particles, resembling the paste of Valdivia Brushed. 6. Bowl with flattened bottom, walls sloping upward to Forms 4, 6 a n d 7 a r e absent during Period A ; Forms 1 expanded r i m with rounded lip. R i m diameter 1 6 - and 2 are absent during Period D. Form 8 is restricted to 18 cm. (fig. 22-6). Period B ; Form 9 to Periods C a n d D , a n d F o r m 10 toT E M P O R A L D I F F E R E N C E S W I T H I N THE T Y P E : N o n e . Period D .CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Beginning in a CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : San Pablo Plain minor frequency during Period C, Punta Arenas Plain occurs throughout t h e seriated sequence, attaining its becomes t h e d o m i n a n t pottery type during Period D of m a x i m u m popularity during Period C, when it constitutes the seriated sequence (figs. 52, 53). the dominant unpolished plain pottery type (figs. 49, 52, 53). San Pablo Plain Valdivia Applique Fillet {San Pablo Ordinario)PASTE: {Valdivia Tiras Sobrepuestas) Method of manufacture: Coiling. PASTE: Temper: Coarse, waterworn sand, particles u p to 5 m m . Method of manufacture: Coiling. in diameter, b u t typically 2 - 3 m m . Large particles Temper: Beach sand composed of water-rounded particles are n o t common b u t a b u n d a n t enough that at least of various sizes a n d composition, including occasional one appears in a small sherd (pi. 95, a - g ) . Except for particles of shell. Majority a r e cream or white a n d a small proportion of sherds during Period C, white contrast strongly with t h e orange or gray clay. Large q u a r t z a n d feldspar grains a r e n o t characteristic. grains, with the majority 1-4 m m . a n d a few u p to T e m p e r appears to have been derived from decomposed 7 m m . , are very prominent; smaller ones a r e less granitic rock rather than beach sand. obvious b u t equally or more a b u n d a n t . Tendency of Texture: Poor mixture resulting in uneven distribution large particles to cluster gives the appearance of poor of temper grains, layered appearance a n d numerous mixture, b u t 10 X magnification shows that t h e inter- air pockets. Fracture is irregular, b u t edges a r e n o t vening areas a r e filled with smaller particles so t h e friable. distribution of temper in t h e paste is n o t markedly Color: Complete range from tile orange to gray, including uneven. T e m p e r is abundant, estimated a t around 30 brown, gray-brown a n d orange-brown. Some sherds percent of the mixture. a r e fired t a n or orange 2 - 3 m m . inward from both sur- Texture: Compact, fine-grained clay contrasting with faces leaving a thin gray core. coarseness of the temper, giving a " p e a n u t brittle" Firing: Incompletely to completely oxidized. effect. Sherds break with irregular edge becauseSURFACE: temper grains either protrude or leave a depression. Color: Red-orange to t a n to brown-orange to gray- T i n y air pockets are occasionally present. orange to gray-brown. Fire clouds occur most fre- Color: About 50 percent are bright orange or brown- quently on t h e exterior. orange through t h e cross section. Most of t h e r e - Treatment: H a n d smoothed, sometimes slightly scraped mainder have a pale gray to medium gray core, fired or pebble polished, b u t typically uneven a n d irregular, tan or orange 1-3 m m . inward from both surfaces in with unobliterated pits. Polishing striations occasion- a uniform band. A few a r e gray-brown or gray ally occur on t h e neck interior of jars. Crackle lines throughout t h e cross section, a n d rare sherds have a radiate from t h e large temper grains. brown core, fired medium gray along both surfaces. Hardness: 3.5-4. Firing: Incompletely to completely oxidized.FORM: SURFACE : Rim: Folded-over, exteriorly thickened, expanded, direct, Color: All shades from light orange-tan to dark gray. or cambered, with rounded, tapered or flattened lip. Differential firing a n d fire clouding can produce a Lip m a y b e lobed, nicked or finger-pressed (pi. 95 wide range of shades on a single sherd, b u t mis is n o t a, b , d ) , a n d typically is markedly unlevel, especially typical. Exterior a n d interior m a y b e t h e same or on jars. different hues. Body wall thickness: R a n g e 6-10 mm., majority 7 - 8 m m . Treatment: Base: Flattened, unthickened or thickened; rarely con- Exterior: Unpolished a n d typically somewhat uneven cave. as a result of superficial smoothing. About 20 percent
  • 66. 46 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 have distinct brush marks like Valdivia Brushed. Body wall thickness: Range 4-11 mm., majority 5—7 mm. Temper grains are prominently visible but do not Base: None identified; probably rounded or slightly project above the surrounding surface. flattened. Interior: Typically better finished than the exterior, Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: with treatment varying from brushed to smooth to 1. Jar with rounded body, constructed neck and curved striated polished. In all cases, pits, scars and un- cambered rim, the wall forming a continuous curve smoothed areas remain. The interior of jar necks is from the lip to the neck. Rim diameter 18-22 cm. frequently red slipped and polished, with the slip (fig. 23-1). ranging from an even coating to striations that reveal 2. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck and angular between them the underlying tan surface. cambered rim. The wall above the camber is vertical Hardness: 3.5-4. to outsloping and joins the curve of the neck at aFORM: angle of 90-120 degrees. The wall at the camber Rim: Cambered, with rounded or flattened lip. may be interiorly thickened producing a smooth VVU;J;H_;H117 i i i L_L 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALE FIGURE 23.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Applique Fillet.
  • 67. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 47 curve. R i m diameter 24-26 c m . (fig. 23-2). a few are fired orange 1 m m . inward from both surfaces, 3. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d short leaving a gray core; a few are gray throughout the cross curved or angular cambered r i m with a groove on section. the interior n e a r t h e lip. T h e red slip typically is Firing: Ranges from incompletely to completely oxi- applied above a n d below t h e groove, leaving it dized with considerable variation on a single sherd; unslipped. R i m diameter 10-24 cm. (fig. 23-3). occasional fireclouds.DECORATION (pis. 27-29, 116a): SURFACE : Technique: Narrow, thin strips or fillets of clay were Color: Varies from tile-orange to brick-red to t a n t o applied to t h e exterior surface a n d pressed with t h e brown to gray to black, with t h e majority in t h e gray- finger to produce good adhesion. T h e strips appear to brown range. A few are red slipped. be of t h e same clay as the vessel, b u t lacking the larger Treatment: temper grains. Color is identical to that of the under- Exterior: Well polished to striated polished a n d even lying surface. Fillets range from 2-5 m m . in width, to uneven. Surface is sometimes floated producing a with t h e majority 3-4 m m . Fillet width on a single layer about 1 m m . thick of very fine clay; more sherd varies little. Elevation is 1-2 m m . where n o t typically t h e surface is polished when fairly d r y so altered by flattening. Flattening m a y depress the top temper grains m a y remain visible. R e d slip, occa- of the fillet without destroying its form, or m a y obliterate sionally applied to cover the exterior, is typically even a section of the fillet by mashing it into t h e underlying and polished. body wall surface. Centers of undepressed sections Interior: Polished, striated polished or smoothed, with vary from 5-15 m m . apart, depending on t h e closeness polishing typically less complete t h a n on the exterior. with which the depressions are spaced. Fillets occasion- Hardness: 4. ally slough off cleanly, b u t t h e bond with the surface FORM: is typically good. Rim: Direct, expanded, interiorly thickened, exteriorly Motif: O n t h e majority of sherds, straight fillets a r e thickened, cambered or carinated, with rounded, arranged in parallel rows, spaced 0.2-3.5 cm. apart. flattened or tapered lip. Undulating or lobed lip Spacing varies somewhat on each specimen, b u t a (pi. 181h-k) m a y occur on bowls of Forms 3 a n d 4, single sherd does n o t exhibit the entire range. O n a n d rarely on Forms 1 a n d 5. some examples, fillets a r e curved a n d arranged to Body wall thickness: Very variable on a single sherd, produce concentric ovals. O t h e r variations include differing as much as 2 m m . in a short distance. R a n g e intersecting fillets, areas covered with parallel fillets 4-10 mm., majority 7-8 m m . r u n n i n g in different directions, a n d crossed fillets or Base: Flattened or slightly rounded. latticework. Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Associated techniques: T h e r i m exterior typically is orna- 1. Bowl with flattened bottom, walls curving u p w a r d mented b y two broad parallel incisions or grooves, to nearly vertical or slightly constricted r i m with interspaced with occasional small crude nubbins. rounded lip. Between 1 a n d 2 cm. below the lip, t h e T h e angle of t h e camber m a y have a row of nicks or body wall expands rapidly to a thickness approxi- shell stamping. R a r e sherds have incised lines or mately one a n d a half times that of t h e lower body b a n d s of r e d paint interspersed with t h e applique wall, with t h e range of variation including examples fillets on the body. with greater a n d lesser amounts of expansion inTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : Form 1 is thickness. R i m diameter 20-32 cm. (fig. 24-1). limited to Period C. 2. Bowl with flattened bottom, outsloping wall a n d r i mCHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF T H E T Y P E : Valdivia A p p l i q u e thickened on t h e interior 1.5-3.5 c m . below t h e lip, Fillet appears in Period B, b u t is most characteristic of producing a sloping surface. R i m diameter 1 8 - 2 3 Periods C a n d D of t h e seriated sequence (figs. 49, 50, cm. Decoration limited to interior r i m thickening 52, 53). (fig. 24-2). 3. Bowl with flattened bottom, rounded shoulders a n d Valdivia Broad-line Incised constricted rim, typically direct, b u t occasionally {Valdivia Inciso Linea Ancha) slightly expanded near the lip. M o u t h diameterPASTE: 10-30 cm. (fig. 24-3). Method of manufacture: Coiling; breaks along coil lines 4. Open bowl with flattened bottom, outsloping wall, are discernible on m a n y sherds. direct r i m a n d rounded or flattened lip. R i m Temper: Sand grains measuring 0.25-1.00 m m . in diam- diameter 10-22 cm. (fig. 24-4). eter a r e typical, with some as large as 5-6 m m . 5. Deep bowl with flattened bottom, curving walls, All particles a r e rounded a n d waterworn. I n a few cambered r i m and tapered lip. Interior of camber is typically thickened producing a smooth curve in sherds, t h e additional presence of fine particles of contrast to the angular contour of the exterior. R i m waterworn shell confirm t h e use of beach sand for diameter 12-18 c m . Decoration limited to r i m tempering. above camber (fig. 25-5). Texture: Sandy, with very irregular fracture resulting 6. Bowl with flattened bottom, outcurving lower wall from poor kneading of the clay. forming a n angular junction with the incurving u p p e r Color: Majority light orange to t a n through cross section;
  • 68. 48 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 i • • I • 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE 0 4 8 [ 2 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 24.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised, Forms 1-4.
