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CDMA Introducton

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  • 1. May, 2002 7 - 1Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterTechnicalIntroduction to CDMATechnicalIntroduction to CDMACourse 132
  • 2. May, 2002 7 - 2Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCourse Outlines Basic CDMA Principles• Coding• Forward and Reverse Channelss CDMA Operational Details• Multiplexing, Forward and Reverse Power Controls CDMA Handset Architectures CDMA Handoffss CDMA Network Architectures CDMA Messaging and Call Flows Optional Topicss Wireless Multiple Access Technologiess Overview of Current Technologies• Capacity; CDMA Overlays, Spectrum Clearing
  • 3. May, 2002 7 - 3Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection AHow Does CDMA Work?Introduction to Basic PrinciplesHow Does CDMA Work?Introduction to Basic Principles
  • 4. May, 2002 7 - 4Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterClaude Shannon:The Einstein of Information Theorys The core idea that makes CDMApossible was first explained byClaude Shannon, a Bell Labsresearch mathematicians Shannons work relates amountof information carried, channelbandwidth, signal-to-noise-ratio,and detection error probability• It shows the theoreticalupper limit attainableIn 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmarkpaper on information theory, A MathematicalTheory of Communication. He observed that"the fundamental problem of communication isthat of reproducing at one point either exactly orapproximately a message selected at anotherpoint." His paper so clearly established thefoundations of information theory that hisframework and terminology are standard today.Shannon died Feb. 24, 2001, at age 84.SHANNON’SCAPACITY EQUATIONC = Bω log2 [ 1 + ]SNBω = bandwidth in HertzC = channel capacity in bits/secondS = signal powerN = noise power
  • 5. May, 2002 7 - 5Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA: Using A New Dimensions All CDMA users occupy the same frequencyat the same time! Frequency and time arenot used as discriminatorss CDMA operates by using CODING todiscriminate between userss CDMA interference comes mainly fromnearby userss Each user is a small voice in a roaringcrowd -- but with a uniquely recoverablecodeCDMAFigure of Merit: C/I(carrier/interference ratio)AMPS: +17 dBTDMA: +14 to +17 dBGSM: +7 to 9 dB.CDMA: -10 to -17 dB.CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.
  • 6. May, 2002 7 - 6Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterTwo Types of CDMAThere are Two types of CDMA:s Frequency-Hopping• Each user’s narrowband signal hopsamong discrete frequencies, and thereceiver follows in sequence• Frequency-Hopping SpreadSpectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOTcurrently used in wireless systems,although used by the militarys Direct Sequence• narrowband input from a user iscoded (“spread”) by a user-uniquebroadband code, then transmitted• broadband signal is received;receiver knows, applies user’s code,recovers users’ data• Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum(DSSS) CDMA IS the method usedin IS-95 commercial systemsUser 1Code 1CompositeTime Frequency+=Direct Sequence CDMAUser 1 User 2 User 3 User 4Frequency Hopping CDMAUser 3 User 4 User 1 unused User 2User 1 User 4 User 3 User 2 unusedFrequencyunused User 1 User 2 User 4 User 3
  • 7. May, 2002 7 - 7Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterDSSS Spreading: Time-Domain ViewAt Originating Site:s Input A: User’s Data @19,200 bits/seconds Input B: Walsh Code #23@ 1.2288 Mcpss Output: Spreadspectrum signalAt Destination Site:s Input A: Receivedspread spectrum signals Input B: Walsh Code #23@ 1.2288 Mcpss Output: User’s Data @19,200 bits/second justas originally sent Drawn to actual scale and time alignmentvia air interfaceXORExclusive-ORGate11Input A: Received SignalInput B: Spreading CodeOutput: User’s Original DataInput A: User’s DataInput B: Spreading CodeSpread Spectrum SignalXORExclusive-ORGateOriginating SiteDestination Site
  • 8. May, 2002 7 - 8Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSpreading from a Frequency-Domain Views Traditional technologies tryto squeeze signal intominimum requiredbandwidths CDMA uses largerbandwidth but usesresulting processing gain toincrease capacitySpread Spectrum Payoff:Processing GainSpread SpectrumTRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMSlowInformationSentTXSlowInformationRecoveredRXNarrowbandSignalSPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEMFastSpreadingSequenceSlowInformationSentTXSlowInformationRecoveredRXFastSpreadingSequenceWidebandSignal
  • 9. May, 2002 7 - 9Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe CDMA Spread Spectrum Payoff:Would you like a lump-sum, or monthly payments?s Shannons work suggests that a certainbit rate of information deserves acertain bandwidths If one CDMA user is carried alone by aCDMA signal, the processing gain islarge - roughly 21 db for an 8k vocoder.• Each doubling of the number ofusers consumes 3 db of theprocessing gain• Somewhere above 32 users, thesignal-to-noise ratio becomesundesirable and the ultimatecapacity of the sector is reacheds Practical CDMA systems restrict thenumber of users per sector to ensureprocessing gain remains at usablelevels# Users Processing Gain1 21 db2 18 db4 15 db8 12 db16 9 db32 6 db64…..Uh, Regis, can I justtake the money Ive alreadywon, and go home now?CDMA Spreading GainConsider a user with a 9600bps vocoder talking on aCDMA signal 1,228,800 hzwide. The processing gain is1,228,800/9600 = 128, whichis 21 db. What happens ifadditional users are added?
  • 10. May, 2002 7 - 10Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Uses Code Channelss A CDMA signal uses many chips to convey justone bit of informations Each user has a unique chip pattern, in effect acode channels To recover a bit, integrate a large number of chipsinterpreted by the user’s known code patterns Other users’ code patterns appear random andintegrate in a random self-canceling fashion, don’tdisturb the bit decoding decision being made withthe proper code patternBuilding aBuilding aCDMA SignalCDMA SignalBitsfrom User’s VocoderSymbolsChipsForward ErrorCorrectionCoding andSpreading
  • 11. May, 2002 7 - 11Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHow a BTS Sector Serves Multiple UsersΣΣΣΣif 1 =if 0 =1AnalogSummingUsersQPSK RFΣΣΣΣDemodulatedReceivedCDMA SignalDespreading Sequence(Locally Generated, =0)matchesoppositeDecision:Matches!( = 0 )TimeIntegration1Opposite( =1)+10-26Received energy: Correlation-16BTSThis figure illustrates the basic technique ofCDMA signal generation and recovery.The actual coding process used in IS-95 CDMA includesa few additional layers, as we’ll see in following slides.
  • 12. May, 2002 7 - 12Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSpreading: What we do, we can undos Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence, transmitsspread data streams Receiver intercepts the stream, uses same spreading sequenceto extract original dataORIGINATING SITE DESTINATIONSpreadingSequenceSpreadingSequenceInputDataRecoveredDataSpread Data Stream
  • 13. May, 2002 7 - 13Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott Baxter“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMAs Whether in shipping and receiving, or in CDMA, packaging isextremely important!s Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and toallow addressings The shipper packs in a certain order, and the receiver unpacks inthe reverse orders CDMA “containers” are spreading codesFedExData MailerFedExDataMailerShipping Receiving
  • 14. May, 2002 7 - 14Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequencess CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to createunique, robust channelss The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receivingends of each links “What we do, we can undo”SpreadingSequenceASpreadingSequenceBSpreadingSequenceCSpreadingSequenceCSpreadingSequenceBSpreadingSequenceAInputDataXRecoveredDataXX+A X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B X+ASpread-Spectrum Chip StreamsORIGINATING SITE DESTINATION
  • 15. May, 2002 7 - 15Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOne of the CDMA Spreading Sequences:Walsh Codess 64 “Magic” Sequences, each 64 chips longs Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonalwith respect to all other Walsh Codes• it’s simple to generate the codes, or• they’re small enough to use from ROMWALSH CODES# ---------------------------------- 64-Chip Sequence ------------------------------------------0 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 01010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101012 00110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100113 01100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001104 00001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011115 01011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110106 00111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111007 01101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010018 00000000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111119 010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010010101011010101010 001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100001100111100110011 011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001011001101001100112 000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111000013 010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010010114 001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100001115 011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001011016 000000000000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111117 010101010101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101018 001100110011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110019 011001100110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100120 000011110000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000021 010110100101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010122 001111000011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001123 011010010110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011024 000000001111111111111111000000000000000011111111111111110000000025 010101011010101010101010010101010101010110101010101010100101010126 001100111100110011001100001100110011001111001100110011000011001127 011001101001100110011001011001100110011010011001100110010110011028 000011111111000011110000000011110000111111110000111100000000111129 010110101010010110100101010110100101101010100101101001010101101030 001111001100001111000011001111000011110011000011110000110011110031 011010011001011010010110011010010110100110010110100101100110100132 000000000000000000000000000000001111111111111111111111111111111133 010101010101010101010101010101011010101010101010101010101010101034 001100110011001100110011001100111100110011001100110011001100110035 011001100110011001100110011001101001100110011001100110011001100136 000011110000111100001111000011111111000011110000111100001111000037 010110100101101001011010010110101010010110100101101001011010010138 001111000011110000111100001111001100001111000011110000111100001139 011010010110100101101001011010011001011010010110100101101001011040 000000001111111100000000111111111111111100000000111111110000000041 010101011010101001010101101010101010101001010101101010100101010142 001100111100110000110011110011001100110000110011110011000011001143 011001101001100101100110100110011001100101100110100110010110011044 000011111111000000001111111100001111000000001111111100000000111145 010110101010010101011010101001011010010101011010101001010101101046 001111001100001100111100110000111100001100111100110000110011110047 011010011001011001101001100101101001011001101001100101100110100148 000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111000000000000000049 010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010010101010101010150 001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100001100110011001151 011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001011001100110011052 000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000000011110000111153 010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101010110100101101054 001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011001111000011110055 011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110011010010110100156 000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000000000001111111157 010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101010101011010101058 001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011001100111100110059 011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110011001101001100160 000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111000011111111000061 010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010010110101010010162 001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100001111001100001163 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110EXAMPLE:Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59#23 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110#59 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001Sum 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111Correlation Results: 32 1’s, 32 0’s: Orthogonal!!Unique Properties:Mutual Orthogonality
  • 16. May, 2002 7 - 16Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOther Sequences: Generation & Propertiess Other CDMA sequences aregenerated in shift registerss Plain shift register: no fun,sequence = length of registers Tapped shift register generates awild, self-mutating sequence 2N-1chips long (N=register length)• Such sequences match ifcompared in step (no-brainer,any sequence matches itself)• Such sequences appearapproximately orthogonal ifcompared with themselves notexactly matched in time• false correlation typically <2%A Tapped, Summing Shift RegisterSequence repeats every 2N-1 chips,where N is number of cells in registerAn Ordinary Shift RegisterSequence repeats every N chips,where N is number of cells in registerA Special Characteristic of SequencesGenerated in Tapped Shift RegistersCompared In-Step: Matches ItselfComplete Correlation: All 0’sSum:Self, in sync:Sequence:Compared Shifted: Little CorrelationPractically Orthogonal: Half 1’s, Half 0’sSum:Self, Shifted:Sequence:
  • 17. May, 2002 7 - 17Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAnother CDMA Spreading Sequence:The Short PN Codes The short PN code consists of twoPN Sequences, I and Q, each32,768 chips long• Generated in similar butdifferently-tapped 15-bit shiftregisters• They’re always used together,modulating the two phase axesof a QPSK modulatorIQ32,768 chips long26-2/3 ms.(75 repetitions in 2 sec.)CDMA QPSK Phase ModulatorUsing I and Q PN SequencesI-sequenceQ-sequenceΣΣΣΣcos ωtsin ωωωωtchipinputQPSK-modulatedRFOutput** In BTS, I and Q are used in-phase.In handset, Q is delayed 1/2 chip toavoid zero-amplitude crossings whichwould require a linear power amplifier
  • 18. May, 2002 7 - 18Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThird CDMA Spreading Sequence: Long CodeGeneration & Masking to establish Offsets Generated in a 42-bit register, the PN Long code is more than 40 dayslong (~4x1013 chips) -- too big to store in ROM in a handset, so it’sgenerated chip-by-chip using the scheme shown aboves Each handset codes its signal with the PN Long Code, but at a uniqueoffset computed using its ESN (32 bits) and 10 bits set by the system• this is called the “Public Long Code Mask”; produces unique shift• private long code masks are available for enhanced privacys Integrated over a period even as short as 64 chips, phones with differentPN long code offsets will appear practically orthogonalLong Code Register(@ 1.2288 MCPS)Public Long Code Mask(STATIC)User Long CodeSequence(@1.2288 MCPS)1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 PERMUTED ESNAND=SUMModulo-2 Addition
  • 19. May, 2002 7 - 19Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterPutting it All Together: CDMA Channelss The three spreading codes are used in different ways to create theforward and reverse linkss A forward channel exists by having a specific Walsh Codeassigned to the user, and a specific PN offset for the sectors A reverse channel exists because the mobile uses a specific offsetof the Long PN sequenceBTSWALSH CODE: Individual UserSHORT PN OFFSET: SectorLONG CODE OFFSET:individual handsetFORWARD CHANNELSREVERSE CHANNELSLONG CODE:DataScramblingWALSH CODES:used as symbolsfor robustnessSHORT PN:used at 0 offsetfor trackingOneSector
  • 20. May, 2002 7 - 20Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection BIS-95 CDMA Forward andReverse ChannelsIS-95 CDMA Forward andReverse Channels
  • 21. May, 2002 7 - 21Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHow a BTS Builds the Forward Code ChannelsBSC orAccessManagerBTS (1 sector)FECWalsh #1Sync FECWalsh #32FECWalsh #0FECWalsh #12FECWalsh #27FECWalsh #44PilotPagingVocoderVocoderVocoderVocodermore moreShort PN CodePN Offset 246Trans-mitter,Sector XSwitchmorea Channel ElementA Forward Channelis identified by:❖ its CDMA RFcarrier Frequency❖ the unique ShortCode PN Offset ofthe sector❖ the unique WalshCode of the userFECWalsh #23ΣΣΣΣQΣΣΣΣIxx+cos ωωωωtsin ωωωωtI Q
  • 22. May, 2002 7 - 22Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterFunctions of the CDMA Forward Channelss PILOT: WALSH CODE 0• The Pilot is a “structural beacon” whichdoes not contain a character stream. It is atiming source used in system acquisitionand as a measurement device duringhandoffss SYNC: WALSH CODE 32• This carries a data stream of systemidentification and parameter informationused by mobiles during system acquisitions PAGING: WALSH CODES 1 up to 7• There can be from one to seven pagingchannels as determined by capacity needs.They carry pages, system parametersinformation, and call setup orderss TRAFFIC: any remaining WALSH codes• The traffic channels are assigned toindividual users to carry call traffic. Allremaining Walsh codes are available,subject to overall capacity limited by noisePilot Walsh 0Walsh 19Paging Walsh 1Walsh 6Walsh 11Walsh 20Sync Walsh 32Walsh 42Walsh 37Walsh 41Walsh 56Walsh 60Walsh 55
  • 23. May, 2002 7 - 23Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCode Channels in the Reverse DirectionBSC,CBSC,AccessManagerSwitch BTS (1 sector)Channel ElementAccess ChannelsVocoderVocoderVocoderVocodermore moreReceiver,Sector XA Reverse Channel is identified by:❖ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency❖ the unique Long Code PN Offsetof the individual handsetChannel ElementChannel ElementChannel ElementLong Code GenLong Code GenLong Code GenLong Code Genmorea Channel ElementLongCodeoffset LongCodeoffset LongCodeoffsetLongCodeoffsetLongCodeoffsetLongCodeoffsetChannel ElementLong Code Gen
  • 24. May, 2002 7 - 24Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterREG1-8002424444BTSAlthough a sector can have up to seven paging channels, and each paging channelcan have up to 32 access channels, nearly all systems today use only one pagingchannel per sector and only one access channel per paging channel.Functions of the CDMA Reverse ChannelsThere are two types of CDMA Reverse Channels:s TRAFFIC CHANNELS are used by individual usersduring their actual calls to transmit traffic to the BTS• a reverse traffic channel is really just a user-specificpublic or private Long Code mask• there are as many reverse Traffic Channels as thereare CDMA phones in the world!s ACCESS CHANNELS are used by mobiles not yet in acall to transmit registration requests, call setuprequests, page responses, order responses, and othersignaling information• an access channel is really just a public long codeoffset unique to the BTS sector• Access channels are paired to Paging Channels.Each paging channel can have up to 32 accesschannels.
