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03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
03 Wireless Concept
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03 Wireless Concept

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FREQUENCY CONCEPTS …

FREQUENCY CONCEPTS
The following table summarizes the frequency-related specifications of each of the GSM systems. The terms used in the table are explained in the remainder of this section.
System P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800
Frequencies: • Uplink • Downlink
890-915 MHz
935-960 MHz

Wavelength ~ 33 cm
880-915 MHz
925-960 MHz

GSM 1900
1710-1785 MHz
1805-1880 MHz
1850-1910 MHz
1930-1990 MHz
~ 33 cm ~ 17 cm ~ 16 cm
Bandwidth 25 MHz
35 MHz 75 MHz 60 MHz
Duplex Distance 45 MHz
45 MHz 95 MHz 80 MHz
Carrier Separation 200 kHz
1
Radio Channels
200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz
125
175 375 300
Transmission Rate 270 kbits/s
270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s
Table 3-1 Frequency-related specifications
FREQUENCY
F Did you know?
Due to frequency, a BTS transmitting information at 1800 MHz with an output power of 10 Watts (W) will cover only half the area of a similar BTS transmitting at 900 MHz. To counteract this, BTSs using 1800 MHz may use a higher output power.
An MS communicates with a BTS by transmitting or receiving radio waves, which consist of electromagnetic energy. The frequency of a radio wave is the number of times that the wave oscillates per second. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz), where 1 Hz indicates one oscillation per second. Radio frequencies are used for many applications in the world today. Some common uses include:
• Television: 300 MHz approx. • FM Radio: 100 MHz approx. • Police radios: Country dependent • Mobile networks: 300 - 2000 MHz approx.
The frequencies used by mobile networks varies according to the standard being used
2
. An operator applies for the available frequencies or, as in the United States, the operator bids for frequency bands at an auction. The following diagram displays the frequencies used by the major mobile standards:
DAMPS 1900 MHz
0450900800 1500 1800 1900 NMT 450
PDC 800
GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900NMT 900
PDC 1500AMPS DAMPS 800
TACS
Figure 3-1 Frequencies for major mobile standards