  • 69. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 49 wall. Decoration limited to r i m above carination. A m o u n t of the vessel surface occupied ranges from a T h e interior of the carination is typically unthickened. single incision just below the r i m to complete coverage M o u t h diameter 20-33 cm. (fig. 25-6). of t h e exterior. Several motifs a r e characteristically 7. Bowl with flattened bottom, outcurving lower wall associated with specific portions of the exterior surface, joining t h e incurving upper wall a t a sharp angle. including the following: T h e wall a t t h e carination is markedly thickened, 1. A single line drawn parallel to t h e r i m 0.5-3.5 cm. producing a gentle curve on t h e interior. M o u t h below t h e lip (pi. 30), or less commonly 2 or 3 diameter 12-32 c m . (fig. 25-7). parallel lines in this position (pi. 31). T h e lip m a y be 8. Bowl with flattened bottom, wall outsloping to join lobed or undulating. Forms 1, 3, 4, 9, a n d 1 0 ; the nearly vertical or slightly concave upper wall a t rarely, Forms 6 a n d 7, where die incision runs just a pronounced angle. Wall thickness is typically above the angle of carination. greater above t h a n below t h e carination. R i m 2. A band of incision incorporating concentric rec- diameter 20-30 cm. (fig. 25-8). tangles (pis. 32 f-i,42a, 161h), straight a n d undulating 9. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d cam- lines forming alternating zones occupied by short lines bered rim. T h e upper wall is vertical to insloping, (pis. 33 b - j , 42b), straight horizontal lines alternating a n d usually convex. Wall thickness is increased a t with vertical ones (pis. 32 a - d , 161d), or slightly the camber, either b y filling in t h e angle on t h e more complicated variants of these simple motifs interior or adding a projection on the exterior. R i m (pis. 33 a, k - m , 42d). Forms 5, 6, a n d 7 above t h e diameter 8-22 cm., majority 14-20 cm. Decoration angle of carination; Form 9 above the c a m b e r ; a n d limited to r i m above camber. T h e exterior is fre- Forms 1 and 3 above the shoulder. quently r e d slipped (fig. 25-9). 3. T w o straight parallel lines with one (rarely two) 10. Small j a r with rounded body constricted m o u t h a n d zigzag or wavy lines halfway between t h e m (pis. exteriorly thickened r i m producing t h e appearance 34, 42c). Variants include a n undulating line of cambering. R i m diameter 10-14 cm. Decoration producing alternating zones occupied by a zigzag limited to exterior r i m thickening (fig. 25-10). line (pi. 35 a, d ) , a single straight line a n d a zigzagDECORATION (pis. 30-42, 116 d - e , h, 160 h-1, 161 d - h , line (pi. 34c), a n d a n additional zigzag line below 162j-m): the angle of carination (pi. 35 f, j ) . Zigzag lines Technique: Broad incisions executed on a polished sur- range from angular to rounded. Forms 5, 6, a n d face when t h e clay was sufficiently dry to leave a clearly 7 above the angle of carination; F o r m 9 above t h e defined mark. Execution is widely variable in width, camber; Form 3 above the shoulder. d e p t h a n d appearance. W i d t h typically ranges between 4. Short, straight, parallel lines forming rectanguloid, 2-5 m m . , with a rare variant having unusually narrow trianguloid or amorphous zones or concentric rec- lines 0.5-1.0 m m . wide. D e p t h is typically 0.5-1.0 tanguloids covering the bottom of the vessel, some- m m . , occasionally reaching 1.5 m m . Cross section of times leaving the center plain (pis. 36, 37, 42e, the c u t is U-shaped, with angular or rounded corners, 160 k-1, 161e, 162 j - m ) . F o r m 8. or V-shaped. T e r m i n a t i o n of strokes m a y b e square, 5. Complicated patterns formed by stepped, zigzag or slanting, tapered or rounded, t h e first two often straight parallel lines beginning a t t h e r i m a n d associated with U-shaped cross sections a n d the latter covering the exterior except the center of the bottom two with V-shaped cross sections. Width, depth a n d (pis. 38, 39). Forms 1, 3, a n d 5. cross section form generally vary slighdy on a single 6. T w o or more parallel straight lines on t h e r i m sherd, b u t some examples show extreme fluctuations interior, sometimes cross hatched, (pi. 40 a-1). in p a r t correlated with t h e degree of pressure exerted Form 2. on t h e incising tool. T h e bed of the incision m a y have 7. Stylized anthropomorphic faces, usually placed to a granular texture, or show fine striations parallel to coincide with a rim lobe (pi. 41). Forms 1, 3, a n d 4. the length of the line. Although some designs are well 8. Simple rectilinear patterns principally composed of executed, lines a r e not typically evenly spaced or uni- parallel horizontal lines, associated with small formly parallel. L o n g strokes vary from straight to nubbins projecting from the shoulder (pis. 40 m - o , slightly wobbly. Curved lines tend to be less well 160i). Nubbins are circular, about 2 cm. in diameter, controlled t h a n straight ones. or oval, 1.7 by 2.8 c m . a n d 5-7 m m . in elevation. Possible variations in technique include final surface Forms 3, 6, a n d 9. polishing subsequent to incision, partially obliterating Associated techniques: Bowls of F o r m 8 m a y have pebble the margins of t h e lines; r e d slipping done after in- polished decoration above t h e carination. Designs cision, incompletely or completely coloring t h e bed of incorporating braid impression (Valdivia Cord I m - the incisions; a n d application of r e d pigment after pressed), nicked incisions (Valdivia Nicked Broad- firing to t h e incisions, a treatment whose frequency line Incised) or rocker stamping (Valdivia Rocker m a y b e obscured by difficulties of preservation. Stamped) have been classified u n d e r these types. Motif: Designs are predominantly rectilinear, with occa- T E M P O R A L D I F F E R E N C E S W I T H I N T H E T Y P E : Several general sional rounded corners or undulations. Parallel lines trends of change can be discerned in Valdivia Broad-line are a nearly universal component of decoration; they Incised, making examples from Period C, for instance, are principally straight b u t occasionally zigzag. readily distinguishable from those of Period A, although
  • 70. 50 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 the changes are gradual and proceeding at different rates. than straight, and pronounced angular motifs are rare. The most important tendency is toward the increased Although the number of sherds from seriated levels is coverage of the exterior surface. A single line bordering relatively small, several marked changes in the popu- the rim (Motif 1) or a band above the shoulder (Motif 2) larity of the decorative motifs seem discernible. Motif are most typical of Period A. In Period B, the design 3 is the most restricted temporally, being limited to the area begins to expend down the vessel wall (Motif 5) and latter half of Period C, as represented at G-54. Motif 8 incision of the bottom becomes frequent (Motif 4). This appears to be restricted to Periods C and D. Motif 1, trend is accentuated in Periods C and D (Appendix 1, table 7). The second general evolutionary tendency is although present throughout the sequence, is the domi- toward increasing curvilinear motifs. Designs in Periods nant form in Periods A and B, where it typically repre- A and B make little use of curves, slightly rounded corners sents around 50 percent of the sherds. During Periods being the only deviation from straight lines. In Period C and D, it declines to less than 25 percent. Motif 4 shows C, undulating lines become characteristic, and in Period the opposite trend, occurring in a frequency of under 25 D, short parallel lines are more often slightly curved percent during Periods A and B, but constituting between 0 4 6 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 25.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Broad-line Incised Forms 5-10
  • 71. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 51 40 a n d 75 percent of t h e sherds from Periods C a n d D FORM: (Appendix 1, table 7 ) . Rim: Direct, cambered or exteriorly thickened with Vessel shapes show some distinct time differences. rounded or tapered lip. Forms 2, 5, a n d 7 a r e found only in Period C ; Forms 6 Body wall thickness: 4-10 m m . a n d 9 in Periods C a n d D ; Forms 8, 10, a n d 11 in Period Base: R o u n d e d or slightly flattened a n d slightly thick- D only. F o r m 4 occurs throughout, b u t becomes t h e ened. principal vessel shape in Period D . Lobed rims a r e Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: absent in Period D .CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Valdivia Broad- 1. J a r with rounded body, concave-walled neck, line Incised occurs throughout t h e duration of t h e strongly everted r i m with rounded lip. Body wall Valdivia Phase seriated sequence, increasing slightly in thickness m a y be slightly increased on t h e everted frequency b u t never exceeding 8 percent (figs. 49, 50, portion of t h e neck. R i m diameter 1 4 - 2 6 c m . 52, 53). (fig. 26-1). 2. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d curved cambered rim. Cambered wall is typically unthick- Valdivia Brushed ened. R i m diameter 16-28 cm. (fig. 26-2). {Valdivia Brochado) 3. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d angularPASTE: cambered rim. Wall is frequently interiorly thick- Method of manufacture: Coiling. ened at the camber producing a curved interior wall. Temper: Coarse beach sand containing white particles Wall above camber is vertical or slighdy outsloping. of feldspar a n d occasional bits of shell. Grains 1-4 m m . R i m diameter 14-22 cm. (fig. 26-3). are typical, those u n d e r 1 m m . less a b u n d a n t ; occa- 4. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d everted sional grains u p to 7 m m . Large particles tend to rim turning upward 1.0-1.7 cm. below t h e lip. cluster, b u t if size is discounted, temper is well dis- A channel on t h e interior corresponds to t h e exterior tributed. Flat or elongated particles tend to lie parallel angle; t h e red slip on lip a n d neck interior typically to t h e surface. I n m a n y sherds, quantity approaches is omitted in this channel. Wall thickness is usually 50 percent of volume. A minority has fine sand temper. increased above the point where the eversion begins. Texture: C o m p a c t , fine-grained clay contrasts with coarse- R i m diameter 12-20 cm. (fig. 26-4). ness of the temper. Broken edges are irregular because of pits left by temper grains, b u t not friable. Tensile 5. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck a n d exteriorly thickened r i m producing a vertical to strength is great even in areas where large temper grains insloping area 1.5-2.5 cm. in width giving the external occupy almost t h e entire cross section. Elongated air appearance of a camber, b u t produced principally pockets a r e rare. by increased thickness rather t h a n curvature of t h e Color: Variation from bright orange to dark gray through- wall. R i m diameter 10-16 cm. (fig. 26-5). out the cross section, with all intermediate combinations. 6. Bowl with rounded or slightly flattened b o t t o m A few sherds have a n orange-brown core with a outsloping wall, direct or slightly expanded r i m with m e d i u m gray b a n d along both surfaces. rounded or tapered lip. R i m diameter 10-22 c m . Firing: Poorly controlled, with considerable fire clouding. (fig. 26-6). Incompletely to completely oxidized. A few examples with oxidized core a n d reduced surfaces m a y represent DECORATION (pis. 43-46, 116 b - c , 174 h - j , 175 g - i , ) : refiring d u r i n g use in cooking. Technique: T h e exterior surface was smoothed to eraseSURFACE: coil junctions, b u t never polished. W h e n irregulari- Color: Light orange, light tan, light brown, light to dark ties a n d unevenness still remain, t h e surface was gray, with wide variation on a single sherd as a result brushed or combed with a tool that left adjacent, of fire clouding. Both surfaces m a y be the same color or parallel grooves 1-5 m m . wide a n d less than 1 m m . at opposite extremes, such as orange interior a n d dark deep. These marks a r e distinct a n d drawn when t h e gray exterior. Interior of r i m a n d neck a r e often red surface was sufficiently wet to leave a clean line. Larger slipped, with the application incomplete producing r e d sherds show that this treatment was executed in short striations t h a t leave t h e underlying t a n surface visible strokes, applied to give a textural effect rather t h a n between. produce a symmetrical pattern. Overlapping, changes Treatment: of direction a n d other indications of h a p h a z a r d appli- Exterior: See " d e c o r a t i o n " . cation a r e common. T w o principal types of tool were Interior: Very variable, ranging from smooth, even a n d used: 1, a piece of fluted shell, leaving evenly parallel striated polished, with temper grains submerged; to marks 1-2 m m . in width, rectangular in cross section smoothed with a slightly undulating surface studded a n d separated by a narrow even ridge (pis. 4 3 - 4 5 , with large protruding temper particles; to brushed 174i, 175 g - i ) ; or 2, a bunch of sticks producing more like t h e exterior, b u t less completely, leaving smooth poorly defined marks of less consistent width ( 1 - 5 areas. Fine crackle lines radiate from temper grains mm.) a n d separation (adjacent to 5 m m . apart) a n d on some sherds, b u t a r e n o t typical. T h e r i m a n d typically rounded in cross section (pis. 46, 174h). neck interior is t h e best smoothed part of the vessel. Motif: Brushing typically covers t h e exterior surface, Hardness: 3.5-4. 767-841—65 6
  • 72. 52 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 creating a textural effect. Occasionally bands or completed. Vessels of Valdivia Applique Fillet were stripes are produced by individual strokes of the comb frequently brushed prior to addition of the fillets. or single lines running at right angles to the principal TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE TYPE : Shell scraping direction of the overall pattern (pi. 45b, e-i, o-p). is the more common technique, and although temporal Rarely, more complicated patterns are produced by differences between it and twig brushing are not cleancut, multiple combing (pi. 45 q-r). it appears to be slightly more frequent during Periods A Brush marks produced by a bunch of twigs may be and B. Twig brushing is most common during Period C applied to the jar neck in a zigzag pattern resembling at the site of G-54, where it often imitates the zigzag that of Valdivia Incised (pi. 46 c, f), or diagonal or motif of Valdivia Incised. vertical on the body (pi. 46 g-n). Vessel shapes show a change from dominance of Forms Associated techniques: Cambered rims may have small 2 and 4 during the first part of Period C to dominance of applique nubbins (pi. 43 k, m), or a row of shell Forms 1 and 3 in late Period C and Period D. stamping at the lower edge (pi. 44 a-f). Occasionally CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE TYPE : Valdivia Brushed one or two deep crude incised lines run horizontally is very rare during Period A, becoming more common above (pi. 44 a-b, f). Rare sherds have red-painted during late Period B and constituting one of the principal bands about 1 cm. wide added after brushing was pottery types during Periods C and D (figs. 49, 50, 52, 53). i i i i i i i • • • 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 26.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Brushed.