  • 25. May, 2002 7 - 25Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBasic CDMA Network ArchitectureAccess Manageror (C)BSCSwitch BTSCh. Card ACCΣαΣβΣχTFU1GPSRBSMCDSUCDSUSBSVocodersSelectorsCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCMSLMLPP LPPENETDTCsDMS-BUSTxcvrATxcvrBTxcvrCRFFEARFFEBRFFECTFUGPSRGPS GPSIOCPSTNCDSU DISCOCDSUDISCO 1DISCO 2DS0 in T1PacketsChipsRFChannelElementVocoder
  • 26. May, 2002 7 - 26Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterForward Traffic Channel:Generation Details from IS-95WalshfunctionPowerControlBitI PN9600 bps4800 bps2400 bps1200 bpsor14400 bps7200 bps3600 bps1800 bps(From Vocoder)ConvolutionalEncoding andRepetition SymbolPuncturing(13 kb only)1.2288McpsLong PN CodeGeneration19.2ksps800 HzR = 1/2Q PNDecimator DecimatorUser AddressMask(ESN-based)19.2ksps1.2288McpsScramblingbits symbols chips19.2ksps28.8kspsCHANNEL ELEMENTMUXBlockInterleaving
  • 27. May, 2002 7 - 27Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterReverse Traffic Channel:Generation Details from IS-959600 bps4800 bps2400 bps1200 bpsor14400 bps7200 bps3600 bps1800 bps28.8kspsR = 1/31.2288McpsUser AddressMaskLongPN CodeGenerator28.8ksps OrthogonalModulationData BurstRandomizer307.2kcps1.2288McpsQ PN(no offset)I PN(no offset)D1/2 PNChipDelayDirectSequenceSpreadingR = 1/2ConvolutionalEncoder &RepetitionBlockInterleaver
  • 28. May, 2002 7 - 28Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection CIS-95 Operational DetailsVocoding, Multiplexing, Power ControlIS-95 Operational DetailsVocoding, Multiplexing, Power Control
  • 29. May, 2002 7 - 29Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterVariable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexings Vocoders compress speech, reduce bitrate, greatly increasing capacitys CDMA uses a superior Variable RateVocoder• full rate during speech• low rates in speech pauses• increased capacity• more natural sounds Voice, signaling, and user secondarydata may be mixed in CDMA framesDSP QCELP VOCODERCodebookPitchFilterFormantFilterCoded Result Feed-back20ms SampleFrame SizesbitsFull Rate Frame1/2 Rate Frame1/4 Rt.1/83672144288Frame Contents: can be a mixture ofPrimaryTraffic(Voice ordata)Signaling(SystemMessaging)Secondary(On-Airactivation, etc)
  • 30. May, 2002 7 - 30Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterForward Power Controls The BTS continually reduces the strength of each user’s forwardbaseband chip streams When a particular handset sees errors on the forward link, itrequests more energys The complainer’s chip stream gets a quick boost; afterward,continues to diminishs Each network manufacturer uses FER-based triggers and initial,minimum, and maximum traffic channel DGU valuesForwardRFBSC BTS (1 sector)SyncPilotPagingmoreShort PNTrans-mitter,Sector XΣΣΣΣ I QUser 1User 2User 3Vocoder/SelectorHelp!
  • 31. May, 2002 7 - 31Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterReverse Power Controls Three methods work in tandem to equalize all handset signal levelsat the BTS• Reverse Open Loop: handset adjusts power up or down basedon received BTS signal (AGC)• Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS tells up ordown 1 dB 800 times/second• Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing handset?BSC adjusts BTS setpointRX RFTX RF DigitalBTSBSCSetpointBad FER?Raise SetpointStronger thansetpoint?ReverseRF800 bits per secondOccasionally,as neededHandsetOpenLoopClosedLoopDigital
  • 32. May, 2002 7 - 32Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterDetails of Reverse Link Power Controls TXPO Handset Transmit Power• Actual RF power output of thehandset transmitter, includingcombined effects of openloop power control fromreceiver AGC and closedloop power control by BTS• can’t exceed handset’smaximum (typ. +23 dBm)s TXGA Transmit Gain Adjust• Sum of all closed-looppower control commandsfrom the BTS since thebeginning of this callTXPODUP x ≈≈≈≈ IFLNASubscriber HandsetRRRSRakeΣΣΣΣViterbiDecoderVocoder∼∼∼∼FECOrthModLong PNxxxIF ModIQx ~LOOpen LoopLOClosed Loop Pwr CtrlIFReceiver>><<TransmitterPABTSTypical TXPO:+23 dBm in a coverage hole0 dBm near middle of cell-50 dBm up close to BTS0 dB-10 dB-20 dBTypical Transmit Gain AdjustTime, SecondsTXPO = -(RXdbm) -C + TXGAC = +73 for 800 MHz. systems= +76 for 1900 MHz. systems
  • 33. May, 2002 7 - 33Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Network ArchitectureCDMA Network Architecture
  • 34. May, 2002 7 - 34Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott Baxter170 OC-192son One Fiber Strand!!North American Heirarchyin Copper Media64,512 OC-192 10 Gb/s32,256 OC-96 5 Gb/s16,128 OC-48 2.5 Gb/s8,064 OC-24 1.2 Gb/s4,032 OC-12 622 Mb/s2,016 OC-3 155 Mb/sDS-0Telecom Transmission Standardss Worldwide telecom rideson the standard signalformats shown at lefts Lower speeds are used oncopper twisted pairs orcoaxial cables Higher speeds are carriedon fibers Multiplexers bundle andunbundle channelss Channelized andunchannelized modes areprovided64 kb/sDS-01.544 Mb/sDS-1/T-1= 24 DS-0~45 Mb/sDS-3= 28 DS-1= 672 DS-051.84 Mb/sOC-1= 28 DS-1= 672 DS-0 European Heirarchyin Copper Media64 kb/sDS-02.036 Mb/sE-1= 28+2 DS-0FIBER
  • 35. May, 2002 7 - 35Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBASE STATIONCONTROLLERSUPPORTFUNCTIONSBASE STATIONSMobile TelephoneSwitching OfficePSTNLocal CarriersLong DistanceCarriersATM Linkto other CDMANetworks(Future)Structure of a Typical CDMA SystemVoice Mail System SWITCHHLR Home Location Register(subscriber database)
  • 36. May, 2002 7 - 36Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Path of a Call through the CDMA NetworkBSC-BSMMTX BTSCh. Card ACCΣαΣβΣχTFU1GPSRBSMCDSUCDSUSBSVocodersSelectorsCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCMSLMLPP LPPENETDTCsDMS-BUSTxcvrATxcvrBTxcvrCRFFEARFFEBRFFECTFUGPSRGPS GPSIOCPSTNCDSU DISCOCDSUDISCO 1DISCO 2DS0 in T1PacketsChipsRFChannelElementVocoder
  • 37. May, 2002 7 - 37Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection DA Quick Introduction toCDMA Messages and Call ProcessingA Quick Introduction toCDMA Messages and Call Processing
  • 38. May, 2002 7 - 38Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMessages in CDMAs In CDMA, most call processing events are driven by messagess Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carryingmessages; they never carry user’s voice traffic• Sync Channel (a forward channel)• Paging Channel (a forward channel)• Access Channel (a reverse channel)• On these channels, there are only messages, continuously allof the times Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic• Forward Traffic Channel• Reverse Traffic Channel• On these channels, most of the time is filled with traffic andmessages are sent only when there is something to dos All CDMA messages have very similar structure, regardless of thechannel on which they are sent
  • 39. May, 2002 7 - 39Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHow CDMA Messages are Sents CDMA messages on both forwardand reverse traffic channels arenormally sent via dim-and-bursts Messages include many fields ofbinary datas The first byte of each messageidentifies message type: this allowsthe recipient to parse the contentss To ensure no messages aremissed, all CDMA messages bearserial numbers and importantmessages contain a bit requestingacknowledgments Messages not promptlyacknowledged are retransmittedseveral times. If not acknowledged,the sender may release the calls Field data processing tools captureand display the messages for studyMSG_TYPE (‘00000110’)ACK_SEQMSG_SEQACK_REQENCRYPTIONERRORS_DETECTEDPOWER_MEAS_FRAMESLAST_HDM_SEQNUM_PILOTSPILOT_STRENGTHRESERVED (‘0’s)833125102460-7NUM_PILOTS occurrences of this field:Field Length(in bits)EXAMPLE:A POWER MEASUREMENTREPORT MESSAGEt
  • 40. May, 2002 7 - 40Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMessage Vocabulary: Acquisition & Idle StatesSync ChannelSync Channel MsgPilot ChannelNo MessagesPaging ChannelAccess Parameters MsgSystem Parameters MsgCDMA Channel List MsgExtended SystemParameters MsgExtended NeighborList MsgGlobal ServiceRedirection MsgOrder Msg•Base Station Acknowledgment•Lock until Power-Cycled• Maintenance requiredmany others…..AuthenticationChallenge MsgStatus Request MsgFeature Notification MsgTMSI Assignment MsgChannel AssignmentMsgSSD Update MsgService Redirection MsgGeneral Page MsgNull Msg Data Burst MsgAccess ChannelRegistration MsgOrder Msg• Mobile Station Acknowldgment• Long Code Transition Request• SSD Update Confirmationmany others…..Origination MsgPage Response MsgAuthentication ChallengeResponse MsgStatus Response MsgTMSI AssignmentCompletion MessageData Burst MsgBTS
  • 41. May, 2002 7 - 41Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMessage Vocabulary: Conversation StateReverse Traffic ChannelOrder Message• Mobile Sta. Acknowledgment•Long Code TransitionRequest• SSD Update Confirmation• ConnectAuthentication ChallengeResponse MsgFlash WithInformation MsgData Burst MessagePilot StrengthMeasurement MsgPower MeasurementReport MsgSend Burst DTMF MsgOriginationContinuation MsgHandoff Completion MsgParameters ResponseMessageService Request MsgService Response MsgService ConnectCompletion MessageService Option ControlMessageStatus Response MsgTMSI AssignmentCompletion MessageForward Traffic ChannelOrder Msg• Base Station Acknowledgment• Base Station ChallengeConfirmation• Message Encryption ModeAuthenticationChallenge MsgAlert WithInformation MsgData Burst MsgAnalog HandoffDirection MsgIn-Traffic SystemParameters MsgNeighbor ListUpdate MsgSend Burst DTMF MsgPower ControlParameters Msg.Retrieve Parameters MsgSet Parameters MsgSSD Update MsgFlash WithInformation MsgMobile StationRegistered MsgStatus Request MsgExtended HandoffDirection MsgService Request MsgService Response MsgService Connect MsgService OptionControl MsgTMSI Assignment Msg
  • 42. May, 2002 7 - 42Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection ECDMA Handset ArchitectureCDMA HandoffsCDMA Handset ArchitectureCDMA Handoffs
  • 43. May, 2002 7 - 43Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterWhat’s In a Handset? How does it work?ReceiverRF SectionIF, DetectorTransmitterRF SectionVocoderDigitalRake ReceiverTraffic CorrelatorPN xxx Walsh xxΣΣΣΣTraffic CorrelatorPN xxx Walsh xxTraffic CorrelatorPN xxx Walsh xxPilot SearcherPN xxx Walsh 0Viterbi Decoder,Convl. Decoder,DemultiplexerCPUDuplexerTransmitterDigital SectionLong Code Gen.OpenLoopTransmit Gain AdjustMessagesMessagesAudioAudioPacketsSymbolsSymbolsChipsRFRFAGC
  • 44. May, 2002 7 - 44Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Rake Receivers Every frame, handset uses combined outputs of the three trafficcorrelators (“rake fingers”)s Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset andWalsh codes Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections, or even ondifferent BTSss Searcher continuously checks pilotsHandset Rake ReceiverRFPN WalshPN WalshPN WalshSearcherPN W=0ΣVoice,Data,MessagesPilot Ec/IoBTSBTS
  • 45. May, 2002 7 - 45Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Soft Handoff Mechanicss CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset• Handset continuously checks available pilots• Handset tells system pilots it currently sees• System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.), tells handset• Handset assigns its fingers accordingly• All messages sent by dim-and-burst, no muting!s Each end of the link chooses what works best, on a frame-by-framebasis!• Users are totally unaware of handoffHandset Rake ReceiverRFPN WalshPN WalshPN WalshSearcherPN W=0ΣVoice,Data,MessagesPilot Ec/IoBTSBSCSwitchBTSSel.