  • 73. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALCTVIA PHASE 53 Valdivia Carved Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: {Valdivia Labrado) 1. R o u n d e d bowl with walls upcurving to nearlyPASTE: vertical, expanding r i m with rounded lip. R i m Temper: Fine to m e d i u m sand, sometimes with gold diameter 10-16 cm. (fig. 27-1). flecks; variation from very fine paste with no temper 2. R o u n d e d j a r with constricted direct rim, rounded visible to a b u n d a n t sand temper showing white particles. lip. R i m diameter 14-24 cm. (fig. 27-2). Texture: Compact, fine grained, sandy, with temper 3. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, angular particles evenly distributed. shoulder, insloping upper wall, direct r i m with Color: D a r k gray or orange through the cross section; flattened or slightly rounded lip. Wall thickness is rarely light gray. not increased a t the carination. R i m diameter Firing: Incompletely to completely oxidized. R a r e sherds 12-14 cm. (fig. 27-3). show fire clouding. 4. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom a n d angularSURFACE: shoulder, 1.5 to 3.0 cm. below the lip. Wall thick- Color: D a r k gray, light gray, light orange or tan, generally ness is markedly increased at the carination forming correlated with paste color a n d similar in shade on a curved interior wall. Above the carination, thick- b o t h surfaces. ness decreases to form a tapering lip. R i m diameter Treatment: Even, smooth. Some uneroded surfaces show 24-28 cm. (fig. 27-4). low polish. Interior is typically as well finished as 5. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, low angular exterior. shoulder, slightly concave upper wall, direct or slightly Hardness: 3.5-4. expanding r i m with flattened or tapered lip. R i mFORM: diameter about 26 cm. (fig. 27-5). Rim: E x p a n d e d , direct or carinated, with rounded or DECORATION (pi. 4 7 ) : tapered lip. Technique: Very wide (4-8 m m . ) , shallow (under 1 m m . ) Body wall thickness: 4—6 m m . grooves executed with a broad ended tool. Margins Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. of grooves vary from straight a n d clearly defined to I I i I I I I 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE I i I i I 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE FIGURE 27.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Carved.
  • 74. 54 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 irregular, a n d t h e bed m a y b e smooth or slightly t h e majority being 0.5-1.0 c m . long (pi. 50 o - s ) . roughened. W i d t h of grooves varies as a result of Motif: T h e most c o m m o n motif in all three techniques uneven pressure on t h e cutting tool, deeper areas is a series of vertical parallel marks beginning below being slightiy wider t h a n shallower ones. T h e effect the r i m a n d extending to t h e shoulder. Spacing is is similar to t h a t produced b y tooling of leather. adjacent to 2 c m . a p a r t . I n T e c h n i q u e 1, t h e lines Motif: Straight or curved parallel lines, apparently m a y b e wavy r a t h e r t h a n straight. O t h e r variations often forming concentric trianguloid patterns. Lines include horizontal wavy lines (pis. 49 k - m , 50 i, j , n ) , are typically 5-8 m m . a p a r t . Small size of most sherds diagonal or vertical-horizontal h a c h u r e (pis. 48 1, makes total design unreconstructable. Single lines o, 49 o - r ) , a n d alternating straight a n d wavy hori- are characteristic of F o r m 2, where they are adjacent zontal lines (pi. 49n). to t h e r i m exterior, a n d F o r m 4, where they are just Associated techniques: Decoration of the type designated as below t h e angle of carination. Decoration occupies Valdivia Modeled appears on some examples in all the exterior wall on F o r m 1 a n d t h e area below t h e three techniques. carination on Forms 3 a n d 5. TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN T H E T Y P E : All threeTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : Forms 2 and techniques occur t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e m p o r a l distribution 4 a r e restricted to Period C ; t h e other shapes a r e re- of the type. Those motifs c o m m o n enough to give reliable stricted to Period D . results also occur throughout.CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Although it CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : M o s t p o p u l a r in appears rarely a n d sporadically in the latter part of Period Period A, continuing in Period B, absent thereafter (figs. C, this type is diagnostic of Period D of t h e seriated 49-53). sequence (figs. 52, 53). Valdivia Cord Impressed {Valdivia Estampado con Cuerdas) Valdivia Combed Note: T w o varieties of cords were used for pottery decora- {Valdivia Peinado) tion, one twisted a n d the other braided. W a r e a n d vesselPASTE AND SURFACE: Usually on Valdivia Plain (p. 72), shape a r e different in t h e two varieties, b u t b o t h a r e rarely on S a n Pablo Plain (p. 4 5 ) ; see those type descrip- rare a n d rather t h a n consider t h e m as m i n o r unclassified tions for details. decorative techniques, they h a v e been c o m b i n e d asFORM: variants of a general category of cord impression. Rim: Folded-over or direct, with rounded or flattened PASTE AND SURFACE: Braid impression occurs o n polished lip. Folded-over rims a r e sometimes decorated on surfaces like those of Valdivia Polished Plain ( p . 7 4 ) ; the lip with a series of fingertip marks or nicks. cord impression is on unpolished surfaces like those of Body wall thickness: 5-7 m m . Valdivia Plain (p. 7 2 ) ; see those type descriptions for Base: Probably slightly flattened. details. Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: FORM: 1. J a r with rounded body, insloping to nearly vertical Rim: Braid impression occurs on carinated bowls w i t h neck, direct or slightly everted r i m a n d rounded lip. direct rim, cord impression on exteriorly thickened R i m diameter 17-22 cm. (fig. 28 1-top). Techniques rims with rounded lip. 1, 2, a n d 3. Body wall thickness: 5—7 m m . 2. J a r with rounded body, insloping neck, vertical to Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. slightly everted folded-over r i m . L i p sometimes Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: o r n a m e n t e d with nicks or finger impressions. R i m 1. Carinated bowl with flattened, shallow b o t t o m , diameter 10-26 c m . (fig. 28 2 - t o p ) . Techniques 1, slightly incurving u p p e r wall, direct r i m a n d r o u n d e d 2, a n d 3. lip. This form appears t o be t h e only one exhibitingDECORATION (pis. 4 8 - 5 0 , 172 f - i ) : braid impression, a n d almost all sherds a r e from t h e Technique: T h r e e varieties c a n b e distinguished: area below t h e carination, suggesting t h e u p p e r wall 1. Relatively shallow a n d wide trough-like marks was typically undecorated (or possibly pebble with 3-4 easily distinguished parallel grooves 1-2 m m . polished). wide a n d u p to 1 m m . deep running the length of the 2. J a r with rounded body, insloping to slightly everted trough, m a d e with a c o m b (probably a fragment of neck, exteriorly thickened r i m with r o u n d e d l i p shell). T o t a l w i d t h of t h e trough, 0.5-1.0 c m . (similar to Valdivia Incised F o r m 6). R i m d i a m e t e r (pis. 48, 49). 10-12 cm. This form is the only one showing twisted 2. Single n a r r o w grooves with striations in t h e bed cord impressed decoration. produced by a fibrous tool (possibly a piece of c a n e ) ; DECORATION (pis. 5 1 , 185 e-g): grooves are 2 - 5 m m . wide a n d typically about 1 m m . Technique: T w o kinds of cord impression o c c u r : b r a i d e d d e e p (pi. 50 a - n ) . a n d twisted. 3. Short strokes m a d e with a tool like t h a t of T e c h n i q u e 1. Braid impression (pis. 51 a-1, 185 f-g). A design 2. D o w n stroke produces a pushed u p ridge a t t h e is d r a w n with broad ( 1 - 2 m m . ) , generally straight lower end. L e n g t h of marks ranges from 0.5-1.5 cm., a n d evenly spaced incisions. Corners a r e a n g u l a r or
  • 75. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 55 overshot on the outer side and rounded on the inner the imprint may be almost parallel sided or have side leaving a small trianguloid excised area. A undulating edges. Fine striations are sometimes braided cord appears to have been pressed into the visible, running diagonally or parallel to the length incision, frequently obliterating the margins but of the braid. sometimes leaving the bed of the incision as a straight . Cord impression (pis. 51 m-n, 185e). Single strands line down the center of the braid. The braided line of twisted cord, slightly over 1 mm. in diameter, are may be the same width or slightiy wider than the pressed into the vessel surface leaving a clear imprint. incision; according to the tightness of the braid, The impressions are not always evenly spaced. 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE VESSEL SCALEFIGURE 28.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types. Top, Valdivia Combed. Bottom Valdivia Corrugated.
  • 76. 56 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Motif: very r a r e a n d n o temporal variation c a n b e discerned 1. Braid impressed designs. Straight parallel incisions in t h e existing sherd sample. 4 - 8 m m . a p a r t form angular patterns of concentric CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : E n c o u n t e r e d o n l y geometric figures. T h e braided cord has been pressed a t G—31, where it is associated w i t h Period B levels of into t h e incised lines forming o n e side of t h e geo- GutJ(fig.50,51). metric figure. 2. Cord impressed designs. T h r e e parallel cord impres- Valdivia Corrugated sions decorate t h e exterior part of the thickened r i m . {Valdivia Corrugado) T h e body of the vessel has Valdivia Incised designs.T E M P O R A L D I F F E R E N C E S W I T H I N T H E T Y P E : T h i s t y p e is PASTE AND S U R F A C E : Typically o n S a n Pablo Plain O I 2 3 CM 12 CM RIM SCALE VESSEL SCALEFIGURE 29.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types. Top, Valdivia Red Incised Bottom Valdivia Cut and Beveled Rim.
  • 77. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 57 (p. 45), occasionally on Valdivia Plain (p. 7 2 ) ; see high. They are not uniform in size or equally spaced. those type descriptions for details. Alternatively, t h e exterior of the lip m a y be beveled,FORM: producing a similar effect. Incised lines a r e typically Rim: Slightly to strongly everted a n d folded over, some- associated; these are 1-2 m m . wide, not even in width, times with a row of nicks or fingertip impressions along perfectly straight or equally spaced. Incisions a r e the lip. L i p tapered, rounded or flattened. sometimes polished, more often not. Body wall thickness: 3-9 m m . ; considerable variation m a y Motif: T h r e e methods of combining lobes a n d incisions occur o n the same sherd between the upper a n d lower can be distinguished: edge of a corrugation. 1. Alternating high a n d low sections, the lobes usually Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. decorated with vertical parallel nicks or short inci- Vessel shapes: sions 2 - 7 m m . a p a r t ; rarely, t h e lobe is plain (pi. 1. J a r with rounded body, insloping neck, everted rim, 55a-j). with tapered, flattened or rounded lip. Lip m a y be 2. Alternating high a n d low sectors, t h e lobes with nicked or finger pressed. R i m interior above maxi- parallel nicks as in Motif 1 and the low areas bordered m u m constriction is striated polished or polished red. by a n incised line or lines originating from t h e R i m diameter 12-24 cm. (fig. 28-1 bottom; pi. 54a). nicks; rarely, from t h e e n d of the lobe (pis. 55 k-1,DECORATION (pis. 52-54a, 116 f - g ) : 56 a-j). Technique: Unsmoothed coils overlapped unevenly pro- 3. Like Motif 2 except that cutout areas extend 2 cm. duce generally horizontal rows of variable width a n d down t h e exterior wall giving t h e effect of excision. projection. Upsloping coil j u n c t u r e is generally trace- T h e surface of the cutout portion is polished (pi. able, partially or completely through the cross section. 56 k - n ) . Distance between coil junctions in cross section is TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : All three 0.6—1.3 c m . Corrugations are rarely ornamented on motifs occur throughout the existence of the type. the lower edge with nicks or finger tip marks sometimes CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : L i m i t e d to Periods leaving a fingernail mark toward t h e left edge of the A a n d B of the Valdivia Phase seriated sequence (figs. depression (pi. 53 f, h, j - n ) . 49-53). Motif: Variation from a m i n i m u m of two coils beginning at r i m to corrugations covering the neck, ending at the Valdivia Embossed shoulder or above. {Valdivia Mascaron) Associated techniques: Additional ornament of t h e type classified as Valdivia Modeled m a y occur near t h e PASTE AND SURFACE: Four on crude, early variety of shoulder. Valdivia Polished R e d , with thin slip a n d poorly polishedTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : None. surfaces; one incompletely polished, dark gray surface.C H R O N O L O G I C A L POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Most character- FORM: istic of Period A, continuing into Periods B a n d C of the Rim: Direct with flattened or rounded lip. R i m d i a m - Valdivia Phase sequence (figs. 50-53). eter 24-36 cm. Body wall thickness 5-9 m m . Valdivia Cut and Beveled Rim Base: Slightly flattened; possibly tetrapod. {Valdivia Biseladoy Recortado) Vessel shape reconstructed from sherds: 1. Bowl with flattened bottom, rounded sides a n dP A S T E : Similar to Valdivia Polished R e d (p. 7 6 ) ; see vertical to slightly incurving direct r i m with rounded t h a t type description for details. or flat lip. R i m diameter 24-36 cm. (fig. 30).S U R F A C E : Incompletely polished like t h e early variety of DECORATION (pis. 57, 1 8 4 d ) : Valdivia Polished R e d , giving a striated, streaky a p - pearance, or well polished. Interior less well finished Technique: Modeling in low relief on upper wall just t h a n exterior, a n d sometimes lacking red slip. below rim. Relief 5-10 m m . high, edges blended intoFORM: adjacent surface. Execution somewhat crude a n d Rim: Direct or slightly expanded (rare), with flattened or asymmetrical. Motif: Anthropomorphic face surrounded by applique rounded lip. Body wall thickness: R a n g e 0.5-1.0 c m . ; majority 0.7-1.0 ridge, which at the top constitutes eyebrows a n d extends down at center to form the nose. Eyes a n d m o u t h cm. are low nubbins with horizontal incision a t center. Base: T e t r a p o d ; possibly alternatively flattened. N o two faces are alike in detail. O n e example is a Vessel shapes: circle with a diagonal b a r through t h e center, r a t h e r 1. Shallow bowl with outcurving or upcurving wall, than a face (pi. 57c). direct (rarely slightly expanded) rim, flattened or Associated technique: T w o rims have one or more lobes, r o u n d e d lip. R i m diameter 16-36 c m . ; majority the former with finger pressed decoration. 2 4 - 3 4 cm. (fig. 29-1 bottom). TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : N o n e evidentD E C O R A T I O N (pis. 55, 5 6 ) : Technique: T h e diagnostic feature of this type is the treat- in small sample. CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : All examples a r e m e n t of the rim, portions of which are cut out creating a series of low prominences 1-5 cm. wide a n d 2-5 m m . from Period A a n d B levels a t G - 3 1 , C u t J (figs. 50-51).
  • 78. VOLUME 158 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY Valdivia Excised r o u n d e d or rarely flattened lip. M o u t h d i a m e t e r {Valdivia Exciso) 12-20 cm. (fig. 31-1). PASTE : 2. O p e n bowl with outcurving to nearly vertical wall, Method of manufacture: Coiling. direct rim, r o u n d e d or rarely flattened lip. R i m Temper: A b u n d a n t fine sand; occasional sherds with diameter 16-30 c m . (fig. 31-2). scattered white particles of waterworn quartz or 3. Carinated bowl with outcurving lower wall t u r n i n g feldspar. sharply inward 1.5-3.0 cm. below t h e lip p r o d u c i n g Texture: Sandy, fine-grained; typically well mixed. a sharply defined shoulder. T h e interior wall forms Small air pockets are frequent, b u t large ones 3-5 m m . a smooth curve as a result of m a r k e d thickening a t long occur rarely. the carination, which m a y be twice t h e thickness of Color: Typically gray or brown-orange, similar to the the lower body wall. L i p is tapered or flattened. surface color. Some have a gray core bordered by M o u t h diameter 16-24 cm. (fig. 3 1 - 3 ) . brown-orange bands 1-2 m m . wide along both surfaces. 4. R o u n d e d j a r with slightly to strongly constricted Firing: Ranges from incompletely to completely oxidized, mouth. Wall is expanded or interiorly thickened with some color variation on each sherd. Few fire beginning 1.5-3.0 cm. below the lip a n d attains a clouds. thickness about 5 m m . greater t h a n t h e lower body SURFACE : wall. M o u t h diameter 18-36 c m . (fig. 3 1 - 4 ) . Color: Light tan, dark red-brown, dark red, or dark DECORATION (pis. 5 8 - 6 0 , 177 f-h): gray are most typical. Interior a n d exterior are usually Technique: Incisions 2 - 5 m m . wide a n d 1-3 m m . d e e p a similar shade. combined with small excised or gouged-out areas. Treatment: Incisions have the form of a broad, r o u n d e d groove. Exterior: Well smoothed, even, a n d polished giving a low Long lines are usually n o t perfectly straight or evenly luster; faint smoothing tracks sometimes visible. parallel; short lines are straighter. T h e majority of Interior: Usually less carefully finished than the exterior, incisions show fine parallel lines in the bed of the groove, varying from smoothed to striated polished, occa- left by the end of the cutting tool. Excised areas a r e sionally completely polished leaving polishing tracks gouged out to a d e p t h of 2 - 5 m m . by successive adjacent visible. Flaws often remain. or overlapping cuts a n d j a b s . T h e majority a r e a b o u t Hardness: 4-4.5. 3 m m . deep. Excision typically occupies only a small FORM: portion of the decorated surface. Some vessels were Rim: Direct or expanding, with rounded, tapered or polished after decoration giving the excised zones t h e flattened (rare) lip. Lobes are frequent. same polish as the original surface; however, typically Body wall thickness: R a n g e 5-10 m m . ; majority 7-9 m m . the excised portions are unpolished. Thickness is variable on a single sherd. A few sherds show traces of red pigment a d d e d in Base: N o base sherds, clearly associated with excised the excisions after firing (pis. 58p, 59f). T h e m a t e r i a l decoration, were found; probably rounded or slightly adheres poorly to the surface a n d is fugitive, so t h a t flattened. a larger n u m b e r of t h e Valdivia Excised designs m a y Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: have once h a d this additional o r n a m e n t a t i o n t h a n t h e 1. Large rounded bowl with incurving direct rim, sherd sample now suggests. 1 1 1 1 ) 1 1 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALE FIGURE 30.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Embossed.
  • 79. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDRTA PHASE 59 Motif: Decoration sometimes covers the exterior, but is areas of parallel, broad-line incisions (pi. 59 a-c). more frequently limited to a band adjacent to the rim, 3. Triangles placed adjacent to form a band, or alter- or on Form 3 just below the shoulder. The following nating apex up and down and separated by incised elements are commonly employed: lines (pi. 59 d-g). 1. Stylized anthropomorphic faces, in which the eyes, 4. I- or T-shaped areas isolated or placed at intervals nose and mouth are left in relief by excising away to form a band (pi. 59 h-1). the adjacent surface (pi. 58 a-m). 5. Horizontal row of gouged-out scallops, typically 2. Excised bands separating or interlocking with crudely defined and unevenly excised (pi. 60 a-e). i , l i I i l 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 31.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Excised
  • 80. 60 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 6. Two parallel incisions linking small trianguloid Between 1.0 and 1.5 cm. below the lip, body wall excised areas arranged alternately to produce an thickness is reduced 1-2 mm. producing a well intervening undulating band (pi. 60 f-j). marked shoulder on the exterior. Rim diameter 7. Broad-line incised designs incorporating excised about 24 cm. (fig. 32-1). areas of variable outline and extent (pi. 60 k-1). 2. Bowl with wall curving upward and slightly inward. Associated techniques: Broad-line incision is a typical com- About 3 cm. below the lip, the body wall begins to ponent of excised designs. Rocker stamping is rarely expand in thickness gradually or abruptly, so that associated. thickness at or just below the lip is about twice thatTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : The best of the shoulder. Lip is typically flat or square in executed examples of excised decoration, and also the cross section. Rim diameter 22-42 cm. (fig. 32-2). most extensively excised designs, come from late Period B 3. Bowl with wall curving upward to direct rim, flat and early Period C. During Period A, excision is limited (rarely rounded) lip. Majority are slightly incurved largely to small trianguloid or I-shaped elements incorpo- at rim; variation extends from open bowl to con- rated in broad-line incised designs, a technique that can stricted bowl. Rim diameter 20-34 cm. (fig. 32-3). be compared to that employed in some examples of 4. J a r with rounded body, wall sloping inward and Valdivia Red Incised. During late Period C, there is upward to direct rim, flattened lip. Rim diameter a degeneration in which excised zones are again small in 24-34 cm. (fig. 32-4). area and gouged-out rather than evenly cut back. DECORATION: (pis. 61-64, 183 e-f): Motif 5, from its chronological position late in Period C Technique: V-shaped incisions cut through red slip into appears to be a degenerate version of Motif 3, which orange underlying surface when dry enough to cause occurs in Period B and the first half of Period C (Appendix chipping along margins of cuts. Lines are sharply 1, table 12). defined, up to 1 mm. wide and 1 mm. deep. Design Except for Form 3, which is absent from Period A, appears generally well laid out but lines are rarely the vessel shapes occur throughout the duration of the straight or evenly parallel, especially in hatched zones. pottery type. Hatched lines are sometimes finer than those outliningCHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Valdivia Excised areas, but typically are the same width. Overshot or appears toward the middle of Period A and continues to undershot intersections are frequent. the end of Period C. It is a rare decorated type through- Motif: Decorated area is limited to upper wall adjacent out the sequence (figs. 49-53). to lip and extending down the exterior about 5 cm., with some variation according to the size of the vessel. Valdivia Fine-line Incised Six motifs can be recognized. Sixty percent of the total {Valdivia Inciso Linea Find) sherds are Motif 1; 17.5 percent are Motif 2; the othersPASTE: vary from 2.6 to 3.6 percent. Temper: Fine to medium sand, with particles up to 1. Alternating hatched trianguloid areas and slanting 5 mm. lines. One or two rows typical, sometimes with a Texture: Poorly mixed, giving a laminated appearance to lower border of pendent triangles (pis. 61, 62). the cross section; irregular fracture. 2. Rows of hatched triangles, either with points Color: Light-tan to orange along both surfaces, leaving touching or separated. Apex usually up, occasionally a gray core 1-2 mm. in width. down (pi. 63 a-k).SURFACE: 3. Hachured triangles, alternating apex up and apex Color: down, with intervening zigzag band (pi. 63 1-q). Exterior: Red-slipped in the same manner as Valdivia 4. Hachured triangles and diamonds (pi. 64 a-d). Polished Red. 5. Vertical rectangles filled with hachure (pi. 64 e-g). Interior: Unslipped and fired tan, or red-slipped. 6. Hachured triangles alternating with diagonal bands Treatment: Well smoothed and polished in the decorated filled with hachure (pi. 64 h-j). area on the upper exterior of the body wall. Lower Seven percent of the sherds have decoration that exterior and interior surfaces striated polished and deviates from the above motifs, although utilizing frequently somewhat uneven. hachured zones and incised lines (pi. 64 k - q ) . Hardness: 4. Designs are unique or appear on not more than twoFORM: sherds in the available sample. Rim: Direct, expanded or shouldered, with flat or TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : Motifs 3 5 rounded lip. and 6 appear to be limited to Period A; the rare examples Body wall thickness: Range 0.5-1.3 cm.; majority 0.8-1.1 from Period B levels are probably explainable as the cm. result of disturbance of the refuse (Appendix 1, table 9). Base: Slightly flattened or tetrapod (see Valdivia Polished CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Valdivia Fine- Red (p. 76) Base Form 4 andfig.43a). line Incised is most popular during Period A. It con- Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: tinues in minor frequency during Period B and is absent 1. Bowl with wall curving upward or slightly inward. thereafter (figs. 49-53).
  • 81. WHOLE VOLUME THE VALDrVTA PHASE 61 Valdivia Finger Grooved Body wall thickness: 4-8 m m . {Valdivia Acanalado) Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds:PASTE AND SURFACE: Similar to Valdivia Plain (p. 72); 1. J a r with rounded body, rounded or slightly angular see t h a t type description for details. shoulder, insloping neck turning u p w a r d or outwardFORM: slightly below exteriorly thickened rim. Thickening Rim: Folded-over a n d plain or finger pressed along the coil is not smoothed onto the surface, b u t remains lip or lower edge; lip rounded, tapered or flattened; overlapped. Lip may be finger pressed or nicked. very unlevel. Exterior rim diameter 16-24 cm. (fig. 3 3 - 1 ) . o I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE • • 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 32.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fine-line Incised.