  • 46. May, 2002 7 - 46Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Complete Rules of Soft Handoffs The Handset considers pilots in sets• Active: pilots of sectors actually in use• Candidates: pilots mobile requested, butnot yet set up & transmitting by system• Neighbors: pilots told to mobile by system,as nearby sectors to check• Remaining: any pilots used by system butnot already in the other sets (div. by PILOT_INC)s Handset sends Pilot Strength MeasurementMessage to the system whenever:• It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining setexceeds T_ADD• An active set pilot drops below T_DROP forT_TDROP time• A candidate pilot exceeds an active byT_COMPs The System may set up all requested handoffs,or it may apply special manufacturer-specificscreening criteria and only authorize some65RemainingActiveCandidateNeighbor 20PILOT SETSMin.MembersReq’d.ByStd.T_COMPT_ADD T_DROPT_TDROPHANDOFFPARAMETERSExercise: How does a pilotin one set migrate intoanother set, for all cases?Identify the trigger, and themessages involved.
  • 47. May, 2002 7 - 47Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSofter Handoffs Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilots Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wantss If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset, this iscalled Softer Handoffs Handset can’t tell the difference, but softer handoff occurs in BTS ina single channel elements Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multipleBTS & sectorsHandset Rake ReceiverRFPN WalshPN WalshPN WalshSearcherPN W=0ΣVoice,Data,MessagesPilot Ec/IoBTSBSCSwitchSel.
  • 48. May, 2002 7 - 48Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterWhat is Ec/Io?s Ec/Io• “cleanness” of the pilot– foretells the readability ofthe associated trafficchannels• guides soft handoff decisions• digitally derived: ratio of goodto bad energy seen by thesearch correlator at thedesired PN offset• Never appears higher thanPilot’s percentage of servingcell’s transmitted energy• Can be degraded by strongRF from other cells, sectors– Imperfect orthogonality,other PNs are ~-20 dB.• Can be degraded by noiseEc/Io dB-25 -15 -10 0EcIoEnergy ofdesired pilot aloneTotal energy received
  • 49. May, 2002 7 - 49Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Call ProcessingCDMA Call ProcessingSection F
  • 50. May, 2002 7 - 50Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s Acquire the System!Let’s Acquire the System!Example 1
  • 51. May, 2002 7 - 51Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterFind a Frequency with a CDMA RF SignalMobile scans forward link frequencies:(Cellular or PCS, depending on model)History ListPreferred Roaming Listuntil a CDMA signal is found.NO CDMA?! Go to AMPS,or to a power-saving standby modeHISTORYLIST/MRULast-used:FreqFreqFreqFreqFreqetc.FREQUENCY LISTS:PREFERREDROAMINGLIST/PRLSystem1System2System3System4System5etc.Forward Link Frequencies(Base Station Transmit)A D B E F Cunlic.dataunlic.voice A D B E F C1850MHz. 1910MHz. 1990 MHz.1930MHz.1900 MHz. PCS Spectrum824 MHz. 835 845 870 880 894869849846.5825890891.5Paging, ESMR, etc.A B A B800 MHz. Cellular SpectrumReverse Link Frequencies(Mobile Transmit)
  • 52. May, 2002 7 - 52Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHow Idle Mobiles Choose CDMA Carrierss At turnon, Idle mobiles use proprietary algorithms to find the initial CDMAcarrier intended for them to uses Within that CDMA signal, two types of paging channel messages couldcause the idle mobile to choose another frequency: CDMA Channel ListMessage and GSRMGo to lastfrequencyfrom MRUStrongestPN, readSyncIs SIDpermitted?No SignalPreferredOnly Bit 0Denied SIDReadPagingChannelCDMA ChList MessageGlobal SvcRedir MsgHASH usingIMSImy ACCOLC?redirectIs betterSIDavailable?PRLMRU Acq IdxYesNoF1F2F3to Analogto another CDMA frequency or systemConfigMessages:remainSteps fromthe CDMAstandardsSteps fromproprietarySDAsProprietarySDAdatabasesStartLegendTypical MobileSystem Determination Algorithm
  • 53. May, 2002 7 - 53Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterFind Strongest Pilot, Read Sync ChannelRake Fingers!"#Reference PNActive PilotEc/Io0032K512ChipsPN1. Pilot Searcher Scans the Entire Range of PNsAll PN Offsets0-2098/05/24 23:14:09.817 [SCH]MSG_LENGTH = 208 bitsMSG_TYPE = Sync Channel MessageP_REV = 3MIN_P_REV = 2SID = 179NID = 0PILOT_PN = 168Offset IndexLC_STATE = 0x0348D60E013SYS_TIME = 98/05/24 23:14:10.160LP_SEC = 12LTM_OFF = -300 minutesDAYLT = 0PRAT = 9600 bpsRESERVED = 12. Put Rake finger(s) on strongestavailable PN, decode Walsh 32,and read Sync Channel MessageSYNC CHANNEL MESSAGEHandset Rake ReceiverRF≈ x ≈LOSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W32F2 PN168 W32F3 PN168 W32
  • 54. May, 2002 7 - 54Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Configuration Messagess After reading the Sync Channel, the mobile is now capable ofreading the Paging Channel, which it now monitors constantlys Before it is allowed to transmit or operate on this system, themobile must collect a complete set of configuration messagess Collection is a short process -- all configuration messages arerepeated on the paging channel every 1.28 secondss The configuration messages contain sequence numbers so themobile can recognize if any of the messages have been freshlyupdated as it continues to monitor the paging channel• Access parameters message sequence number• Configuration message sequence number• If a mobile notices a changed sequence number, or if 600seconds passes since the last time these messages were read,the mobile reads all of them again
  • 55. May, 2002 7 - 55Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterGo to Paging Channel, Get ConfiguredRake Fingers!"#Reference PNActive PilotEc/Io0032K512ChipsPNAll PN Offsets0-20Keep Rake finger(s) on strongestavailable PN, decode Walsh 1,and monitor the Paging ChannelRead theConfiguration MessagesAccess Parameters MsgSystem Parameters MsgCDMA Channel List MsgExtended SystemParameters Msg (*opt.)(Extended*) NeighborList MsgGlobal ServiceRedirection Msg (*opt.)Now we’re ready to operate!!Handset Rake ReceiverRF≈ x ≈LOSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W01F2 PN168 W01F3 PN168 W01
  • 56. May, 2002 7 - 56Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterTwo Very Important Configuration Messages98/05/24 23:14:10.427 [PCH]MSG_LENGTH = 184 bitsMSG_TYPE = Access Parameters MessagePILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexACC_MSG_SEQ = 27ACC_CHAN = 1 channelNOM_PWR = 0 dB INIT_PWR = 0 dB PWR_STEP = 4 dBNUM_STEP = 5 Access Probes MaximumMAX_CAP_SZ = 4 Access Channel Frames MaximumPAM_SZ = 3 Access Channel FramesPersist Val for Acc Overload Classes 0-9 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 10 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 11 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 12 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 13 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 14 = 0Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 15 = 0Persistance Modifier for Msg Tx = 1Persistance Modifier for Reg = 1Probe Randomization = 15 PN chipsAcknowledgement Timeout = 320 msProbe Backoff Range = 4 Slots MaximumProbe Sequence Backoff Range = 4 Slots Max.Max # Probe Seq for Requests = 2 SequencesMax # Probe Seq for Responses = 2 SequencesAuthentication Mode = 1Random Challenge Value = Field OmittedReserved Bits = 99ACCESS PARAMETERS MESSAGE98/05/24 23:14:11.126 [PCH] MSG_LENGTH = 264 bitsMSG_TYPE = System Parameters MessagePILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexCONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0SID = 179 NID = 0REG_ZONE = 0 TOTAL_ZONES = 0 ZONE_TIMER = 60 minMULT_SIDS = 0 MULT_NID = 0 BASE_ID = 8710BASE_CLASS = Public MacrocellularPAGE_CHAN = 1 channelMAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0HOME_REG = 0 FOR_SID_REG = 0 FOR_NID_REG = 1POWER_UP_REG = 0 POWER_DOWN_REG = 0PARAMETER_REG = 1 REG_PRD = 0.08 secBASE_LAT = 00D0000.00N BASE_LONG = 000D0000.00EREG_DIST = 0SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chipsSRCH_WIN_N = 80 PN chipsSRCH_WIN_R = 4 PN chipsNGHBR_MAX_AGE = 0PWR_REP_THRESH = 2 framesPWR_REP_FRAMES = 56 framesPWR_THRESH_ENABLE = 1PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE = 0PWR_REP_DELAY = 20 framesRESCAN = 0T_ADD = -13.0 Db T_DROP = -15.0 dB T_COMP = 2.5 dBT_TDROP = 4 secEXT_SYS_PARAMETER = 1RESERVED = 0GLOBAL_REDIRECT = 0SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE
  • 57. May, 2002 7 - 57Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterFour Additional Configuration Messages98/05/24 23:14:10.946 [PCH]MSG_LENGTH = 104 bitsMSG_TYPE = Extended System Parameters MessagePILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexCONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0 RESERVED = 0PREF_MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESNMCC = 000 IMSI_11_12 = 00RESERVED_LEN = 8 bitsRESERVED_OCTETS = 0x00BCAST_INDEX = 0RESERVED = 0EXTENDED SYSTEM PARAMETERS98/05/17 24:21.566 Paging Channel: Global Service RedirectionPILOT_PN: 168, MSG_TYPE: 96, CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 0Redirected access overload classes: { 0, 1 },RETURN_IF_FAIL: 0,DELETE_TMSI: 0,Redirection to an analog system:EXPECTED_SID = 0Do not ignore CDMA Available indicator on the redirected analogsystemAttempt service on either System A or B with the custom systemselection processGLOBAL SERVICE REDIRECTION98/05/24 23:14:11.486 [PCH]MSG_LENGTH = 216 bitsMSG_TYPE = Neighbor List MessagePILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexCONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0PILOT_INC = 4 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 220 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 52 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 500 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 8 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 176 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 304 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 136 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 384 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 216 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 68 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 328 Offset IndexNGHBR_CONFIG = 0 NGHBR_PN = 112 Offset IndexRESERVED = 0NEIGHBOR LIST98/05/24 23:14:10.786 [PCH]MSG_LENGTH = 72 bitsMSG_TYPE = CDMA Channel List MessagePILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexCONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 0CDMA_FREQ = 283RESERVED = Field OmittedCDMA CHANNEL LIST MESSAGE
  • 58. May, 2002 7 - 58Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s do anIdle Mode Handoff!Let’s do anIdle Mode Handoff!Example 2
  • 59. May, 2002 7 - 59Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterIdle Mode Handoffs An idle mobile always demodulates the best available signal• In idle mode, it isn’t possible to do soft handoff and listen tomultiple sectors or base stations at the same time -- the pagingchannel information stream is different on each sector, notsynchronous -- just like ABC, NBC, CBS, and CNN TV newsprograms aren’t in word-sync for simultaneous viewing• Since a mobile can’t combine signals, the mobile must switchquickly, always enjoying the best available signals The mobile’s pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilotss If the searcher notices a better signal, the mobile continues on thecurrent paging channel until the end of the current superframe,then instantly switches to the paging channel of the new signal• The system doesn’t know the mobile did this! (Does NBC’sTom Brokaw know you just switched your TV to CNN?)s On the new paging channel, if the mobile learns that registration isrequired, it re-registers on the new sector
  • 60. May, 2002 7 - 60Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterIdle Mode on the Paging Channel:Meet the Neighbors, track the Strongest PilotEc/IoAll PN Offsets0032K512ChipsPN0-20Neighbor SetThe phone’s pilot searcher constantly checksthe pilots listed in the Neighbor List MessageIf the searcher ever notices a neighbor pilot substantially stronger thanthe current reference pilot, it becomes the new reference pilotand the phone switches over to its paging channel on the next superframe.This is called an idle mode handoff.Rake Fingers !"#Reference PNActive PilotSRCH_WIN_ASRCH_WIN_NMobile Rake RXSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W01F2 PN168 W01F3 PN168 W01
  • 61. May, 2002 7 - 61Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterPhone Operation on the Access Channels A sector’s Paging Channel announces 1(typ) to 32 (max) Access Channels: PNLong Code offsets for mobiles to use ifaccessing the system.• For mobiles sending Registration,Origination, Page Responses• Base Station always listening!s On the access channel, phones are notyet under BTS closed-loop power control!s Phones access the BTS by “probing” atpower levels determined by receive powerand an open loop formula• If “probe” not acknowledged by BTSwithin ACC_TMO (~400 mS.), phonewill wait a random time (~200 mS)then probe again, stronger by PI db.• There can be 15 max. (typ. 5) probesin a sequence and 15 max. (typ. 2)sequences in an access attempt• most attempts succeed on first probe!s The Access Parameters message on thepaging channel announces values of allrelated parametersACCESSRV TFCBTSChannel Assnmt. Msg.Origination MsgBase Sta. Acknlgmt. OrderTFC frames of 000sTFC preamble of 000sBase Sta. Acknlgmt. OrderMobile Sta. Ackngmt. OrderService Connect Msg.Svc. Connect Complete MsgBase Sta. Acknlgmt. OrderCall is Established!MSProbingPAGINGFW TFCPAGINGRV TFCFW FCRV TFCFW TFCFW TFCA Successful Access Attempta Probe Sequencean Access AttemptSuccess!an Access Probe
  • 62. May, 2002 7 - 62Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s Register!Let’s Register!Example 3
  • 63. May, 2002 7 - 63Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterRegistrations Registration is the process by which an idle mobile lets the systemknow it’s awake and available for incoming calls• this allows the system to inform the mobile’s home switch ofthe mobile’s current location, so that incoming calls can bedelivered• registration also allows the system to intelligently page themobile only in the area where the mobile is currently located,thereby eliminating useless congestion on the paging channelsin other areas of the systems There are many different conditions that could trigger an obligationfor the mobile to register• there are flags in the System Parameters Message which tellthe mobile when it must register on the current system
  • 64. May, 2002 7 - 64Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAn Actual Registration16:18:27.144 Access Channel: RegistrationACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 VALID_ACK: 0ACK_TYPE: 0MSID_TYPE: 3, ESN: [0x 01 99 0d fc]MFR 1, Reserved 38, Serial Number 69116,IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 1) [0x 01 8d 31 74 29 36]00-416-575-0421AUTH_MODE: 0REG_TYPE: Timer-basedSLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2MOB_P_REV: 1EXT_SCM: 1SLOTTED_MODE: 1MOB_TERM: 1REGISTRATION MESSAGE18:26.826 [PCH] System Parameters MessagePilot_PN: 32CONFIG_MSG_SEQ: 14 SID: 16420 NID: 0,REG_ZONE: 0 TOTAL_ZONES: 0 Zone timer length (min): 1MULT_SIDS: 0 MULT_NIDS: 0BASE_ID: 1618 BASE_CLASS: ReservedPAG_CHAN: 1 MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2HOME_REG: 1 FOR_SID_REG: 1 FOR_NID_REG: 1,POWER_UP_REG: 1 POWER_DOWN_REG: 1PARAMETER_REG: 1 Registration period (sec): 54Base station 0°00´00.00¨ Lon., 0°00´00.00° Lat. REG_DIST: 0SRCH_WIN_A (PN chips): 28 SRCH_WIN_N (PN chips): 100,SRCH_WIN_R (PN chips): 130 NGHBR_MAX_AGE: 2PWR_REP_THRESH: 2 PWR_REP_FRAMES (frames): 15PWR_THRESH_ENABLE: 1 PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE: 0,PWR_REP_DELAY: 1 (4 frames) RESCAN: 0,T_ADD: -14.0dB T_DROP: -16.0dB T_COMP: 2.5dB,T_TDROP: 4sEXT_SYS_PARAMETER: 1EXT_NGHBR_LIST: 1GLOBAL_REDIRECT: 0SYSTEM PARAMETERS MESSAGE16:18:27.506 Paging Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 3)[0x 02 47 8d 31 74 29 36] (302) 00-416-575-0421Order type: Base Station Acknowledgement OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe System Parameters Message tellsall mobiles when they should register.This mobile notices that it is obligated toregister, so it transmits a RegistrationMessage.The base station confirms that themobile’s registration message wasreceived. We’re officially registered!