  • 82. 62 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 2. J a r with rounded body, rounded shoulder, insloping Valdivia Fingernail Decorated neck turning u p w a r d or o u t w a r d slightly below {Valdivia Decorado con las Unas) exteriorly thickened r i m . Thickening coil n o t PASTE AND SURFACE : Similar to Valdivia Plain ( p . 72) o r smoothed onto neck surface, b u t remains overlapped or S a n Pablo Plain (p. 45), rarely Valdivia Striated a n d is ornamented on t h e lower edge by pressing with Polished Plain (p. 8 4 ) ; o n e example on Valdivia Polished the finger. Exterior r i m diameter about 16 c m . R e d (p. 7 6 ) ; see those type descriptions for details. (fig. 33-2). FORM :DECORATION (pis. 65, 176 j - 1 ) : Rim: Folded-over, exteriorly thickened or direct, w i t h flat Technique: Well defined grooves produced by pressing t h e or rounded lip. surface with t h e finger a n d drawing downward. Body wall thickness: R a n g e 0.4-1.0 c m . ; majority 0.7-1.0 Grooves are 2 - 5 cm. long, 0.9-1.3 cm. wide a n d 1-5 m m . cm. deep. Wider marks tend to be deeper; width a n d d e p t h Base: Probably flattened or slightly r o u n d e d . are relatively consistent on a single vessel. Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Motif: Vertical parallel grooves occur on the vessel neck, 1. J a r with rounded body, insloping o r vertical neck, beginning just below t h e folded-over r i m . Spacing is folded-over r i m . L i p m a y b e nicked or finger 0.5-4.0 cm. a p a r t . Curved grooves are rare. pressed. R i m diameter 1 2 - 1 4 c m . T e c h n i q u e s 1 Associated techniques: Decoration of the type designated as a n d 2 (fig. 34-1). Valdivia Modeled m a y occur on t h e shoulder or just 2. J a r with rounded body, insloping neck, slightly below t h e lower end of the grooves; occasionally zones everted exteriorly thickened r i m w i t h flattened l i p . of fingertip or fingernail punctates alternate with R i m diameter 16 cm. T e c h n i q u e 2 (fig. 3 4 - 2 ) . grooves (pi. 65 c, d, m ) . 3. J a r with rounded body, insloping neck, slightlyTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES W I T H I N THE T Y P E : None; both everted r i m with flattened or t a p e r e d lip. R i m decoration a n d vessel shape are very consistent throughout diameter 1 8 - 2 0 c m . Techniques 1 a n d 2 (fig. the duration of the type. 34-3).CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Diagnostic of 4. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck, curved Period A. I t occurs in Period B levels of G—31, C u t J cambered r i m with flattened lip. T e c h n i q u e 1 (fig. 50-51) b u t was n o t encountered in Period B sample (fig. 34-4). from G—88 (fig. 52), raising t h e question of whether 5. R o u n d e d bowl with slightly constricted m o u t h , continuation in C u t J m a y n o t reflect u p w a r d migration direct r i m , flattened lip. R i m diameter 24 c m . of sherds in t h e refuse. O n t h e other hand, t h e discrep- T e c h n i q u e 2 (fig. 3 4 - 5 ) . ancy c a n b e accounted for by t h e rarity of the type a n d 6. R o u n d e d bowl with u p p e r wall thickened or i n t u r n e d the relatively small size of the G—88 sample in comparison 2 - 3 c m . below t h e rounded lip. R i m d i a m e t e r to that from G - 3 1 , C u t J . 18-24 cm. T e c h n i q u e 2 (fig. 3 4 - 6 ) . i i I, i i i i i I i I 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALE FIGURE 33.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Finger Grooved.
  • 83. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 63D E C O R A T I O N (pis. 66, 178 e - g ) : TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN T H E T Y P E : Both tech- Technique: T w o kinds of marks can be distinguished: niques occur throughout t h e duration of t h e type, w i t h 1. Fingernail marks. Deep, fine, sharply defined, Technique 2 the most common in all levels. curved impressions 7 - 1 0 m m . long (pi. 66 a - m ) . CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F THE T Y P E : Most c o m m o n in 2. Fingertip marks with nail impression toward o n e Period A, continuing into Period B, a n d absent thereafter edge. M a r k s a r e ovoid to nearly circular a n d u p (figs. 49-53). to 2 m m . deep a t center, with adjacent surface sometimes slightly elevated forming a ridge on one Valdivia Incised edge (pi. 66 n - u ) . {Valdivia Inciso) Motif: O n e or several rows of marks below the rim or o n the neck, or a single row near the shoulder. Rows a r e PASTE: horizontal (with nail mark vertical) in Technique 2, Method of manufacture: Coiling. Most examples have t h e a n d either vertical or horizontal in Technique 1 coil junctions well kneaded a n d completely erased, b u t M a r k s are 2 - 9 m m . a p a r t ; rows are generally straight. a few show fracture along coil lines. Associated techniques: O n e example of Technique 1 has Temper: Fine to medium sand in sufficient a m o u n t to be vertical rows of nail marks alternating with incised easily visible in the paste. Size of temper grains is lines; T e c h n i q u e 2 is occasionally associated with typically under 0.5 mm., b u t a few sherds have water- Valdivia Finger Grooved. worn particles 4-9 m m . in diameter. I l I I i I i 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALE FIGURE 34.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Fingernail Decorated.
  • 84. I I I I I I I I • 1 . I i I 0 4 8 IE CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALEFIGURE 35.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Incised.
  • 85. W H O L E VOLUME THE VALDIVIA PHASE 65 Texture: Sandy. T e m p e r is not always well mixed, plete vessels exist, so that the n u m b e r of handles resulting in clustering of sand grains. Air pockets and per j a r is not known (fig. 35 inset; pi. 72 d - g ) . fine, pinpoint bubbles occur in some sherds. Fracture 3. J a r with spout. Only one spout was identified. I t is extremely irregular. shows incision on the exterior and the edge of red Color: Typically orange, tan-orange or red-orange; less slip on the interior at one side, indicating a position t h a n 1 percent have grayish tan core. at the shoulder. Its presence in a level where the Firing: Usually completely oxidized; fire clouds are rare. j a r of Form 4 predominates suggests possible associa-SURFACE: tion with that shape (pi. 69p). Color: Red-orange, tan-orange, orange or gray-orange, DECORATION (pis. 6 7 - 7 7 , 116 i, m-n, 163 i-k, 164 g-j, with r a r e dark gray areas produced by fire clouds. 165 d-f, 166 e-f, 167 j - n , 1 8 2 j ) : Some j a r sherds are red slipped on the neck interior, Technique: Incisions ranging in width between 0.5 a n d with the slip extending over the lip exterior. 4.0 mm., with the majority 1-3 m m . wide. Cuts are Treatment: always sharply defined, often 2 m m . deep. A ridge of Exterior: Smoothed a n d fairly even, but not polished; clay is often pushed u p along one or both sides of the smoothing marks sometimes visible. T e m p e r grains incision, enhancing the appearance of d e p t h and rough- frequently protrude. ening the surface. Lines terminate in a tapered point, Interior: Better smoothed on neck than exterior, with and are typically U-shaped in cross section. W i d t h is 50 percent showing some degree of polish. Five relatively uniform on a single sherd, but varies some- percent of neck interiors have a thin red slip, thinner what according to the a m o u n t of pressure exerted on a n d less carefully applied than that on Valdivia the tool. Application is frequently hasty or slapdash, Polished R e d . with lines unevenly spaced, irregularly parallel, with Hardness: 4. adjacent rows overlapping. I n rare examples, particu-FORM: larly in the smaller size range, lines are very neatly Rim: Exteriorly thickened, folded-over, direct, everted or drawn, a n d the rows are even in width and spacing. cambered, with rounded, tapered or flattened (rare) lip. Punctates are executed with a variety of tools, produc- Very rarely, the rim is lobed (pi. 67 g - h ) ; more fre- ing marks of triangular, circular, elongated or irregular quently it is nicked or fingerpressed (pi. 69 d - o ) . shape; punctations like the incisions are characteris- Body wall thickness: R a n g e 4-13 mm., majority 6-10 m m . tically sharply defined a n d often exceed 1 m m . in Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. depth. Principal vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Motif: Decoration typically occurs in a b a n d on the j a r neck, sometimes continuing downward over the body. 1. J a r with rounded body, insloping concave neck, T h e following motifs are most c o m m o n : slightly everted folded-over r i m with tapered lip. R i m diameter 14-28 cm. (fig. 35-1). 1. Zigzag (pis. 67-72, 164 g - j , 165 d-f, 166e), produced 2. J a r with rounded body, insloping to nearly vertical by rows of parallel strokes sloping alternately right neck, slightly everted exteriorly thickened rim, and left. Rows may be independent, abutting or rounded or flattened lip. R i m diameter 18-26 overlapping. T h e angle of slant varies from about cm. (fig. 35-2). 45 degrees to nearly horizontal. Both spacing a n d 3. J a r with rounded body, insloping to vertical neck, slant are generally relatively consistent on a single jar. slightly everted rim with expanded beveled lip. Execution varies from neat to sloppy. Applied only R i m diameter 18-30 cm. Rarely, the rim is lobed to neck. A rare variant, occurring only on the body, (fig. 35-3). runs vertically rather than horizontally (pi. 72 a-c, 4. J a r with rounded body, vertical concave-walled neck, 164 g - h ) . slightly to strongly everted direct rim with tapered 2. Crosshatch (pis. 73, 166f, 167 j-1), produced by or rounded lip. R i m diameter 16-32 cm., majority overlapping vertical and horizontal or diagonal 16-24 cm. (fig. 35-4). incised lines. Elements are not evenly parallel or 5. Small rounded j a r with constricted mouth, everted consistently spaced, but range of neatness in execution rim, tapered or rounded lip. Body wall thickness is not as wide as in Motif 1. O n neck or body. frequently increases at the neck. R i m diameter 3. Horizontal parallel lines (pi. 74, 75, 163 j - k , 167 9-18 cm. (fig. 35-5). m - n ) , produced by a series of short strokes or a 6. J a r with rounded body, short vertical or insloping continuous incision. Incisions are usually less than neck, cambered rim with rounded or flattened lip. 5 m m . apart, and vary from approximately horizontal R i m diameter 12-20 cm. (fig. 35-6). and parallel to slightly sloping and overlapping. Rare variations in vessel shape: Ends of continuing lines usually fall short or overshot. 1. Superimposed jars, in which the body wall is designed O n neck only. to give the appearance of one small rounded j a r 4. Branched lines (pis. 76 a-g, 163i), produced by paral- resting on top of another of similar shape. T w o lel lines slanting downward on both sides of a vertical examples, r i m diameter about 12 cm. (fig. 35 incision. O n body only. inset; pi. 72h). 5. Vertical parallel lines (pi. 76 h - k ) , produced by 2. J a r of F o r m 5 with a small handle running vertically drawing vertical incisions, typically more than 1 m m . from the rim exterior to the shoulder. No com- apart.