  • 65. May, 2002 7 - 65Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s Receivean incoming Call!Let’s Receivean incoming Call!Example 4
  • 66. May, 2002 7 - 66Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterReceiving an Incoming Calls All idle mobiles monitor the paging channel to receive incomingcalls.s When an incoming call appears, the paging channel notifies themobile in a General Page Message.s A mobile which has been paged sends a Page ResponseMessage on the access channel.s The system sets up a traffic channel for the call, then notifies themobile to use it with a Channel Assignment Message.s The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channelsignals and confirm their presence by exchangingacknowledgment messages.s The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this willbe -- I.e., 13k voice, etc.s The mobile is told to ring and given a “calling line ID” to display.s When the human user presses the send button, the audio path iscompleted and the call proceeds.
  • 67. May, 2002 7 - 67Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAn Actual Page and Page Response98/05/24 23:14:46.425 [ACH] Page Response MessageMSG_LENGTH = 216 bitsMSG_TYPE = Page Response MessageACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 2 ACK_REQ = 1VALID_ACK = 1 ACK_TYPE = 2MSID_TYPE = IMSI and ESN MSID_LEN = 9 octetsESN = 0xD30E415C IMSI_CLASS = 0IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0IMSI_S = 6153300644AUTH_MODE = 1AUTHR = 0x307B5 RANDC = 0xC6 COUNT = 0MOB_TERM = 1 SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX = 0MOB_P_REV = 3 SCM = 106REQUEST_MODE = Either Wide Analog or CDMA OnlySERVICE_OPTION = 32768 PM = 0NAR_AN_CAP = 0 RESERVED = 0PAGE RESPONSE MESSAGE98/05/24 23:14:46.127 [PCH] General Page MessageMSG_LENGTH = 128 bitsMSG_TYPE = General Page MessageCONFIG_MSG_SEQ = 1 ACC_MSG_SEQ = 20CLASS_0_DONE = 1CLASS_1_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0BROADCAST_DONE = 1 RESERVED = 0ADD_LENGTH = 0 bits ADD_PFIELD = Field OmittedPAGE_CLASS = 0 PAGE_SUBCLASS = 0MSG_SEQ = 1IMSI_S = 6153300644SPECIAL_SERVICE = 1SERVICE_OPTION = 32768RESERVED = Field OmittedGENERAL PAGE MESSAGE98/05/24 23:14:46.768 [PCH] Order MessageMSG_LENGTH = 112 bitsMSG_TYPE = Order MessageACK_SEQ = 2 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0VALID_ACK = 1ADDR_TYPE = IMSI ADDR_LEN = 40 bitsIMSI_CLASS = 0 IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 0 RESERVED = 0IMSI_S = 6153300644ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgement OrderADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bitsOrder-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe system pages the mobile,615-330-0644.The base station confirms that the mobile’spage response was received. Now themobile is waiting for channel assignment,expecting a response within 12 seconds.The mobile responds to the page.
  • 68. May, 2002 7 - 68Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterChannel Assignment andTraffic Channel Confirmation18:14:47.598 Reverse Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0ENCRYPTION: 0Mobile Station Acknowledgement OrderMOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT18:14:47.027 Paging Channel: Channel AssignmentACK_SEQ: 2 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1MSID_TYPE: 2 IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 0)[0x 01 f8 39 6a 15] 615-330-0644ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel AssignmentADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2CODE_CHAN: 43 FRAME_OFFSET: 2ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabledBAND_CLASS: 800 MHz cellular bandCDMA_FREQ: 283CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGE18:14:47.581 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgement OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTOnly about 400 ms. after the base stationacknowledgment order, the mobile receivesthe channel assignment message.The base station is alreadysending blank frames onthe forward channel,usingthe assigned Walsh code.The mobile sees at least twogood blank frames in a row onthe forward channel, andconcludes this is the right trafficchannel. It sends a preambleof two blank frames of its ownon the reverse traffic channel.The base station acknowledgesreceiving the mobile’s preamble.The mobile station acknowledges thebase station’s acknowledgment.Everybody is ready!
  • 69. May, 2002 7 - 69Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterService Negotiation and Mobile Alert18:14:47.835 Reverse Traffic Channel:Service Connect CompletionACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 1ENCRYPTION: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG.18:14:47.760 Forward Traffic Channel: Service ConnectACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0Service Configuration: supported Transmission:Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400, 7200, 3600, 1800 bpsReverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400, 7200, 3600, 1800 bpsService option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000)Forward Traffic Channel: Primary TrafficReverse Traffic Channel: Primary TrafficSERVICE CONNECT MESSAGENow that both sides have arrived on thetraffic channel, the base stationproposes that the requested callactually begin.The mobile agrees andsays its ready to play.18:14:47.961 Forward Traffic Channel:Alert With InformationACK_SEQ: 3 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0SIGNAL_TYPE = IS-54B AlertingALERT_PITCH = Medium Pitch (Standard Alert)SIGNAL = Long RESERVED = 0RECORD_TYPE = Calling Party NumberRECORD_LEN = 96 bitsNUMBER_TYPE = National NumberNUMBER_PLAN = ISDN/Telephony Numbering PlanPI = Presentation Allowed SI = Network ProvidedCHARi = 6153000124 RESERVED = 0 RESERVED = 0ALERT WITH INFORMATION MESSAGEThe base station orders the mobile to ring, andgives it the calling party’s number to display.18:14:48.018 Reverse Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 4 ACK_REQ: 0ENCRYPTION: 0Mobile Station Acknowledgement OrderThe mobile says it’s ringing.SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is amajor milestone in call processing. Upuntil now, this was an access attempt.Now it is officially a call.
  • 70. May, 2002 7 - 70Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Human Answers! Connect OrderThe mobile has been ringing for severalseconds. The human user finallycomes over and presses the sendbutton to answer the call.Now the switch completes the audio circuit andthe two callers can talk!18:14:54.920 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0ENCRYPTION: 0 USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgement OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT18:14:54.758 Reverse Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1ENCRYPTION: 0Connect OrderCONNECT ORDER
  • 71. May, 2002 7 - 71Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s make an Outgoing Call!Let’s make an Outgoing Call!Example 5
  • 72. May, 2002 7 - 72Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterPlacing an Outgoing Calls The mobile user dials the desired digits, and presses SEND.s Mobile transmits an Origination Message on the access channel.s The system acknowledges receiving the origination by sending abase station acknowledgement on the paging channel.s The system arranges the resources for the call and startstransmitting on the traffic channel.s The system notifies the mobile in a Channel Assignment Messageon the paging channel.s The mobile arrives on the traffic channel.s The mobile and the base station notice each other’s traffic channelsignals and confirm their presence by exchangingacknowledgment messages.s The base station and the mobile negotiate what type of call this willbe -- I.e., 13k voice, etc.s The audio circuit is completed and the mobile caller hears ringing.
  • 73. May, 2002 7 - 73Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOrigination17:48:53.144 Access Channel: OriginationACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 6 ACK_REQ: 1VALID_ACK: 0 ACK_TYPE: 0 MSID_TYPE: 3ESN: [0x 00 06 98 24] MFR 0 Reserved 1Serial Number 170020IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 0)[0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073AUTH_MODE: 0 MOB_TERM: 1SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX: 2 MOB_P_REV: 1 EXT_SCM: 1DualMode: 0 SLOTTED_MODE: 1 PowerClass: 0REQUEST_MODE: CDMA only SPECIAL_SERVICE: 1Service option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000) PM: 0DIGIT_MODE: 0 MORE_FIELDS: 0 NUM_FIELDS: 11Chari: 18008900829NAR_AN_CAP: 0ORIGINATION MESSAGE17:48:53.487 Paging Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1MSID_TYPE: 2IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 0)[0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073Base Station Acknowledgment OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe mobile sends anorigination messageon the accesschannel.The base station confirmsthat the origination messagewas received.17:48:54.367 Paging Channel: Channel AssignmentACK_SEQ: 6 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 VALID_ACK: 1MSID_TYPE: 2IMSI: (Class: 0, Class_0_type: 0)[0x 03 5d b8 97 c2] 972-849-5073ASSIGN_MODE: Traffic Channel Assignment,ADD_RECORD_LEN: 5 FREQ_INCL: 1 GRANTED_MODE: 2CODE_CHAN: 12 FRAME_OFFSET: 0ENCRYPT_MODE: Encryption disabledBAND_CLASS: 1.8 to 2.0 GHz PCS bandCDMA_FREQ: 425CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT MESSAGEThe base station sends aChannel AssignmentMessage and the mobilegoes to the traffic channel.
  • 74. May, 2002 7 - 74Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterTraffic Channel Confirmation17:48:54.835 Reverse Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0ENCRYPTION: 0Mobile Station Acknowledgment OrderMOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT17:48:54.757 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgment OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe base station is alreadysending blank frames onthe forward channel,usingthe assigned Walsh code.The mobile sees at least twogood blank frames in a row onthe forward channel, andconcludes this is the right trafficchannel. It sends a preambleof two blank frames of its ownon the reverse traffic channel.The base station acknowledgesreceiving the mobile’s preamble.The mobile station acknowledges thebase station’s acknowledgment.Everybody is ready!
  • 75. May, 2002 7 - 75Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterService Negotiation and Connect Complete17:48:55.137 Reverse Traffic Channel: Service ConnectCompletion ACK_SEQ: 1, MSG_SEQ: 0, ACK_REQ: 1,ENCRYPTION: 0, SERV_CON_SEQ: 0SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE MSG.17:48:55.098 Forward Traffic Channel: Service ConnectACK_SEQ: 7 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0 SERV_CON_SEQ: 0Service Configuration Supported Transmission:Forward Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400, 7200, 3600, 1800 bpsReverse Traffic Channel Rate (Set 2): 14400, 7200, 3600, 1800 bpsService option: (6) Voice (13k) (0x8000)Forward Traffic Channel: Primary TrafficReverse Traffic Channel: Primary TrafficSERVICE CONNECT MESSAGENow that the traffic channel is workingin both directions, the base stationproposes that the requested callactually begin.The mobile agrees andsays its ready to play.17:48:55.779 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 0 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgment OrderBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTThe base station agrees. SERVICE CONNECT COMPLETE is amajor milestone in call processing. Upuntil now, this was an access attempt.Now it is officially a call.Now the switch completes the audio circuit andthe two callers can talk!
  • 76. May, 2002 7 - 76Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s End a Call!Let’s End a Call!Example 6
  • 77. May, 2002 7 - 77Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterEnding A Calls A normal call continues until one of the parties hangs up. Thataction sends a Release Order, “normal release”.s The other side of the call sends a Release Order, “no reason given”.• If a normal release is visible, the call ended normally.s At the conclusion of the call, the mobile reacquires the system.• Searches for the best pilot on the present CDMA frequency• Reads the Sync Channel Message• Monitors the Paging Channel steadilys Several different conditions can cause a call to end abnormally:• the forward link is lost at the mobile, and a fade timer acts• the reverse link is lost at the base station, and a fade timer acts• a number of forward link messages aren’t acknowledged, and thebase station acts to tear down the link• a number of reverse link messages aren’t acknowledged, and themobile station acts to tear down the link
  • 78. May, 2002 7 - 78Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterA Beautiful End to a Normal Call17:49:21.715 Reverse Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 1ENCRYPTION: 0Release Order (normal release)MOBILE RELEASE ORDERBASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT17:49:21.936 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 2 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0,USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgement OrderAt the end of a normal call, thismobile user pressed end.The mobile left the traffic channel,scanned to find the best pilot, and readthe Sync Channel Message.BASE STATION RELEASE ORDER17:49:21.997 Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 1 MSG_SEQ: 3 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Release Order (no reason given)17:49:22.517 Sync ChannelMSG_TYPE: 1 Sync Channel MessageP_REV: 1 MIN_P_REV: 1SID: 4112 NID: 2 Pilot_PN: 183LC_STATE: 0x318fe5d84a5SYS_TIME: 0x1ae9683dcLP_SEC: 9 LTM_OFF: -10 DAYLT: 1Paging Channel Data Rate: 9600CDMA_FREQ: 425SYNC CHANNEL MESSAGEThe base station acknowledgedreceiving the message, then senta release message of its own.
  • 79. May, 2002 7 - 79Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s receive Notificationof a Voice Message!Let’s receive Notificationof a Voice Message!Example 7
  • 80. May, 2002 7 - 80Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterFeature Notification98/06/30 21:16:44.368 [PCH] Feature Notification MessageMSG_LENGTH = 144 bitsMSG_TYPE = Feature Notification MessageACK_SEQ = 0MSG_SEQ = 0ACK_REQ = 1VALID_ACK = 0ADDR_TYPE = IMSIADDR_LEN = 56 bitsIMSI_CLASS = 0IMSI_CLASS_0_TYPE = 3RESERVED = 0MCC = 302IMSI_11_12 = 00IMSI_S = 9055170325RELEASE = 0RECORD_TYPE = Message WaitingRECORD_LEN = 8 bitsMSG_COUNT = 1RESERVED = 0FEATURE NOTIFICATION MESSAGEThe Feature Notification Message onthe Paging Channel tells a specificmobile it has voice messages waiting.There are other record types to notifythe mobile of other features.The mobile confirms it has received thenotification by sending a Mobile StationAcknowledgment Order on the accesschannel.MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 81. May, 2002 7 - 81Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterLet’s do a Handoff!Let’s do a Handoff!Example 8
  • 82. May, 2002 7 - 82Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Call is Already Established. What Next?Ec/IoAll PN Offsets0032K512ChipsPN0-20Neighbor SetThe call is already in progress.PN 168 is the only active signal,and also is our timing reference.Continue checking the neighbors.If we ever notice a neighbor with Ec/Io above T_ADD,ask to use it! Send a Pilot Strength Measurement Message!T_ADDRake Fingers !"#Reference PNActive Pilot107521683200250014080220! !Mobile Rake RXSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W61F2 PN168 W61F3 PN168 W61
  • 83. May, 2002 7 - 83Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMobile Requests the Handoff!98/05/24 23:14:02.205 [RTC]Pilot Strength Measurement MessageMSG_LENGTH = 128 bitsMSG_TYPE = Pilot Strength Measurement MessageACK_SEQ = 5 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 1ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledREF_PN = 168 Offset Index (the Reference PN)PILOT_STRENGTH = -6.0 dBKEEP = 1PILOT_PN_PHASE = 14080 chips (PN220+0chips)PILOT_STRENGTH = -12.5 dBKEEP = 1PILOT_PN_PHASE = 32002 chips (PN500 + 2 chips)PILOT_STRENGTH = -11.0 dBKEEP = 1RESERVED = 0PILOT STRENGTH MEASUREMENT MESSAGE98/05/24 23:14:02.386 [FTC] Order MessageMSG_LENGTH = 64 bitsMSG_TYPE = Order MessageACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 0 ACK_REQ = 0ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledUSE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0ORDER = Base Station Acknowledgment OrderADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bitsOrder-Specific Fields = Field OmittedRESERVED = 0BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTJust prior to this message, this particularmobile already was in handoff with PN 168and 220.This pilot strength measurement messagereports PN 500 has increased aboveT_Add, and the mobile wants to use it too.The base station acknowledges receivingthe Pilot Strength Measurement Message.
  • 84. May, 2002 7 - 84Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSystem Authorizes the Handoff!98/05/24 23:14:02.926 [FTC] Extended Handoff Direction MessageMSG_LENGTH = 136 bitsMSG_TYPE = Extended Handoff Direction MessageACK_SEQ = 0 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 1ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledUSE_TIME = 0 ACTION_TIME = 0 HDM_SEQ = 0SEARCH_INCLUDED = 1SRCH_WIN_A = 40 PN chipsT_ADD = -13.0 dB T_DROP = -15.0 dB T_COMP = 2.5 dBT_TDROP = 4 secHARD_INCLUDED = 0 FRAME_OFFSET = Field OmittedPRIVATE_LCM = Field Omitted RESET_L2 = Field OmittedRESET_FPC = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field OmittedENCRYPT_MODE = Field Omitted RESERVED = Field OmittedNOM_PWR = Field Omitted NUM_PREAMBLE = Field OmittedBAND_CLASS = Field Omitted CDMA_FREQ = Field OmittedADD_LENGTH = 0PILOT_PN = 168 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 61PILOT_PN = 220 PWR_COMB_IND = 1 CODE_CHAN = 20PILOT_PN = 500 PWR_COMB_IND = 0 CODE_CHAN = 50RESERVED = 0HANDOFF DIRECTION MESSAGEThe base station sends a HandofDirection Message authorizing themobile to begin soft handoff with allthree requested PNs. The pre-existinglink on PN 168 will continue to useWalsh code 61, the new link on PN220will use Walsh Code 20, and the newlink on PN500 will use Walsh code 50.The mobile acknowledges it has receivedthe Handoff Direction Message.98/05/24 23:14:02.945 [RTC] Order MessageMSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order MessageACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 6 ACK_REQ = 0ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgment OrderADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bitsOrder-Specific Fields = Field Omitted RESERVED = 0MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • 85. May, 2002 7 - 85Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMobile Implements the Handoff!The mobile searcher quickly re-checksall three PNs. It still hears their pilots!The mobile sends a Handoff CompletionMessage, confirming it still wants to goahead with the handoff.BASE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT98/05/24 23:14:02.985 [RTC] Handoff Completion MessageMSG_LENGTH = 72 bitsMSG_TYPE = Handoff Completion MessageACK_SEQ = 6 MSG_SEQ = 1 ACK_REQ = 1ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledLAST_HDM_SEQ = 0PILOT_PN = 168 Offset IndexPILOT_PN = 220 Offset IndexPILOT_PN = 500 Offset IndexRESERVED = 0HANDOFF COMPLETION MESSAGEThe base station confirms it hasreceived the mobile’s HandoffCompletion message, and willcontinue with all of the linksactive.98/05/24 23:14:03.085 [FTC] Forward Traffic Channel: OrderACK_SEQ: 0 MSG_SEQ: 1 ACK_REQ: 0 ENCRYPTION: 0USE_TIME: 0 ACTION_TIME: 0Base Station Acknowledgement Order
  • 86. May, 2002 7 - 86Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNeighbor List Updated, Handoff is Complete!98/05/24 23:14:03.245 [RTC] Order MessageMSG_LENGTH = 56 bits MSG_TYPE = Order MessageACK_SEQ = 7 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 0ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledORDER = Mobile Station Acknowledgement OrderADD_RECORD_LEN = 0 bitsOrder-Specific Fields = Field OmittedRESERVED = 0MOBILE STATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT98/05/24 23:14:03.166 [FTC] Neighbor List Update MessageMSG_LENGTH = 192 bitsMSG_TYPE = Neighbor List Update MessageACK_SEQ = 1 MSG_SEQ = 7 ACK_REQ = 1ENCRYPTION = Encryption Mode DisabledPILOT_INC = 4 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 164 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 68 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 52 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 176 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 304 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 136 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 112 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 372 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 36 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 8 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 384 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 216 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 328 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 332 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 400 Offset IndexNGHBR_PN = 96 Offset IndexRESERVED = 0NEIGHBOR LIST UPDATE MESSAGEIn response to the mobile’s HandoffCompletion Message, the base stationassembles a new composite neighborlist including all the neighbors of each ofthe three active pilots.This is necessary since the mobilecould be traveling toward any one ofthese pilots and may need to requestsoft handoff with any of them soon.The mobile confirms receiving theNeighbor List Update Message. It isalready checking the neighbor list andwill do so continuously from now on.The handoff is fully established.
  • 87. May, 2002 7 - 87Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHandoff Now In Effect, but still check Pilots!Ec/IoAll PN Offsets0032K512ChipsPN0-20Neighbor SetContinue checking each ACTIVE pilot. If any are less than T_DROP and remainso for T_TDROP time, send Pilot Strength Measurement Message, DROP IT!!Continue looking at each NEIGHBOR pilot. If any ever rises above T_ADD, sendPilot Strength Measurement Message, ADD IT!T_ADDRake Fingers!Reference PNActive Set107521683200250014080220"#T_DROPMobile Rake RXSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W61F2 PN500 W50F3 PN220 W20
  • 88. May, 2002 7 - 88Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Complete Picture of Handoff & Pilot SetsT_ADDEc/IoAll PN Offsets0032K512ChipsPN0-20Neighbor SetSRCH_WIN_NActive SetCandidate SetT_DROPSRCH_WIN_ARemaining SetT_ADDSRCH_WIN_RSRCH_WIN_A" #T_DROPRake Fingers !Reference PNPilots of sectorsnow used forcommunicationPilots requestedby mobile but notset up by systemPilots suggestedby system formore checkingAll other pilots divisible by PILOT_INC but notpresently in Active, Candidate, or Neighbor setsMobile Rake RXSrch PN??? W0F1 PN168 W61F2 PN500 W50F3 PN220 W20
  • 89. May, 2002 7 - 89Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterDeeper Handoff Details:Search Windows & TimingDeeper Handoff Details:Search Windows & TimingSection G
  • 90. May, 2002 7 - 90Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterThe Pilot Searcher’s Measurement ProcessThe searcher checks pilots in nestedloops, much like meshed gears.Actives and candidatesoccupy the fastest-spinning wheel.Neighbors arenext, advancingone pilot for eachAct+Cand. revolution.Remaining is slowest,advancing one pilot eachtime the Neighbors revolve.CURRENT PILOT SET CONTENTSA A ACN N N N N N N N N N N NR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R3112112PILOT SEARCHER VIEWED IN SEQUENCE: Typical Elapsed Time = 4 secondsA A A C NRA A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A CN N N N N NA A A C N A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A CN N N N NA A A CN A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A C A A A CN N N N N NN A A A C A A A C A A A CN N N R A A A C N A A A C A A A C A A AN NC A A A C A A A CN N NRA A A C N A A A C A A A C A A AN N C A A ANC A A A CN NOnly 3 of 112 remaining set pilots have been checked thus far!ANRRRRRRRNNNNNNN NAA
  • 91. May, 2002 7 - 91Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterA Quick Primer on Pilot Search Windowss The phone chooses one strong sector and“locks” to it, accepting its offset at “face value”and interpreting all other offsets bycomparison to its In messages, system gives to handset aneighbor list of nearby sectors’ PNss Propagation delay “skews” the apparent PNoffsets of all other sectors, making themseem earlier or later than expecteds To overcome skew, when the phonesearches for a particular pilot, it scans anextra wide “delta” of chips centered on theexpected offset (called a “search window”)s Search window values can be datafilledindividually for each Pilot set:s There are pitfalls if the window sizes areimproperly set• too small: overlook pilots from far away• too large: search time increases• too large: might misinterpret identity of adistant BTS’ signalOne chip is 801 feet or 244.14 m1 mile=6.6 chips; 1 km.= 4.1 chipsPROPAGATION DELAYSKEWS APPARENT PN OFFSETSBTSBTSAB33Chips4ChipsIf the phone is locked to BTS A, thesignal from BTS B will seem 29 chipsearlier than expected.If the phone is locked to BTS B, thesignal from BTS A will seem 29 chipslater than expected.