  • 86. 66 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 6. Network formed b y 3 - 4 parallel lines connecting Valdivia Modeled small relief nubbins with each other (pi. 77 a - f ) . {Valdivia Modelado) O n body only. PASTE : O n Valdivia Plain (p. 7 2 ) ; see t h a t type description 7. Zoned punctate (pis. 77 g-1, 168 i - m ) , in which for details. areas filled with parallel incised lines alternate with SURFACE: areas filled with punctate. O n r i m or body. Color: Light t a n to orange-tan to g r a y - t a n on b o t h Associated techniques: A r o w of punctation m a y occur a t surfaces. the lower edge of the incision when it is confined to t h e Treatment: Majority h a n d swiped, leaving t h e surface neck (pis. 74 i-1, 165 d - f ) , or m a y intervene between rough a n d uneven. Scraping occurs rarely. U n d u l a t - neck a n d body decoration (pi. 73k). Valdivia Incised ing, " l u m p y " , uneven surface typical. Occasionally decoration m a y occur on vessels with rocker stamping, striated polished, most frequently on neck interior. nicked r i b , cord impression or nicked broad-line Hardness: 4-4.5. incision; in such cases t h e sherd has been classified in FORM: one of these types. Rim: Folded-over, with flattened, tapered o r rarelyT E M P O R A L D I F F E R E N C E S W I T H I N T H E T Y P E : R e d slipping rounded lip. of t h e neck interior is typical of Periods A a n d B ; in Body wall thickness: R a n g e 5-10 m m . ; majority 7 - 8 m m . ; Period C application of red is rare a n d when present is considerable variation on a single sherd. frequently applied in striations rather t h a n a n even, well Base: Probably flattened. polished coating. A b u n d a n t coarse temper is typical of Vessel shape reconstructed from sherds: Period C examples. 1. J a r with rounded to slightly a n g u l a r shoulder, T h e c o m m o n motifs (zigzag, Crosshatch, horizontal vertical to insloping neck, folded-over r i m . R i m parallel lines) a r e popular in all periods (Appendix 1, diameter 12-24 cm. (fig. 3 6 - 1 ) . table 10). Motifs 4 (branched) a n d 6 (network) a r e D E C O R A T I O N : (pi. 7 8 ) : restricted to Period C, a n d extension of incision over t h e Technique: Single row of low b u m p s often barely visible body appears most characteristic of this period. Motif 7 on the exterior produced by inserting the h a n d into t h e (zoned punctate) is n o t represented in t h e sample from vessel a n d pressing outward with fingers spread 5 - 1 5 Period A. A lower border of punctates does not occur in m m . apart. Depressions on t h e interior a r e distinct, Period D . a n d show t h e imprint of both fingertip a n d fingernail. Examples of Valdivia Incised from Period D are notably I n a few examples, t h e depressions a r e slightly closed- divergent, contrasting in vessel shape, boldness of decora- over by subsequent smoothing of the interior. I m p r e s - tion a n d variety of motif with material from earlier sions vary from 8-15 m m . in diameter o n t h e interior, periods. generally correlating with t h e d e p t h to w h i c h t h e finger Vessel Forms 5 a n d 6 a r e absent in Period A ; Forms was pressed. O n t h e exterior, bosses vary from p r o m i - 1, 2, a n d 5 a r e absent in Period C. F o r m 5 is typical of nent to indistinguishable, with the majority being small Period C a n d F o r m 6 of Period D . Forms 2 a n d 4 a r e rises 1-3 m m . high, n o t strongly differentiated from the most frequent in all periods except D , when they a r e the surrounding surface. replaced by F o r m 6. Motif: A single r o w of bosses occupies the j a r shoulder,CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Valdivia Incised approximately halfway between t h e base of t h e neck is present throughout t h e seriated sequence. During a n d t h e region of m a x i m u m body d i a m e t e r (fig. 3 6 ) . Periods B a n d C it not only constitutes t h e most popular Associated techniques: Valdivia Finger Grooved, Valdivia decorative type, b u t in some levels exceeds individual Combed, Valdivia Pseudo-Corrugated. plain types in frequency (figs. 49-50, 52, 53). TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : None. I 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 36.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Modeled.
  • 87. W H O L E VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 67C H R O N O L O G I C A L POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : T h e most p o p u l a r r i m and neck interior usually polished red slipped, body decorated type during Period A, declining in frequency may have polishing striations. d u r i n g Period B a n d absent thereafter (figs. 49-50, 52-53). FORM: Rim: Slightly everted, expanded or exteriorly thickened with tapered l i p ; rarely cambered with rounded or Valdivia Multiple Drag-and-Jab Punctate tapered lip. {Valdivia Rastreadoy Punteado) Body wall thickness: 4-11 cm.PASTE AND SURFACE : O n San Pablo Plain or Valdivia Plain; Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. i i i i i i i i i I i I 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALEFIGURE 37. Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of early Valdivia Phase decorated types. Top, Valdivia Multiple Drag-and-Jab Punctate. Bottom, Valdivia Shell Stamped.
  • 88. 68 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: FORM : 1. J a r with rounded body, concave walled to almost Rim: Expanded, direct, carinated or cambered, with vertical neck, slightly everted rim, beveled to pro- rounded lip. duce a sharply defined nearly vertical band on the Body wall thickness: 5-8 m m . exterior. This zone is generally polished and red Base: Flattened or slightly rounded. slipped like the neck interior. Rim diameter 16-28 Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: cm. (fig. 37-1 top). 1. Deep bowl with flattened bottom, upcurving to 2. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck and nearly vertical sides, expanding rim and slightly to sharply everted, angular, cambered rim. Rim markedly rounded lip. Wall thickness begins to diameter about 22 cm. Rim and neck interior expand 1.0-1.5 cm. below the lip and increases may be plain or striated red. to 4-6 mm. more than the thickness of the body wall.DECORATION (pis. 79, 80, 170 e-h, 183 h - i ) : Rim diameter 14-26 cm. (fig. 38-1). Technique: Parallel lines of punctates made with a 2. Open bowl with flattened bottom, outsloping walls multiple-ended tool. Regularity of the rows makes it expanding in thickness 2.0-2.5 cm. below the lip, difficult to analyze their method of execution but close which is beveled on the interior creating a sloping examination suggests a double-ended tool was most flat surface. Rim diameter 20 cm. (fig. 38-2). frequently used. The ends may be curved, producing 3. Rounded bowl with flattened bottom, slightly con- rounded punctates, or square, producing angular ones, stricted mouth, direct rim and rounded lip. Mouth in several cases the tool appears to have more than two diameter 12-24 cm. (fig. 38-3). projections, and the marks could have been produced 4. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, walls curving with a section of fluted shell. The extent to which the outward to angular shoulder 2-3 cm. below the rim. tool was lifted after each application varies, producing Lip rounded or flattened. Interior of carination a range from independent punctates to a series of thickened 3-6 mm. creating a smooth curve on the dragged marks. The failure of the curvature of the end interior. Mouth diameter 22-28 cm (fig. 38-4). of the tool to coincide with that of the vessel surface 5. Rounded jar with constricted neck and cambered causes differences in depth and length of punctates rim, rounded or tapered lip. Camber is 1.5-2.5 cm. produced with the same stroke. This variability, below the lip and angular, joining the neck at an added to the high degree of control exercised in main- angle of about 90 degrees. Rim diameter 12-14 taining parallelism and spacing, makes it virtually cm. (fig. 38-5). impossible to analyze the technique of execution in DECORATION (pis. 81-84, 190 d-f): many examples. One sherd exhibiting lack of coinci- Technique: Broad incisions typically 5 mm. wide and 1 dence between the beginning and end of rows and one mm. deep, but varying from 2-10 mm. in width, scored example in which edges of the successive rows do not with vertical or slightly slanting nicks. The form of abut offer the principle evidence for description of the the nicks ranges from thin, sharply defined, straight or technique. Rare sherds show drag and jab punctate curved cuts to broad, nearly circular punctates, the with a single ended tool (pis. 183 h-i). margins of which abut and occasionally overlap. Motif: Adjacent horizontal rows producing a continuous, Nicks conform closely to the width of the line, and rarely overall decoration on the neck exterior. Rarely, a extend beyond its margins. Spacing of nicks is slightly single row or several independent rows occupy the rim variable on a single vessel, but sufficiently similar to or neck. give the appearance of regularity.TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : Dragged Motif: A single nicked broad-line incision is characteris- marks are untypical in Period B, but typical in Period C. tically placed on the exterior 5-9 mm. below the lip on Independent rows are also more usual in Period C than bowls of Forms 1 and 3. On Form 2, two to three Period B. Vessel Form 2 is limited to Period C. nicked incisions run parallel on the flat insloping rimCHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : On the seriated interior. On Forms 4 and 5, a single incision occurs sequences of the Valdivia Phase, Valdivia Multiple Drag- just above the carination or camber, or just below the and-Jab Punctate begins toward the end of Period A, lip, or less commonly in both positions. When two reaches its highest popularity in Period B, and continues incisions are present, only one may be nicked. The sporadically and rarely in Period C (figs. 49-53). Its incision appears to be typically continuous, but in some possible existence at the beginning of Period A cannot be cases is discontinuous, the ends about 2.5 cm. apart ruled out until a larger sherd sample from this period is (pl.83g). available, since the type is exceedingly rare and may not be represented in a small collection of sherds. Associated techniques: Bowls of Form 4 may be pebble- polished above the carination; bowls of Form 1 occa- sionally have broad-line incision on the wall below the Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised nicked line. Rare jars of Form 5 have Valdivia Incised {Valdivia Linea Ancha Mellada) decoration on the neck.PASTE AND SURFACE: On Valdivia Polished Plain (p. 74), TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE TYPE : None. Valdivia Striated Polished Plain (p. 84), or rarely CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Characteristic of Valdivia Polished Red (p. 76); see those type descrip- Period C, continuing as a rare type during Period D tions for details. (figs. 52, 53).
  • 89. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDrvTA PHASE 69 Valdivia Nicked Rib or Nubbin Interior: Ranging from superficially smoothed leaving {Valdivia Liston Mellado) rough bands, ridges and grooves to even a n d striatedPASTE : O n San Pablo Plain (p.45); see that type description polished. Interior of neck a n d r i m m a y be red slipped, for details. varying from a n even coating subsequently polishedSURFACE: to streaky a n d incompletely covering the surface. Color: Light tan, orange, brown, gray-brown, or gray on Hardness: 4. unslipped surfaces. Color tends to be even except where FORM: darkened by fire clouds. Rim: Cambered, or exteriorly thickened to resemble a Treatment: camber, rounded or flattened lip. Exterior: Generally even but not smooth a n d never polished. T e m p e r grains typically visible, giving a Body wall thickness: 5-9 m m . speckled appearance. Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. i • i • i i i 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE I II I II I 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 38. Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Nicked Broad-line Incised.
  • 90. 70 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Valdivia Pebble Polished 1. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck and cam- {Valdivia Pulido con Guijarro) bered rim. The rim is vertical to insloping, and PASTE: joins the outcurving neck at an angle of 90-130 Method of manufacture: Coiling. Unobliterated coil junc- degrees. Rim diameter 10-20 cm. (fig. 39-1 tions occasionally visible on the surface of Variant B bottom; pi. 90d). are 10-15 mm. apart. 2. Small jar with rounded body, slightly constricted Temper: Great variation in size and amount, ranging neck and exteriorly thickened rim tapering toward from none (?) to large quantities of coarse beach sand the lip. Lower edge of thickened rim is sharply containing particles up to 4 mm. and rarely attaining defined, producing an angular profile similar to 11 mm. There is no consistent correlation between that of Form 1. Rim diameter 12-14 cm. (fig. coarseness of temper and surface finish, but better 39-2 bottom). polished surfaces tend to be associated with finer paste. Rare vessel shapes: Texture: Compact, fine-grained to "peanut-brittle" con- sistency depending on the size of the temper. 1. Bowl or jar with rounded body, slightly constricted Color: Majority gray through the cross section, or with a mouth, slightly everted rim with rounded lip. gray core; about 40 percent are fired tile orange Rim diameter 12-16 cm. (pi. 90 a, c). throughout. 2. Bowl with rounded bottom, rounded shoulder, Firing: Incompletely to completely oxidized. constricted mouth, direct rim and rounded lip. SURFACE : Mouth diameter 8-14 cm. (pi. 90b). Color: Black, gray-brown, brown, tan or bright orange.DECORATION (pis. 85-90, 189 f-i): Fire clouding may produce a wide variation on a small Technique: Applique ribs, either laid on the surface and area. pressed to adhere, leaving the junction sharply defined, Treatment: or smoothed over to blend onto the adjacent surface, Variant A (pis. 91-93, 116 j - k ) : Surfaces with fine ripples are the most typical. Ribs are 5-10 mm. wide and are polished giving a slight luster on the exterior. 1-5 mm. in elevation. The ridge is scored or nicked Interior is polished or striated polished. Both crosswise, nicks being 1-5 mm. apart and 0.5-5.0 mm. surfaces are even and smooth. wide, with wider nicks generally correlated with smaller Variant B (pi. 94): Surfaces with coarse grooves are separation. Rare variations include a lengthwise unpolished on about 25 percent of the examples and groove down the center of the rib, or finger pressing of unevenly finished in the majority leaving scars, pits the ridge. Pellets of circular or irregularly curved and unsmoothed areas. Polish is typically restricted outline, 0.6-2.0 cm. in diameter and 2-3 mm. in eleva- to the high spots, with depressions uneven and tion, have flattened or slightly convex surface nicked unpolished. Interior finishing varies from even and or left smooth (pi. 87). Conical nubbins smoothed polished to poorly smoothed leaving smoothing onto the adjacent surface, sometimes with crudely tracks and ridges. incised anthropomorphic faces, occur less frequently Hardness: 3.5—4. (pi. 89). FORM: Motif: Applique ribs or nubbins are typically applied to Rim: Usually direct with rounded, tapered or flattened the exterior of the rim, extending from the camber or lip; rarely expanded or interiorly thickened with thickening upward to the lip. Ribs are vertical or flattened or tapered lip. diagonal, 0.4—2.5 cm. apart. Nubbins may occupy the Body wall thickness: Range 5-11 mm., majority 6-8 mm. same position, forming one or two slightly wavering Base: Probably rounded or slightly flattened. rows, in which the nubbins may be abutting or between Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: 5 and 10 mm. apart. Occasionally larger nubbins are more widely spaced. 1. Bowl with flattened bottom, rounded body and con- stricted mouth with flattened lip. At a distance of Less commonly, vertical applique ribs or large nub- 1.5-3.0 cm. below the lip, the wall thickness narrows bins occupy the shoulder of the rounded body of jars abruptly forming an inset band sharply defined at of Form 1. the lower edge. Pebble polished decoration is Associated techniques: Nicked ribs are always in combination typically confined to this band (fig. 40-1). with Valdivia Incised decoration, which may be 2. Shallow bowl with flattened bottom, wall curving applied between the ribs as well as on the neck and upward to expanded or interiorly thickened rim with body of the vessel. Rare examples associated with rounded lip. Rim diameter 16-20 cm. Associated rocker stamping have been classified as Valdivia Rocker principally with Variant B (fig. 40-2). Stamped. 3. Open bowl with rounded bottom, walls curvingTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : None. upward to direct rim with rounded or tapered lip.CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE TYPE : Rare in Periods A Rim diameter 12-22 cm. (fig. 40-3). and B, characteristic of Period C (figs. 49, 52-53). 4. Rounded bowl with flattened bottom, constricted
  • 91. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 71 i i i i i i i i 0 4 8 12 CM 0 I 2 3 CM VESSEL SCALE RIM SCALEFIGURE 39 —Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Period C decorated types. Top, Valdivia Red Zoned Punctate. Bottom, Valdivia Nicked Rib or Nubbin.
  • 92. 72 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 mouth, direct rim and rounded lip. Mouth diameter CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION OF THE T Y P E : Valdivia Pebble 14-24 cm. (fig. 40-4). Polished begins at the end of Period A and continues 5. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, wall curving throughout the remainder of the sequence (figs. 49-50, outward to between 2 and 3.5 cm. below the lip, 52-53). where it curves inward to the direct rim, rounded Valdivia Plain or tapered lip. Mouth diameter 12-28 cm. (fig. 40-5). {Valdivia Ordinario) 6. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, walls curving PASTE : outward to angular shoulder, then sloping or curving Method of manufacture: Coiling. inward to constricted rim with flattened, rounded or Temper: Fine to medium sand, with particles under 0.5 tapered lip. Wall thickness increases markedly at the mm. carination, producing a smooth curve on the inner Texture: Sandy, fine grained, with frequent air-bubble wall. Mouth diameter 13-34 cm. (fig. 40-6). holes. Laminated areas indicate poor kneading of 7. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, joining the paste. vertical or slightly insloping upper wall 4-7 cm. Color: Typically orange, red-orange, tile-orange or brown- below the lip at a sharp to rounded shoulder. The orange through the cross section. A few sherds are rim is direct, with rounded or flattened lip. Rim orange along both surfaces leaving a medium to dark diameter 16-36 cm. (fig. 40-7). gray core.DECORATION (pis. 91-94): Firing: Oxidized, usually completely. Fire clouding is Technique: Markings ranging from slight ripples to deep common. grooves cover all or part of the exterior surface. These SURFACE: exhibit considerable variation, but cluster into two Color: Variation from orange-tan to light orange to tan major categories: to gray-orange, with frequent small medium to dark Variant A: Parallel grooves so shallow that they are gray fire clouds. barely visible in profile view. The parallel polished Treatment: troughs are separated by fine ridges (pis. 91-93). Exterior: Smoothed and hand swiped when sufficiently Method of execution is uncertain, but the width and wet to leave marks. Typically even, but never contour of typical grooves are in keeping with use of polished. a polished antler tip awl (pi. 25 a-d). Width ranges Interior: Scraped to remove major irregularities and from 2-10 mm., with the majority about 5 mm., and obliterate coil junctions. Sometimes rubbed with a is relatively consistent on a single vessel. Most pebble to produce a smooth finish, but not enough to examples are well executed. produce a luster. Variant B: Deep, prominent parallel grooves, in some Hardness: 4. cases possibly drawn with the finger but polished with FORM: a pebble afterwards, 5-10 mm. wide and about 5 Rim: Folded-over (pis. 95 h, i, 182 i, k-1), exteriorly mm. apart, separated by a rounded ridge. Depth is thickened, expanded, direct or cambered, with rounded 1-2 mm. Depressions tend to be less polished than tapered or flattened lip. Rim may be lobed or deco- ridges (pi. 94). rated with nicks or finger pressed (pi. 95 j - q ) . Typically Motif: Parallel, straight, adjacent marks running verti- lip is markedly unlevel, especially on jars. cally or slightly diagonally on the vessel exterior. Body wall thickness: Range 7-12 mm., majority 8-10 mm. Variant A is typically restricted to the wall above the Base: Flattened and unthickened or slightly thickened; shoulder on Forms 1, 5, 6, and 7, but usually covers the rarely, concave or tetrapod (see Valdivia Polished Red exterior except the bottom on Forms 3 and 4. Variant Base Forms 4 and 5 (p. 76) andfig.43). B covers the exterior except the bottom on Forms 2, 3, Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: and 5. 1. J a r with rounded body, slightly constricted neck, Associated techniques: A single broad-line incision often slightly everted folded-over rim with tapered or occurs just above the shoulder on Form 4 (pi. 93f), or rounded lip. Rim diameter 12-24 cm. (fig. 41-1). just above the carination on Forms 5 and 6. A nicked 2. J a r with rounded body, slightly constricted neck, broad-line incision is rarely substituted (pi. 93h). The slightly to markedly everted folded-over rim, finger exterior below the carination is typically covered with pressed along the lower edge. Occasionally nicked, broad-line incision on Form 7 (pi. 93j). finger pressed or lobed lip. Rim diameter 14-32 cmTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE TYPE : Form 1 is re- (fig. 41-2). stricted to Period B, and Form 7 is found only in Period D. 3. J a r with rounded body, slightly constricted neck, Form 3 is absent from Period D. broad exteriorly thickened rim with flattened or All-over pebble polishing is most common in Period B, rounded lip. Width of thickening is 3-4 cm. Rim continuing in Period C, but absent in Period D. The occasionally lobed. Rim diameter 24-32 cm (fig addition of broad-line incision, either on the shoulder 41-3). as a single line or all-over on the bottom, is confined 4. Rounded jar with slightly constricted rim, tapered to Periods C and D. Variant B is limited to Period B. or rounded lip. Rim diameter 18-32 cm. (fig. 41-4).
  • 93. WHOLE VOLUME THE VALDrVTA PHASE 73 5. J a r with rounded body, short vertical to concave cambered rim with rounded lip. Rim diameter 18-22 sided neck, direct rim with tapered, flattened or cm. (fig. 41-8). rounded lip. Rim diameter 16-24 cm. (fig. 41-5). 9. Jar with rounded body, slightly constricted neck, 6. J a r with rounded body, slightly everted exteriorly angular cambered rim with tapered or flattened lip. thickened rim with tapered or flattened lip. Rim Rim diameter 10-22 cm. (fig. 41-9). diameter 10-22 cm. (fig. 41-6). 10. Small rounded jar with exteriorly thickened rim, 7. J a r with rounded body, short insloping neck, direct tapered or flattened lip. Exterior thickening is rim with flattened lip. Rim diameter 8-24 cm. approximately the same width as the wall abovejhe (fig. 41-7). camber in Form 9, and gives a similar appearance. 8. J a r with rounded body, constricted neck, curved Rim diameter 10-16 cm. (fig. 41-10). 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 40.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Pebble Polished.
  • 94. 74 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 11. O p e n bowl with flattened bottom outsloping walls, Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: direct r i m with rounded or tapered lip. R i m diam- 1. Bowl with flattened bottom, r o u n d e d shoulder, eter 10-24 cm. (fig. 41-11). slightly constricted mouth, direct r i m a n d flattened o rTEMPORAL DIFFERENCES W I T H I N THE T Y P E : Forms 4,6, and rounded lip. Between 2.5 a n d 3.5 cm. below t h e lip, 7 are absent during Period A ; Forms 1, 2, a n d 3 are absent the exterior surface is c u t back 1-3 m m . , r e m o v i n g during Period D ; F o r m 8 is restricted to Period B, F o r m this thickness for the entire distance, or allowing wall 9 to Periods C a n d D , a n d F o r m 10 to Period D . thickness to gradually increase toward t h e lip. R i mCHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Valdivia Plain is Diameter 12-30 cm. (fig. 4 2 - 1 ) . the d o m i n a n t unslipped plain type during Periods A a n d 2. R o u n d e d bowl with flattened or tetrapod base, walls B, declining to a minor frequency during Periods C a n d curving u p w a r d to nearly vertical r i m with r o u n d e d D (figs. 49, 52, 53). lip. Between 1 a n d 2 cm. below the lip, wall thickness is slightly to markedly expanded. R i m d i a m e t e r 18-32 cm. (fig. 4 2 - 2 ) . Valdivia Polished Plain 3. Bowl with flattened bottom, walls outsloping o r {Valdivia Pulido) almost vertical, interiorly thickened rim, r o u n d e d o rPASTE : tapered lip. T h e interior thickening has a n insloping Method of manufacture: Coiling; breakage along coil j u n c - flattened or slightly convex surface. R i m d i a m e t e r tions is frequent, revealing coils typically 1.5-2.0 c m . 12-30 cm. (fig. 4 2 - 3 ) . wide. 4. R o u n d e d bowl with flattened o r tetrapod base, Temper: Majority contains very fine sand, possibly a rounded shoulder, constricted m o u t h a n d direct natural component of t h e clay. A minority contains r i m with rounded lip. R i m diameter 1 4 - 2 8 c m . coarse particles u p to 4 m m . long, similar to the temper (fig. 42-4). characteristic of San Pablo Plain. 5. Shallow bowl with r o u n d e d or slightly flattened Texture: Sandy, fine grained, but poorly kneaded resulting bottom, walls outcurving to nearly vertical, direct in air pockets a n d a layered appearance. Fracture rim, rounded or tapered lip. R i m d i a m e t e r 1 4 - 3 2 very irregular, b u t edges not friable. cm. (fig. 4 2 - 5 ) . Color: Typically red-orange, tan, orange-brown or brown, 6. Bowl with r o u n d e d or slightly flattened b o t t o m , with a few examples gray-brown throughout t h e cross walls curving u p w a r d to slightly constricted m o u t h . section. Some sherds a r e fired t a n , orange or brown Between 2 a n d 4 cm. below the lip, exterior thickening along both surfaces leaving a m e d i u m to dark gray core. produces a n angular c o n t o u r enhanced b y a slight Firing: Oxidized, usually completely. incurving of t h e wall above this point. IncreasedSURFACE : body wall thickness m a y continue to t h e lip or taper. Color: Tile orange, t a n , orange-brown, brown, gray-tan, R i m diameter 12-34 c m . ; majority 2 4 - 3 4 c m . (fig. gray or black, with considerable variation on a single 42-6). sherd. Occasional fire clouds. 7. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, walls sloping Treatment: u p w a r d to join insloping u p p e r wall a t r o u n d e d to angular shoulder. Wall thickness is typically n o t Exterior: Polished to produce a n even, smooth a n d slick increased a t t h e carination. R i m d i a m e t e r 1 4 - 3 0 surface with a low luster (pi. 96). Best surfaces a r e cm. (fig. 4 2 - 7 ) . floated forming a thin fine-grained layer subject to 8. J a r with concave or flattened b o t t o m , r o u n d e d spalling. Some well polished surfaces m a y have a shoulder, short insloping to nearly vertical neck, streaky appearance. Occasionally, t h e surface is direct rim, flattened, tapered or r o u n d e d lip. R i m slightly u n d u l a t i n g or uneven. diameter 10-16 cm. (fig. 4 2 - 8 ) . Interior: O n a majority of bowls, t h e interior is finished 9. J a r with rounded body, concave neck, everted ex- like t h e exterior. O n t h e remainder it is less well teriorly thickened r i m with r o u n d e d or tapered lip. polished a n d m a y have a striated appearance. O n R i m diameter 12-20 cm. (fig. 4 2 - 9 ) . jars, t h e interior is scraped a n d smoothed, b u t shows ASSOCIATED DECORATION : Except for r a r e examples of F o r m no polishing. O n coarse tempered vessels, the temper 1 in which t h e exterior channel is colored r e d a n d occa- grains sometimes remain visible a n d m a y b e sur- sional u n d u l a t i n g or lobed lips, sherds classified as rounded by radiating fine crackle lines. Valdivia Polished Plain bear n o decoration. Hardness: 4 - 4 . 5 . TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : Form 1 isFORM: restricted to Periods A a n d B ; Forms 7 a n d 9 a r e absent Rim: Direct, expanded, interiorly thickened, exteriorly during Period A a n d F o r m 8 is absent from Period D . thickened, everted or carinated, with rounded, tapered T e t r a p o d bases a r e absent after Period B, concave bases or flattened lip. L i p m a y b e level or undulating after Period C. (lobed). CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F THE T Y P E : V a l d i v i a Polished Body wall thickness: R a n g e 3-9 m m . ; majority 5-7 m m . Plain begins a t t h e early p a r t of Period A, reaching its Base: Flattened a n d unthickened or thickened; concave m a x i m u m popularity d u r i n g t h e latter p a r t of Period A, (pi. 96n) or tetrapod (see Valdivia Polished R e d Base continuing throughout Periods B a n d C, declining Forms 4 a n d 5 (p. 76), a n dfig.43). markedly in Period D (figs. 49-50, 52-53).