  • 92. May, 2002 7 - 92Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSetting Pilot Search Window Sizess When the handset first powers up, it does anexhaustive search for the best pilot. No windowsare used in this process.s On the paging channel, the handset learns thewindow sizes SRCH_WIN_A, N, R and usesthem when looking for neighbors both in idlemode and during calls.s When a strong neighbor is requested in a PSMM,the former neighbor pilot is now a candidate. Itsoffset is precisely remembered and frequentlyrechecked and tracked by the phone.s Window size for actives and candidates can besmall, since their exact position is known. Onlysearch wide enough to include multipath energy!• This greatly speeds up overall searching!s Most post-processing tools deliver statistics onthe spread (in chips) between fingers locked tothe same pilot. These statistics literally show ushow wide the SRCH_WIN_A should be set.s Neighbor and Remaining search windows shouldbe set to accommodate the maximum intercelldistances which a mobile might experienceSEARCH WINDOW SETTINGSAND PROPAGATION DISTANCESWindowSize (Chips)14 (±7)DatafillValueN,R Delta Distance4 1.0620 (±10)40 (±20)28 (±14)Miles KM.5678910111213141560 (±30)80 (±40)100 (±50)130 (±65)160 (±80)226 (±113)320 (±160)452 (±226)1.711.52 2.442.12 3.423.03 4.884.55 7.326.07 9.777.59 12.29.86 15.912.1 19.517.1 27.624.3 39.134.3 55.2
  • 93. May, 2002 7 - 93Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHandoff Problems: “Window” Dropped Callss Calls often drop when strongneighbors suddenly appearoutside the neighbor searchwindow and cannot be used toestablish soft handoff.s Neighbor Search WindowSRCH_WIN_N should be setto a width at least twice thepropagation delay betweenany site and its most distantneighbor sites Remaining Search WindowSRCH_WIN_R should be setto a width at least twice thepropagation delay betweenany site and another sitewhich might deliver occasionalRF into the service areaAB1 mi.7 ChipsBTSBTSSITUATION 1 Locked to distantsite, can’t seeone nearby12 miles80 ChipsSRCH_WIN_N = 130BTS A is reference.BTS B appears (7-80) chipsearly due to its closer distance.This is outside the 65-chip window.Mobile can’t see BTS B’s pilot, but itsstrong signal blinds us and the call drops.TravelmountainsAB1 mi.7 ChipsBTSBTSSITUATION 2Locked to nearbysite, can’t seedistant one12 miles80 ChipsTravelSRCH_WIN_N = 130BTS B is reference.BTS A appears (80-7) chipslate due to its farther distance.This is outside the 65-chip window.Mobile can’t see BTS A’s pilot.mountains
  • 94. May, 2002 7 - 94Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOverall Handoff Perspectives Soft & Softer Handoffs are preferred, but not always possible• a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only on onefrequency• all involved BTS/sectors must connect to a networked BSCs.Some manufacturers do not presently support this, and so areunable to do soft-handoff at boundaries between BSCs.• frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectorss If any of the above are not possible, handoff still can occur but canonly be “hard” break-make protocol like AMPS/TDMA/GSM• intersystem handoff: hard• change-of-frequency handoff: hard• CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard, no handback– auxiliary trigger mechanisms available (RTD)
  • 95. May, 2002 7 - 95Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSection IIntroduction to OptimizationIntroduction to Optimization
  • 96. May, 2002 7 - 96Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterIntroduction to Optimizations Course RF200 provides detailed information on CDMA systemperformance optimization, and is intended for all personnel whoare responsible for improving system performance. RF200presents:• Performance Indicators and Problem Signatures analysis• Review of tools and stats available on the system• Review of mobile tools and how to interpret test drive data• How to analyze drive-test data with post-processing tools• Real-life examples of problems for “hands-on” analysiss Optimization is important enough that everyone should understandwhat it is and how it is usually performed. The following slidesprovide a general perspective on optimization and are intended foreveryone with technical responsibilities, even if not directlyinvolved in performance optimization
  • 97. May, 2002 7 - 97Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSystem Performance Optimizations The term “System Performance Optimization” really includes threedistinct types of activities:• Optimization of a New System or New Cells– examining parameters, neighbor lists, and cellconfiguration to ensure that blatant errors are eliminatedand normal operation is achieved as verified in drive tests• Minimization of Operating Problems on Existing Systems– identifying problems from system statistics, drive tests, andcustomer complaints– reducing dropped calls, access failures, trouble spots• Capacity Enhancement– watching system capacity indicators and optimizingadjustable parameters to achieve the best possiblecapacity, consistent with acceptable levels of dropped callsand access failures
  • 98. May, 2002 7 - 98Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterDepartment Store Analogy: Tops-Down, Bottoms-UpSome things are easier to measure from the customer side!Complex!!! SimplerSystem PhoneNeighbor ListsData AnalysisSoftwareTrans-missionConfigurationProvisioningPSTN TrunkingDropped CallsCoverageAccess FailuresSwitchBTSCBSCInterferenceAdministrationData CaptureField ToolsProfitsComplex!!! SimplerManagement Test ShopperLabor RelationsCostsTaxesInsuranceSuppliersLeasesCapitalPurchasingDistributionLossesAdvertisingSelectionConveniencePriceService
  • 99. May, 2002 7 - 99Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAeronautical Analogy: Tools for Problem InvestigationTo study the cause of an aeronautical accident, we try to recover the Flight DataRecorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder.To study the cause of a CDMA call processing accident, we review data from theTemporal Analyzer and the Layer 3 Message Files -- for the same reasons.Control & Parameters MessagingBTS1150011500114.50118.25125.75AeronauticalInvestigationsCDMAInvestigationsFlight Data Recorder Cockpit Voice RecorderTemporal Analyzer Data Layer 3 Message Files
  • 100. May, 2002 7 - 100Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterStarting Optimization on a New Systems RF Coverage Control• try to contain each sector’s coverage, avoiding gross spilloverinto other sectors• tools: PN Plots, Handoff State Plots, Mobile TX plotss Search Window Settings• find best settings for SRCH_WIN_A, _N, _R• especially optimize SRCH_WIN_A per sector using collectedfinger separation data; has major impact on pilot search speeds Neighbor List Tuning• try to groom each sector’s neighbors to only those necessarybut be alert to special needs due to topography and traffic• tools: diagnostic data, system logss Access Failures, Dropped Call Analysis• finally, iterative corrections until within numerical goalsGetting these items into shape provides a solid baseline and foundation fromwhich future performance issues can be addressed.
  • 101. May, 2002 7 - 101Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSolving Problems on Existing Systemss CDMA optimization is very different from optimization in analogtechnologies such as AMPSs AMPS: a skilled engineer with a handset or simple equipment canhear, diagnose, and correct many common problems• co-channel, adjacent channel, external interferences• dragged handoffs, frequency plan problemss CDMA impairments have one audible symptom: Dropped Call• voice quality remains excellent with perhaps just a hint of garblingeven as the call approaches dropping in a hostile RF environments Successful CDMA Optimization requires:• recognition and understanding of common reasons for call failure• capture of RF and digital parameters of the call prior to drop• analysis of call flow, checking messages on both forward and reverselinks to establish “what happened”, where, and why
  • 102. May, 2002 7 - 102Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Problems Attacked in Optimizations Excessive Access Failures• typical objectives: <2% (IS-95B will bring improvements)s Excessive Dropped Calls• typical objective: ~1%, <2%s Forward Link Interference• typical objective: eliminate situations which prevent handoff!s Slow Handoff• typical objective: eliminate situations which delay handoff!s Handoff Pilot Search Window Issues• avoid handoff drops!s Excessive Soft Handoff• control coverage, not T_Add/T_Drop, to manage soft handoff levels (~<50%)s Grooming Neighbor Lists• “if you need it, use it!”s Software Bugs, Protocol Violations• Neither system software, nor mobile software, nor the CDMA standard isperfect. Don’t humbly accept problems -- dig in and find out what’s happening!
  • 103. May, 2002 7 - 103Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSources of CDMA Data and Tools for Processings CDMA optimization data flows from three places:• Switch• CDMA peripherals (CBSC & BTS)• Handsets Each stream of data has a family of software and hardware toolsfor collection and analysisCBSCSwitch BTSCDSU DISCOCh. Card ACCΣΣΣΣααααΣΣΣΣββββΣΣΣΣχχχχTFU1GPSRCDSUCDSUDISCO 1DISCO 2SBSVocodersSelectorsCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCDSUCMSLMLPP LPPENETDTCsDMS-BUSTxcvr ATxcvr BTxcvr CRFFE ARFFE BRFFE CTFU1GPSRIOCBSMData AnalysisPost-ProcessingToolsIS-95/J-STD-008 MessagesIS-95/J-STD-8MessagesSwitch Datapegs, logsMobile DataPost-ProcessingToolsMobile DataCapture ToolsHandsetMessagesExternalAnalysisToolsPC-basedPC-basedUnix-based,PC-basedVariousCDMA NETWORK EQUIPMENT HANDSETSystem Internal Messages
  • 104. May, 2002 7 - 104Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMA Field Test ToolsField Collection Tools using Handset Datas There are many commercial CDMA field test toolss Characteristics of many test tools:• capture data from data ports on commercial handsets• log data onto PCs using proprietary software• can display call parameters, messaging, graphs, and maps• store data in formats readable for post-processing analysis• small and portable, easy to use in vehicles or even on foots A few considerations when selecting test tools:• does it allow integration of network and mobile data?• Cost, features, convenience, availability, and support• new tools are introduced every few months - investigate!QualcommGraysonComarcoSAFCOLCCMotorolaPN ScannersHewlett-PackardHewlett-PackardBerkeleyVaritronicsGraysonQualcomm
  • 105. May, 2002 7 - 105Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterQualcomm’s MDM: Mobile Diagnostic Monitors Qualcomm’s Mobile Diagnostic Monitor• CDMA handset (customer provided)• Proprietary connecting cable• PC software for collection and field pre-analysis– Temporal analyzer display mode– Messaging
  • 106. May, 2002 7 - 106Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterGrayson Electronics Mobile Collection Toolss Wireless Measurement Instrument• Graysons original hardware platform,can contain up to 4 receivers, handsets,scanners, and other devicess Inspector32 PC collection software• numerous output formats & exporting -ASCII messages, database, temporaldata• simultaneous display of parameters,map location, messaging, PN scanners InterpreterTM post-processing software• call event statistics, parameters,performance indicators as map icons,graphs, and spreadsheet tables• message display window synched withmaps and graphs• can search for events, messages• can study multiple drive files at once
  • 107. May, 2002 7 - 107Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterGrayson’s new Invex3G Tools In 1Q2001 Grayson introducedits new Invex3G tool, with newfeatures• 100 MB ethernet connectionto PC• the eight card slots can holdreceivers or dual-phonecards• there’s also room for twointernal PN scanners• Multiple Invex units can becascaded for multi-phoneload-test applications• Cards are field-swappable -Users can reconfigure theunit in the field for differenttasks without factoryassistance
  • 108. May, 2002 7 - 108Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAgilent Drive-Test Toolss Agilent offers Drive-Test tools• Serial interfaces for up to four CDMAphones• A very flexible digital receiver with severalmodess PN Scanner• Fast, GPS-locked, can scan two carrierfrequenciess Spectrum Analyzer• Can scan entire 800 or 1900 mHz. Bandss Base-Station Over-Air Tester (BOAT)• Can display all walsh channel activity on aspecific sector• Useful for identifying hardware problems,monitoring instantaneous traffic levels, etc.s Post-Processing tool: OPAS32
  • 109. May, 2002 7 - 109Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterComarco Mobile Toolss X-Series Units for more data-intensive collection activities• Multiple handsets can becollected• Data is displayed andcollected on PCs LT-Series provides integrateddisplay and loggings "Workbench" Post-Processingtool analyzes drive-test files
  • 110. May, 2002 7 - 110Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterPost-Processing ToolsPost-Processing tools display drive-test filesfor detailed analysis - Faster, moreeffective than studying data playbackwith collection tools alones Actix Analyzer• Imports/analyzes data from almostevery brand of drive-test collectiontools Grayson Interpreter• Imports/analyzes data from GraysonWireless Inspector, Illuminator, andInvex3Gs Agilent OPAS32• Imports/analyzes a variety of datas Nortel RF Optimizer• Can merge/analyze drive-test andNortel CDMA system datas Wavelinks Comarco "Workbench" Tools Verizon/Airtouch internal toolOPAS32COMARCO
  • 111. May, 2002 7 - 111Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterPN Scannerss PN Scanners are faster than phones andmore reliable finding rogue pilotss Berkeley Varitronics (GPS-referenced)• full-PN scan speed 26-2/3 ms.• 2048 parallel processors for very fastdetection of transient interferorss Hewlett-Packard (GPS-referenced)• full-PN scan speed 1.2 sec.• Integrated with spectrum analyzer andphone call-processing tools Qualcomm (BTS-referenced)• lowest-cost solution• also acts as test phone with user-setT_Add, T_Drop, etc.s Grayson Wireless (BTS-referenced)• scan speed 6.3 sec.• integrated with phone & call-processingdata collection tool• a high-end version is also availableusing Berkeley Scanner (GPS-locked)
  • 112. May, 2002 7 - 112Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMaintenance Features ofCDMA HandsetsMaintenance Features ofCDMA HandsetsDrive-Tests: Phones
  • 113. May, 2002 7 - 113Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterHandsets as Tools: Simple but always Available!s Most CDMA handsets provide some form of maintenance display (“DebugMode”) as well as instrumentation access• all CDMA drive-test tools use handsets as their “front-ends”Using the handset as a manual tool without Commercial Test Tools:s Enter the maintenance mode by special sequence of keystrokess Displayed Parameters• PN Offset, Handset Mode, Received RF Level , Transmit Gain Adjusts Maintenance Display Applications• best serving cell/sector• simple call debugging (symptoms of weak RF, forward linkinterference, etc.)s Handset Limitations during manual observation• no memory: real-time observations only; no access to messages orcall details; serving PN offset not updated during voice calls
  • 114. May, 2002 7 - 114Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOlder Qualcomm/Sony Maintenance DisplaysMAIN MENU $1:Volume2:Call Info3:SecurityDFEATURES 4$1:AutoAnswer2:AutoRetry3:ScratchDMenu40ENTER FIELDSERVICE CODE******DDEBUG 0$1:Screen2:Test Calls3:CDMA OnlyDDEBUG 0$4:Errors5:Clr Errors6:13K VoiceD318 2 9DX A 7FD100000 0See followinglegend formaintenancedisplay values(* or correct code, if different)Press This: See This: continue: See This:**
  • 115. May, 2002 7 - 115Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterQualcomm & Sony Phones with Jog Dialss Enter 111111s Press dial in for OPTIONSs Dial to FIELD DEBUG, presss enter Field Debug Security Codes press Screen
  • 116. May, 2002 7 - 116Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterInterpreting the QCP Maintenance Display318 2 94X A 7FDPN Offset0 - Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate1 - Sync Channel Acquisition Substate2 - MS Idle State3 - System Access State4 - Traffic Channel StateReceive StateReceive PowerUnsupportedA = active pilotsX = exit reasonTransmit Adjust80 -10980 -10900 00A -514 -101E -1528 -20FFF5E6D7C8B9AA9B8C80-67-70-75-80-85-90-95-100-105-109QCP-1900QCP-800-64-67-72-77-82-87-92-97-102-106Receive Power Conversion:RXdbm=XXDEC / 3 - 63.25 (800 MHz)RXdbm=XXDEC / 3 - 66.25 (1900 MHz)(if XX>7F, use XX = XXDEC-256)Transmit Gain Adjust Conversion:TXADJdb=XXDEC / 2Transmit Power Output Conversion:TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (800 MHz)TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (1900 MHz)
  • 117. May, 2002 7 - 117Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterKyocera 2035 Maintenance ModeSteps to enter maintenancemode:s 111111s Enters Options: Debugs Enters Enter Field Debug Code• 000000s Field Debugs Debug Screens Enters Basics Enter
  • 118. May, 2002 7 - 118Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterKyocera 6035 Maintenance Modes 111111s Jog > Optionss Jog > Debugs Open flip to continues Enter Code• 0 0 0 0 0 0s OKs SCREEN
  • 119. May, 2002 7 - 119Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterEarly Samsung Maintenance Display80100000 0See followinglegend formaintenancedisplay values(* or correct code, if different)Press This: See This: continue: See This:**Menu Main Menu ↑$1:Call Logs2:Phone BookSVCSetup ↑$1:Auto Retry2:Anykey AnsSVCService Code??????SVCDebug Menu ↑$1:Screen2:Test CallsSVCDebug Menu ↑$3:Errors4:Erase ErrorSVCS04379 SI0 1T-63 D105-06P016 CH0600SVC
  • 120. May, 2002 7 - 120Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSamsung SCH-3500 Maintenance DisplayHere are the steps to entermaintenance mode:s MENUs SETUPs 0 (undocumented “trap door”)s 000000 (operator’s code)s Screen
  • 121. May, 2002 7 - 121Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterInterpreting Samsung Maintenance Display:Acquisition, Idle, and Access StatesTransmit Power Output Calculation:TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (800 MHz)TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (1900 MHz)S04379 SI0 1T-63 D085-06P016 CH0600svcPN Offset0 - Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate1 - Sync Channel Acquisition Substate2 - MS Idle State3 - System Access State4 - Traffic Channel State5,6,7 - various call service optionsProcessing StateReceivePower,dbmTransmitGain Adjust,dbDisplay toggles between:System Identifier (SID)Network Identifier (NID)Frequency(channel #)Ec/Io, db(primary PN only)Slot Cycle Index
  • 122. May, 2002 7 - 122Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterInterpreting Samsung Maintenance Display:Traffic Channel StateTransmit Power Output Calculation:TXdbm= -73 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (800 MHz)TXdbm= -76 -RXDBM - TXADJdb (1900 MHz)TV1 RV8 08 7T-63 D085-06P016 CH0600svcPN Offset0 - Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate1 - Sync Channel Acquisition Substate2 - MS Idle State3 - System Access State4 - Traffic Channel State5,6,7 - various call service optionsProcessing StateReceivePower,dbmTransmitGain Adjust,dbTransmitVocoder Rate1 = 1/82 = 1/44 = 1/28 = FullFrequency(channel #)WalshcodeassignedReceiveVocoderRateEc/Io, db(primary PN only)
  • 123. May, 2002 7 - 123Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterEntering Denso Debug Modes Enter ##DEBUG (##33284)s Scroll down to SAVEs Press OKs Highlight SERVICE SCREENs Press OKs If you want to make a test call,dial the digits and press OKwhile in idle modeCBV: 3957ABU: 3954 ABT: 031ARF: 0000 CCL: 01SID: 04157NID: 00001CH: 0100 RSSI: 093DPN: 084 TX:-46BFRM:0000000968TFRM:0000135712FER:% 000.71LT: 036:06:36LG: -086:45:36EC: -16 -63 -63PN: 084 084 084FNGLK: Y Y NWLSH: 01 01 01ACT: 084 484 096-01 -01 200CND: 220 332 200200 332 NGH: 076080 340 068 196O56 320 220 316344 488 196 200392 124 128 084224 008 084D
  • 124. May, 2002 7 - 124Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterDenso Maintenance DisplayCBV: 3957ABV: 3954 ABT: 031ARF: 0000 CCL: 01SID: 04157NID: 00001CH: 0100 RSSI: 093DPN: 084 TX:-46BFRM:0000000968TFRM:0000135712FER:% 000.71LT: 036:06:36LG: -086:45:36EC: -16 -63 -63PN: 084 084 084FNGLK: Y Y NWLSH: 01 01 01ACT: 084 484 096-01 -01 200CND: 220 332 200200 332 NGH: 076080 340 068 196O56 320 220 316344 488 196 200392 124 128 084224 008 084DCharging Battery VoltageAverage Battery Voltage Average Battery TemperatureSystem IDNetwork IDRF Channel FrequencyDigital PN OffsetReceived Signal StrengthEstimated TransmitterPower OutputNumber of Bad FramesNumber of Good Frames Frame Erasure Rate, PercentBase Station coordinatesCurrent status of Rake FingersActive Pilot SetCandidate Pilot SetNeighbor Pilot Set
  • 125. May, 2002 7 - 125Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterEarly Sanyo Dual-Band Phoness press menu 7, 0s enter in DEBUGM (332846)s screens are similar to QCP phones7048233 6Press This:Menu318 2 94X A 7FD
  • 126. May, 2002 7 - 126Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterSanyo SPC-4500 Maintenance Displays Choose the following:s DISPLAYs OKs 0s OKs Enter Code: 0 0 0 0 0 0s Debug Menus SCREENs OK
  • 127. May, 2002 7 - 127Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterEntering Maintenance Mode: MotorolaContact your service provider to obtain your phone’s MasterSubscriber entity Lock (MSL). Then enter the following:s FCN 000000 000000 0 RCL Youll be prompted for yourMSL, enter it and press STO.• New prompts will appear, Press STO in response toeach prompt until no more appear. Don’t delay -continue quickly and enter:s FCN 0 0 * * T E S T M O D E STO• The display will briefly show US then just .s Press 55#.• Step 1 will appear with its current setting displayed.Press * to accept and move on to the next step. Repeatfor steps 2-8.s Step 9 (Option byte 2) is the only step requiring manualchanges. Enter 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (The leftmost bit now set to1 is what enables test mode.)s Now press STO to accept the entry and exit back to the prompt.s Power off and back on.s You should now be in test mode!
  • 128. May, 2002 7 - 128Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMotorola Maintenance Display3 7 2 0 6 5 3 1 2 4 5 01 6 8 1 8 5 1 C O N B R0 8 2 - 0 4 0 0 1 2 7 0 18 E V 4 1 8 3 0 0 3 1 2 6CP CP ExitRST CP RestartRTC RestrictedPLT Pilot AcquireSYN Synch AcquireTIM TimingBKS Background SearchIDL IdleOVD OverheadPAG PagingORG Call OriginationSMS SMSORD Order ResponseREG RegistrationTCI Traffic Channel InitWFO Waiting for OrderWFA Waiting for AnswerCON ConversationREL ReleaseNON No StateCall Processing StateNI No IndicationMR Mobile ReleaseBR Base ReleaseLast Call IndicatorTC Traffic Channel LostL2 Layer 2 Ack FailNC No Channel Asn MsgN5 N5M failureBS BS Ack FailureWO L3 WFO State TimeoutMP Max Probe FailurePC Paging Channel LossRR Reorder or Rel on PCH?? Unknown ConditionCurrent SIDCurrent NIDCall CounterStrongest ActivePN Ec/Io# Active# Cand.Strongest NeighborCurrent RSSI Dropped Call Counter# Neighbors Current RF ChannelCurrent FERCurrent TX dbm8V 8K voice8L 8K Loopback8EV EVRCCurrent Service Option8S 8K SMS13L 13K Loopback13S 13K SMS8MO 8K Markov OldDAT Data8M 8K Markov13M 13K MarkovN/A Null13v 13K Voice
  • 129. May, 2002 7 - 129Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNeoPoint Phoness Although NeoPoint went out of business inJune, 2001, there are still many NeoPointhandsets in general uses Press the M (menu) keys Select Preferences (using the up-arrow key)s Enter 040793s Choose Debug Screen [Select]s Now you’re in maintenance mode!
  • 130. May, 2002 7 - 130Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterGoldStar TouchPoints To enter maintenance mode, just key in:# # D E B U G SAVE
  • 131. May, 2002 7 - 131Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNokia 6185 Maintenance Displays Enter *3001#12345# MENUs Scroll down to Field tests Press Selects Scroll up to Enableds Press OKs Power the phone off and ons You should now be in Field test mode
  • 132. May, 2002 7 - 132Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterOlder Nokia Models Maintenance Displays Enter *3001#12345# MENUs Scroll down to Field tests Press Selects Scroll up to Enableds Press OKs Power the phone off and ons You should now be in Field test mode and the following screens will beavailable:
  • 133. May, 2002 7 - 133Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMaintenance Display Screens of Nokia HandsetsCSSTXXXXXRSSICCCCRXTXCS StateIdle: PN OffsetTFC: #Actv, FERRSSI dBmPaging Channel #RX power, dbmTX power, dbmScreen 1: GeneralCSSTPGCHCURSOFERCS StatePaging Channel #Current Service OptionFrame Error RateScreen 2: Paging CH InfoMobile MINMobile Station ESNPreferred Sys1=AMPS, 2=CDMAOwnNumberESNPAOperator Selected(1=A, 2=B, 3=bothScreen 4: NAM InfoPrimary Channel ASecondary Channel APPCASPCAScreen 5: NAM InfoPrimary Channel BSecondary Channel BPPCBSPCBLocal UseAccess Overload ClassLACurrent SIDCurrent NIDSIDNIDScreen 6: BS & Access. Info.DBUS (Handsfree?)DBUSBASE_ID (sys par msg)P_REV (sync msg)BASE#P_REVScreen 7: BS Protocol Rev. LevelMIN_P_REV (sync msg.MIN_P_REVCS StateDate from System TimeCSSTMMDDYYScreen 8: Time InformationSystem TimeHHMMSSThe following screens appear in field test mode on Nokia HD881 series of Handsets:
  • 134. May, 2002 7 - 134Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued)TADDTDROPTATDScreen 9: Acquisition InformationTCOMPTCTTDROPTTActive WindowWW1Neighbor WindowWW2Remaining WindowWW3Pilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 10: Active Set (#1-3)Keep? 1KPilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECKeep? 1KPilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECKeep? 1KPilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 11: Active Set (#4-6)Keep? 1KPilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECKeep? 1KPilot PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECKeep? 1K
  • 135. May, 2002 7 - 135Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued)NBR 1 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 12: Neighbor Set (#1-5)NBR 2 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 3 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 4 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 5 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 6 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 13: Neighbor Set (#6-10)NBR 7 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 8 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 9 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 10 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 11 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 14: Neighbor Set (#11-15)NBR 12 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 13 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 14 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 15 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 16 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 15: Neighbor Set (#16-20)NBR 17 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 18 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 19 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECNBR 20 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNEC
  • 136. May, 2002 7 - 136Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterNokia Maintenance Display Screens (continued)CAND 1 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECScreen 16: Candidate Set (#1-5)CAND 2 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECCAND 3 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECCAND 4 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECCAND 5 PN OffsetEc/Io in 1/2 db unitsPPNECTask NameWorst-Cs Stack Free SpTASKNFREEScreen 17-22: Task Stack Ck InfoOverflow ind. by shift2=sys stack overflowTask StackSys StackScreen 23: Stack Status Info.Screen 24: Codec Registers
  • 137. May, 2002 7 - 137Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterWhat’s New in CDMA2000?What’s New in CDMA2000?The Future is Here! CDMA2000
  • 138. May, 2002 7 - 138Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterWhat’s New about CDMA2000?s CDMA2000 is the next-generation family of CDMA standardsCDMA2000 Phase I: 1xRTTs Independent I and Q modulation almost doubles capacity, compared toold IS-95 modulation with I and Q duplications New types of channels are provided• “fundamental” channels like IS-95 traffic channels, but better coded sothey require less air-interface capacity; circuit-switched• new “supplemental” channels can carry fast data (153K, 230K, even307Kbps); assigned for packet bursts, not continuously• also optional new administrative channels for smoother operations• a sector can carry a dynamic “mix” of both new channel types, as wellas old IS-95 traffic channels simultaneously!CDMA2000 Phase II: 1xEV DO, 1xEV DV, and 3xRTTs 3xRTT: Faster data on a bundle of 3 1x carriers; probably won’t be useds 1xEV DO: 1x Evolution, Data Only (IS-856) Qualcomm & Lucent• Fast data up to 2.4 Mbps on a dedicated 1.2 MHz. CDMA Carriers 1xEV DV: 1x Evolution, Data and Voice “1Xtreme” Motorola & Nokia• Fast data up to 5 Mbps on a 1.2 MHz. carrier still supporting a mix offast data and voice traffic
  • 139. May, 2002 7 - 139Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterCDMAone CDMA2000/IS-2000The CDMA Technology Path to 3GTechnologyGenerationSignalBandwidth,#UsersFeatures:IncrementalProgress1GAMPSDataCapabilities30 kHz.1FirstSystem,Capacity&HandoffsNone,2.4K bymodem2GIS-95A/J-Std0081250 kHz.20-35First CDMA,Capacity,Quality14.4K2GIS-95B1250 kHz.25-40•ImprovedAccess•SmarterHandoffs64K2.5G or 3?IS-2000:1xRTT1250 kHz.50-80 voiceand data•EnhancedAccess•ChannelStructure153K307K230K3G1xEV:HDR or1Xtreme1250 kHz.Many packetusersFaster datarates ondedicated1x RF datacarrier2.4 Mb/s(HDR)5 Mb/s(1Xtreme)3GIS-2000:3xRTTF: 3x 1250kR: 3687k120-210 per3 carriersFaster datarates onshared 3-carrierbundle1.0 Mb/s
  • 140. May, 2002 7 - 140Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterAn IS-95 Sector vs CDMA2000 Sector:Cheap Hotel vs. Convention Centers A sector on an IS-95 CDMA BTSruns like a discount hotel today• Theres a Sign outside, acovered entranceway, Lobby• Only Two kinds of rooms:one king bed or two doubles• There are no meeting roomsor ballroomss New 1xRTT CDMA BTS sectorsare like a convention resort!• Twice as big in square feet• Sign, Entranceway, Lobby• Restaurants, Bars, Nightclub• Guest rooms: one king bedor two doubles, maybe suites• Meeting Rooms withadjustable walls -- for use asClassrooms, Auditorium,Ballrooms, Banquets,Parties, MeetingsBTSPILOTSYNCPAGINGTRAFFICACCESSTRAFFICF-TRAFFICBTSF-PilotF-SyncPAGINGF-BCHF-QPCHF-CPCCHF-CACHF-CCCHF-DCCHF-FCHF-SCHF-SCHR-TRAFFICR-PilotR-CCCHR-DCCHR-FCHR-SCHR-EACHR-ACH or
  • 141. May, 2002 7 - 141Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterA 3G CDMA2000 1xRTT CDMA Networks For full-featured data access over a 3G network, a true IP packet connectionmust be established to outside Packet Data Networks (including internet)s This requires a Packet Data Serving Node• ISP and operator-provided services are provided by external HomeNetwork and Home Agent routers• Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting provided by external servers The old IWF (not shown above) is still maintained to allow old mobiles to usedial-up and WAP/wireless web keypad accesst1t1v CESELrft1R-P Interfacefiber - ATMPDSNForeign AgentPDSNHome AgentBackboneNetworkInternetVPNsPSTNT TSECURE TUNNELSAuthenticationAuthorizationAccountingAAACIRCUIT-SWITCHED VOICE TRAFFICBTS(C)BSC/Access ManagerSwitchWirelessMobile DevicePOINT-TO-POINT PACKETSFAST IP PACKET TRAFFICFast!