  • 95. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDTvTA PHASE 75 mm U _j Ml« «W mw> am "/<li ; 0 I RIM 2 3 CM SCALE WW >«t ; / # / / / 1111111 O 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 41.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of San Pablo Plain and Valdivia Plain. -767-841—65 7
  • 96. 76 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 Valdivia Polished Red cm., with arrangement approximately symmetrical {Valdivia Rojo Pulido) (fig. 43a; pi. 97 e-i, 98 a-b).PASTE: 5. Concave, with a well defined, circular depression on Method of manufacture: Coiling. the exterior and a corresponding convexity on the Temper: Wide variation from fine sand, possibly a natural interior. The wall is rarely thickened either at the inclusion of the clay, to coarse, whitish inclusions of center or edges of the depression. Diameter ranges feldspar and waterworn shell of the type used in Valdivia from 4-10 cm., with the majority 6-7 cm.; depth is Brushed. 2-10 mm., with increased depth not consistently as- Texture: Typically fine, compact, sandy but not friable. sociated with increased diameter (fig. 43b; pis. 98c, Color: Solid orange, solid gray, or orange along both H6q). surfaces leaving a thin gray core. Common vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Firing: Incompletely to completely oxidized. 1. Bowl with flattened bottom, walls upcurving toSURFACE: nearly vertical rim with rounded or flattened lip. Color: Between 1.3 and 3.0 cm. below the lip, a jog is pro- Slipped surface: Exterior and rim interior of jars and duced by cutting the surface back 1-2 mm., decreasing both surfaces of open bowls are covered with a paper the body wall thickness by that amount between this thin, rich, dark red slip. Variation in firing produces point and the lip. Occasionally the inset zone may shades ranging from bright red to nearly black. lack the red slip. Lip is rarely undulating. Rim Unslipped surface: Tan, light orange, brown, or gray. diameter 12-32 cm., majority 18-22 cm. (fig. 44-1). Treatment: 2. Deep bowl with flattened bottom, rounded walls, Slipped surface: Typically, polished to produce a glossy, slightly outcurving to slightly incurving rim with smooth, even finish (pi. 97 c, j , 1, n). In a minority, rounded or tapered lip. The wall is exteriorly thick- the slip is not evenly applied and forms streaks that ened from 2-3 mm. for a distance of 2.5-4.5 cm. allow the underlying orange surface to show between. below the lip producing a broad-collar-like rim. The Polishing is sometimes striated rather than complete, lip is occasionally lobed. Rim diameter 14-20 cm. leaving the surface slightly uneven (pi. 97 b, d). (fig. 44-2). Slip typically begins just below the lip on the interior 3. Rounded bowl with slightly flattened bottom, walls and covers the exterior. Open bowls are also upcurving to vertical or slightly constricted rim with slipped on the interior. rounded lip. Beginning about 1.5 cm. below the Unslipped surface: Less well smoothed, sometimes leaving lip, body wall thickness expands and may attain at imperfections unobliterated, but typically polished the lip a thickness more than double that of the lower or striated polished (pi. 97 k, m, o). body wall. Rim diameter 14-28 cm. (fig. 44-3). Hardness: 3.5-4. 4. Shallow bowl with flattened bottom, walls outslop-FORM: ing to interiorly thickened rim with tapered or Rim: Direct, expanded, exteriorly thickened, interiorly rounded lip. Rim diameter 14-24 cm. (fig. 44-4). thickened, cambered or carinated, with rounded, 5. Rounded bowl with flattened or tetrapod base, con- flattened or tapered lip. Rim may be level, undulating stricted direct (rarely, expanded) rim with rounded or lobed (pi. 181 1-m). lip. Rim diameter 12-28 cm. (fig. 44-5). Body wall thickness: 5-11 mm. 6. Shallow bowl with flattened bottom, walls outcurving Base: Bases may be rounded, flattened, thickened, tetra- to direct rim with rounded or flattened, occasionally pod or concave. Details are as follows: undulating or lobed lip. Rim diameter 12-28 cm. 1. Rounded, continuing the curvature and thickness of (fig. 44-6; pi. 99b). the body wall, so that the junction between wall 7. Deep bowl with rounded or slightly flattened bottom, and base is undefinable. walls curving upward to nearly vertical rim with 2. Flattened, so that the vessel will rest without tipping, rounded or tapered lip. On the exterior 1.5-3.0 cm. but with the curvature blending into that of the body below the lip, the wall is thickened to produce an wall so that the diameter cannot be measured with angular contour. Occasionally, the thickening is accuracy. Flattening typically produces an unlevel accompanied by a slightly inward turn of the wall. surface and, therefore, often the rim is not horizontal. Rim diameter 16-22 cm. (fig. 44-7). 3. Thickened to between one quarter and one third 8. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, wall curving greater than the thickness of the body wall, and typi- outward to join the upper wall at a rounded angle cally flattened slightly on the exterior. 2.5-4.5 cm. below the rounded or flattened lip. Wall 4. Tetrapod, the four small, stubby, truncated conical thickness may increase slightly at the carination. feet flattened at the end and frequently showing ex- Rim diameter 16-32 cm., majority 18-24 cm. (fig. treme wear. Height of unworn specimens varies from 44-8; pi. 99a). 0.4-2.5 cm., with the majority 0.4-1.2 cm. Diameter 9. Carinated bowl with flattened bottom, wall curving increases with increased height, and at the point of upward to form an angular junction with the upper junction with the body wall ranges from 1.0-3.5 cm. wall, accompanied by thickening to produce a smooth On three sherds with more than one foot present, curve on the interior. Flattened or rounded lip. distance apart measured from center to center is 3-5 Rim diameter 14-20 cm. (fig. 44-9).
  • 97. WHOLE VOLUME THE VALDIVIA PHASE 77 /Wilt V> >)1W 0 1 2 3 CM RIM SCALE 1 1 1 I i i 1 0 4 8 12 CM VESSEL SCALE FIGURE 42.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished Plain.
  • 98. 78 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME 1 10. Bowl with rounded body separated from the rim Motif: Unslipped areas are most common on Form 1, by a constriction sometimes accompanied by a change where the inset zone adjacent to the rim exterior is in body wall curvature, creating a broad channel on frequently left plain. Only four examples were found the exterior. Lip is tapered or rounded and occasion- in which the red slip was employed to produce a more ally lobed or undulating. Rim diameter 14-26 cm. complicated pattern, three bowl interiors of Form 3 (fig. 44-10). and one exterior of Form 7 (Evans, Meggers and 11. J a r with concave or flattened base, rounded body, Estrada, 1959, fig. 32b). insloping to short nearly vertical neck, direct rim, Associated techniques: Except for occasional lobed or un- flattened or rounded lip. Rim diameter 8-22 cm. dulating rim treatment, none of the sherds classified as (fig. 44-11; pi. 99c). Valdivia Polished Red has any kind of decoration. 12. J a r with rounded body, slightly constricted neck Lobes are rectanguloid or curved and may be plain or and cambered rim. Rim diameter 12-16 cm. (fig. decorated with nicks spaced 3-10 mm. apart. 44-12). TEMPORAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE T Y P E : The majorityOCCASIONAL DECORATION : of the crudely-finished, poorly-smoothed or incompletely- Technique: In rare examples, the red slip is applied in- polished sherds come from the early part of Period A. completely, producing an ornamental effect. Edges of By the latter part of Period A, workmanship is typically zones are straight and sharply defined. of good quality, although variation in degree of evenness • i • i l 2 3 CM FIGURE 43.—Profiles of Valdivia Polished Red base forms, a, Tetrapod. b, Concave.
  • 99. WHOLE VOLUME T H E VALDIVIA PHASE 79 U))) ^lt) j/n 0 I 2 3 CM RIM SCALE ?M)) FIGURE 44.—Rim profiles and reconstructed vessel shapes of Valdivia Polished Red.
  • 100. 80 SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTHROPOLOGY VOLUME I a n d polish occurs throughout t h e sequence. A general 1 m m . ; occasional sherds have coarse temper, b u t this deterioration in quality is notable in Period D . Zoned is unusual. red for occasional decoration is restricted to Period A. Texture: F i n e grained, compact, sandy b u t n o t friable; T h e only vessel shapes represented in Period D a r e occasional long thin, lenticular air pockets. Forms 6 a n d 11. Forms 8 a n d 12 are restricted to Period Color: A b o u t 60 percent a r e bright orange t h r o u g h t h e C. Forms 9 a n d 10 a p p e a r to be restricted t o Periods B cross section; t h e r e m a i n d e r h a v e a m e d i u m g r a y o r and C, b u t are relatively rare a n d m a y not b e represented gray-brown cross section. in t h e small samples analyzed from Period A. Lobed or SURFACE: undulating rims are restricted to Periods A a n d B. Color: Orange, light t a n , brown, gray-brown o r black, T e t r a p o d bases are absent after the first p a r t of Period B ; the latter t h e result of fire clouding. Exterior a n d concave bases continue into Period C. interior generally have similar hues except w h e r e one hasCHRONOLOGICAL POSITION O F T H E T Y P E : Valdivia Polished a fire cloud. A r e d slip is occasionally applied t o die R e d is c o m m o n in Periods A a n d B, attaining a frequency r i m a n d neck interior of jars, o r rarely to t h e exterior. of 30-40 percent of the total sherds in some levels of t h e Treatment: G r e a t variation within t h e type from polished seriated sequence in Period A. I t declines markedly in to smooth to gritty a n d uneven, b u t little variation o n popularity in Period C, a n d in Period D is reduced to a a n individual sherd. Gashed punctates a r e associated very minor proportion of all t h e pottery types (figs. 4 9 - with t h e poorest surface finish. R e d slipped areas a r e 50, 52-53). well smoothed a n d polished. Hardness: 3.5-4. Valdivia Pseudo-Corrugated FORM: {Valdivia Corrugado Falso) Rim: Direct or exteriorly thickened, w i t h r o u n d e d lip.PASTE AND SURFACE : O n Valdivia Plain (p. 7 2 ) ; see that Body wall thickness: 6-11 m m . type description for details. Base: Probably slightly flattened or r o u n d e d .FORM: Vessel shapes reconstructed from sherds: Rim: T h e single r i m sherd is slightly thickened on t h e 1. J a r with r o u n d e d body, constricted concave-walled exterior, tapering to a rounded lip. neck, slightly everted exteriorly thickened r i m w i t h Body wall thickness: A-l m m . rounded or tapered lip. R i m d i a m e t e r 16-32 c m . Base: Probably slightly flattened or rounded. (fig. 4 5 - 1 ) . Vessel shape reconstructed from sherds: 2. J a r with r o u n d e d body, slightly concave-walled 1. J a r with rounded body, insloping neck, slightly ex- neck, direct rim with flattened or r o u n d e d lip. R i m teriorly thickened r i m a n d rounded lip. Decoration diameter 10-22 cm. (fig. 4 5 - 2 ) . begins a t t h e lower edge of t h e r i m thickening. 3. R o u n d e d bowl with constricted m o u t h , direct r i m Several body sherds show decoration extending from a n d rounded lip. M o u t h d i a m e t e r 6 - 2 4 c m . (fig. the base of t h e neck to a little below t h e m a x i m u m 45-3). body diameter. Small size of sherds makes mo