  • 142. May, 2002 7 - 142Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMore Information on CDMA2000s For more information on CDMA2000, download our 3G courseseries on www.howcdmaworks.com• no-cost access information is in slide #149 of this course• Course 331 – Introduction to 3G• Course 332 – Technical Details of 1xRTT• Course 333 – Overview of 3xRTT, 1xEV DO, 1xEV DV• Course 334 – 1xRTT Performance Optimization
  • 143. May, 2002 7 - 143Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott Baxter3G Information ResourcesBibliography - Articles - Web Links3G Information ResourcesBibliography - Articles - Web Links
  • 144. May, 2002 7 - 144Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBibliography, 3G Air Interface Technologies“3G Wireless Demystified” by Lawrence Harte, Richard Levine, and Roman Kitka488pp. Paperback, 2001 McGraw Hill, ISSBN 0-07-136301-7 $50. For both non-technical andtechnical readers. An excellent starting point for understanding all the major technologies andthe whole 3G movement. Comfortable plain-language explanations of all the 2G and 3G airinterfaces, yet including very succinct, complete, and rigorously correct technical details. Youwill still want to read books at a deeper technical level in your chosen technology, and maysometimes turn to the applicable standards for finer details, but this book will give you what youwon’t find elsewhere -- how everything relates in the big picture, and probably everything youcare to know about technologies other than your own."Wireless Network Evolution 2G to 3G" by Vijay K. Garg. 764pp. 2002 Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-028077-1. $80. Excellent technical tutorial and reference. The most complete andcomprehensive technical detail seen in a single text on all these technologies: IS-95 2G CDMA,CDMA2000 3G CDMA, UMTS/WCDMA, Bluetooth, WLAN standards (802.11a, b, WILAN).Includes good foundation information on CDMA air interface traffic capacity, CDMA systemdesign and optimization, and wireless IP operations. Excellent level of operational detail for IS-95 systems operating today as well as thorough explanations of 2.5G and 3G enhancements."3G Wireless Networks" by Clint Smith and Daniel Collins. 622pp. Paperback. 2002 McGraw-Hill,ISBN 0-07-136381-5. $60. An excellent overview of all 3G technologies coupled with gooddetail of network architectures, channel structures, and general operational details. Goodtreatment of both CDMA2000 and UMTS/WCDMA systems.“WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet” by Tero Ojanpera and Ramjee Prasad. 476pp.2001 Artech House, ISSBN 1-58053-180-6. $100. The most complete and definitive work onUMTS (excellent CDMA2000, too!). CDMA principles, Mobile Internet, RF Environment &Design, Air Interface, WCDMA FDD standard, WCDMA TDD, CDMA2000, Performance,Heirarchical Cell Structures, Implementation, Network Planning, Basic IP Principles, NetworkArchitectures, Standardization, Future Directions. This is a MUST HAVE for a one-book library!
  • 145. May, 2002 7 - 145Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMore Bibliography,3G Air Interface Technologies“The UMTS Network and Radio Access Technology” by Dr. Jonathan P. Castro, 354pp. 2001 John Wiley, ISBN 0 471 81375 3, $120. An excellent, well-organized, andunderstandable exploration of UMTS. Includes radio interface, channelexplanations, link budgets, network architecture, service types, ip networkconsiderations, a masterful tour de force through the entire subject area. Veryreadable, too!“WCDMA for UMTS” by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, 322 pp. 2000 Wiley, ISBN 0471 72051 8, $60. Very good overall treatment of UMTS. Excellent introduction to3G and summary of standardization activities, every level of UMTS/UTRA. Goodoverview of CDMA-2000, too!“The GSM Network - GPRS Evolution: One Step Towards UMTS” 2nd Edition byJoachim Tisal, 227pp. paperback, 2001 Wiley, ISBN 0 471 49816 5, $60. Readablebut not overwhelming introduction to GSM in all its aspects (140pp), DECT (11pp),GPRS (6pp), UMTS (7pp), WAP (25pp), EDGE (10pp).
  • 146. May, 2002 7 - 146Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBibliography, The IP Aspect of 3G“Mobile IP: Design, Principles and Practices” by Charles E. Perkins, 275 pp., 200, 1998 Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63469-4. $60. Comprehensive view of Mobile IP including home andforeign agents, advertisement, discovery, registration, datagrams, tunneling, encapsulation,route optimization, handoffs, firewalls, IPv6, DHCP. Tour-de-force of mobile IP techniques.“Mobile IP Technology for M-Business” by Mark Norris, 291 pp., 2001 Artech House, ISSBN 1-58053-301-9. $67. GPRS overview and background, Mobile IP, Addressing, Routing, M-business, future prospects, IPv4, IPv6, Bluetooth & IrDA summaries.“TCP/IP Explained” by Phillip Miller, 1997 Digital Press, ISBN 1-55558-166-8, 518pp. $50. In-depthunderstanding of the Internet protocol suite, network access and link layers, addressing,subnetting, name/address resolution, routing, error reporting/recovery, network management. IFyou’re not already strong in TCP/IP, you’ll need this to fully master Mobile IP.“Cisco Networking Academy Program: First-Year Companion Guide” edited by Vito Amato, 1999Cisco Press, ISBN 1-57870-126-0, 438pp. Textbook supporting a year-long course onnetworking technologies for aspiring LAN/WAN (and 3G) technicians and engineers. It coversevery popular networking technology (including all its elements and devices) in deep andpractical detail. Excellent real-world understanding of TCP/IP, as well as the nuts-and-bolts ofeverything from physical components to protocols to actual devices such as routers, switches,etc. You might even want to take the evening courses at a local community college near you.“Cisco Networking Academy Program: Engineering Journal and Workbook, Volume I” edited byVito Amato, 1999 Cisco Press, ISBN 1-57870-126-x, 291pp. The workbook for the First YearCompanion Guide above. If you want some external structure in your self-study, this workbookwill hold your hand as you climb every step of the ladder, and will lead you step by step throughthe sister textbook, ensuring you absorb everything you need to know.
  • 147. May, 2002 7 - 147Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBibliography - General CDMA“IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000: Cellular/PCS Systems Implementation” by Vijay K. Garg. 422 pp.2000 Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-087112-5, $90. IS-95 and CDMA2000 Access technologies,DSSS, IS-95 air interface, channels, call processing, power control, signaling, soft handoff,netw. planning, capacity, data. CDMA2000 layers, channels, coding, comparison w/ WCDMA.“CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook” by Jhong Sam Lee and Leonard E. Miller, 1998 ArtechHouse, ISBN 0-89006-990-5. Excellent treatment of CDMA basics and deeper theory, cell andsystem design principles, system performance optimization, capacity issues. Recommended.“CDMA RF System Engineering” by Samuel C. Yang, 1998 Artech House, ISBN 0-89006-991-3.Good general treatment of CDMA capacity considerations from mathematical viewpoint.“CDMA Internetworking: Deploying the Open A-Interface” by Low and Schneider. 616 pp. 2000Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-088922-9, $75. A tour-de-force exposition of the networking betweenthe CDMA BSC, BTS, and mobile, including messaging and protocols of IS-634. Chapters onSS7, Call Processing, Mobility Management, Supplementary Services, Authentication,Resource Management (both radio and terrestrial), 3G A-Interface details. One-of-a-kind work!"CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication" by Andrew J. Viterbi. 245 p. Addison-Wesley 1995. ISBN 0-201-63374-4, $65. Very deep CDMA Theory. Prestige collector’s item.
  • 148. May, 2002 7 - 148Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterBibliography - General Wireless“Mobile and Personal Communication Services and Systems” by Raj Pandya, 334 pp.2000 IEEE Press, $60. IEEE order #PC5395, ISBN 0-7803-4708-0. Good technicaloverview of AMPS, TACS< NMT, NTT, GSM, IS-136, PDC, IS-95, CT2, DECT,PACS, PHS, mobile data, wireless LANs, mobile IP, WATM, IMT2000 initiatives byregion, global mobile satellite systems, UPT, numbers and identities, performancebenchmarks.“Wireless Telecom FAQs” by Clint Smith, 2001 McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-134102-1.Succint, lucid explanations of telecom terms in both wireless and landlinetechnologies. Includes cellular architecture, AMPS, GSM, TDMA, iDEN, CDMA.Very thorough coverage; an excellent reference for new technical people or anyonewishing for clear explanations of wireless terms."Mobile Communications Engineering" 2nd. Edition by William C. Y. Lee. 689 pp.McGraw Hill 1998 $65. ISBN 0-07-037103-2 Lee’s latest/greatest reference workon all of wireless; well done.
  • 149. May, 2002 7 - 149Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterWeb Links and Downloadable ResourcesScott Baxter: http://www.howcdmaworks.comLatest versions of all courses are downloadable.Category - Username - PasswordIntro - (none required) - (none required)RF/CDMA/Performance - shannon - hertz3G - generation - thirdGrayson - telecom - allenAgilent - nitro - viperDr. Ernest Simo’s Space2000: http://www.cdmaonline.com/ and http://www.3Gonline.com/CDG: http://www.cdg.org (check out the digivents multimedia viewable sessions)The IS-95 and IS-2000 CDMA trade marketing webside, CDMA cheerleaders.GSM: http://www.gsmworld.comThe GSM Association website. Worldwide GSM marketing cheerleaders but also includes someexcellent GSM and GPRS technical overview whitepapers and documents; latest user figures.UWCC: http://www.uwcc.comThe IS-136 TDMA trade marketing website, TDMA cheerleaders.RCR News: http://www.rcrnews.comWireless Industry trade publication - regulatory, technical, business, marketing news.Subscribers can access text archives of past articles; very handy in researching events.Wireless Week: http://www.wirelessweek.comWireless Industry trade publication - regulatory, technical, business, marketing news.
  • 150. May, 2002 7 - 150Technical Introduction to CDMA v3.0 (c) 2002 Scott BaxterMore Web Links3GPP: http://www.3gpp.org/The operators’ harmonization group concerned mainly with ETSI-related standards3GPP2: http://www.3gpp2.org/The operators’ harmonization group concerned mainly with IS-95-derived CDMA standardsITU: http://www.itu.int/imt/ETSI: http://www.etsi.fr/UMTS forum: http://www.umts-forum.org/GSM MoU: http://www.gsmworld.com/TIA: http://www.tiaonline.org/T1: http://www.t1.org/ARIB: http://www.arib.or.jp/arib/english/index.htmlTTC: http://www.ttc.or.jp/TTA: http://www.tta.or.kr/ETRI: http://www.etri.re.kr/RAST: http://www.rast.etsi.fi/