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  • 1. Wireless ConceptsChapter 3This chapter is designed to provide the student with an overviewof basic concepts of wireless communications.OBJECTIVES:Upon completion of this chapter the student will be able to:• Briefly describe the Time Division Multiple Accesstechnique (TDMA)• List 2 transmission problems and the methods used to solve those.
  • 2. GSM System SurveyEN/LZT 123 3321 R3All aa nnkkBBiioonnaallllyyttnneettnnII
  • 3. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – i –3 Wireless ConceptsTable of ContentsTopic PageFREQUENCY CONCEPTS ..................................................................39FREQUENCY ............................................................................................................ 40BANDWIDTH............................................................................................................. 43CHANNELS ............................................................................................................... 43TRANSMISSION RATE............................................................................................. 46MODULATION METHOD........................................................................................... 46ACCESS METHOD: TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)......................... 47ANALOG AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION .........................................48INTRODUCTION TO ANALOG AND DIGITAL .......................................................... 48ADVANTAGES OF USING DIGITAL ......................................................................... 49TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS.............................................................50PATH LOSS............................................................................................................... 50SHADOWING ............................................................................................................ 50MULTIPATH FADING................................................................................................ 51TIME ALIGNMENT .................................................................................................... 53COMBINED SIGNAL LOSS....................................................................................... 54SOLUTIONS TO TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS.................................56CHANNEL CODING .................................................................................................. 56INTERLEAVING ........................................................................................................ 57ANTENNA DIVERSITY.............................................................................................. 58ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION...................................................................................... 60FREQUENCY HOPPING........................................................................................... 61TIMING ADVANCE.................................................................................................... 62GSM TRANSMISSION PROCESS ......................................................63STAGE 1: ANALOG TO DIGITAL (A/D) CONVERSION............................................ 63STAGE 2: SEGMENTATION AND STAGE 3: SPEECH CODING............................. 66
  • 4. GSM System Survey– ii – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASTAGE 4: CHANNEL CODING ................................................................................. 68STAGE 5: INTERLEAVING ....................................................................................... 69STAGE 6: CIPHERING/ENCRYPTION ..................................................................... 71STAGE 7: BURST FORMATTING............................................................................. 71STAGE 8: MODULATION & TRANSMISSION .......................................................... 72
  • 5. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 39 –FREQUENCY CONCEPTSThe following table summarizes the frequency-relatedspecifications of each of the GSM systems. The terms used in thetable are explained in the remainder of this section.System P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900Frequencies:• Uplink• Downlink890-915 MHz935-960 MHz880-915 MHz925-960 MHz1710-1785 MHz1805-1880 MHz1850-1910 MHz1930-1990 MHzWavelength ~ 33 cm ~ 33 cm ~ 17 cm ~ 16 cmBandwidth 25 MHz 35 MHz 75 MHz 60 MHzDuplex Distance 45 MHz 45 MHz 95 MHz 80 MHzCarrier Separation 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHzRadio Channels1125 175 375 300Transmission Rate 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/s 270 kbits/sTable 3-1 Frequency-related specifications1Note: Every GSM network uses one channel as a guard channel. This reduces the number of channels available fortraffic by one. This is used to separate GSM frequencies from the frequencies of neighboring applications, e.g. 889MHz. In this way extra protection (and quality) for GSM calls is ensured.
  • 6. GSM System Survey– 40 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3AFREQUENCYAn MS communicates with a BTS by transmitting or receivingradio waves, which consist of electromagnetic energy. Thefrequency of a radio wave is the number of times that the waveoscillates per second. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz),where 1 Hz indicates one oscillation per second. Radiofrequencies are used for many applications in the world today.Some common uses include:• Television: 300 MHz approx.• FM Radio: 100 MHz approx.• Police radios: Country dependent• Mobile networks: 300 - 2000 MHz approx.The frequencies used by mobile networks varies according to thestandard being used2. An operator applies for the availablefrequencies or, as in the United States, the operator bids forfrequency bands at an auction. The following diagram displaysthe frequencies used by the major mobile standards:0 450 900800 1500 1800 1900NMT 450TACSGSM 900 GSM 1800GSM 1900NMT 900PDC 800PDC 1500AMPSDAMPS 800DAMPS 1900MHzFigure 3-1 Frequencies for major mobile standards2As these frequencies are used to carry information, they are often referred to as carrier frequencies.F Did you know?Due to frequency, aBTS transmittinginformation at 1800MHz with an outputpower of 10 Watts (W)will cover only halfthe area of a similarBTS transmitting at900 MHz. Tocounteract this, BTSsusing 1800 MHz mayuse a higher outputpower.
  • 7. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 41 –WavelengthThere are many different types of electromagnetic waves. Theseelectromagnetic waves can be described by a sinusoidal function,which is characterized by wavelength. Wavelength (λ) is thelength of one complete oscillation and is measured in meters (m).Frequency and wavelength are related via the speed ofpropagation, which for radio waves is the speed of light (3 x108m/s).The wavelength of a frequency can be determined by using thefollowing formula:Wavelength = SpeedFrequencyThus, for GSM 900 the wavelength is:Wavelength = 3 x 108m/s900 MHzWavelength = 300,000,000 m/s900,000,000Wavelength = 0.33 m (or 33 cm)From this formula it can be determined that the higher thefrequency, the shorter the wavelength. Lower frequencies, withlonger wavelengths, are better suited to transmission over largedistances, because they bounce on the surface of the earth and inthe atmosphere. Television and FM radio are examples ofapplications, which use lower frequencies.Higher frequencies, with shorter wavelengths, are better suited totransmission over small distances, because they are sensitive tosuch problems as obstacles in the line of the transmission path.Higher frequencies are suited to small areas of coverage, wherethe receiver is relatively close to the transmitter.The frequencies used by mobile systems compromise betweenthe large-coverage advantages offered by lower frequencies andthe closeness-to-the-receiver advantages offered by use of higherfrequencies.
  • 8. GSM System Survey– 42 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3AExample of Frequency Allocation - United StatesIn 1994, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in theUnited States (US) auctioned licenses to prospective mobilenetwork operators. Each network operator owns the rights to thelicense for ten years. Further auctions will be held following thatperiod for the same licenses. The FCC has specified six blockswithin the frequency band: three duplex blocks A, B, and C (30MHz each) and three other duplex blocks D, E, and F (10 MHzeach).1850 1910 1930 1990A D B E F C A D B E F CUnlicensedMTAsUplinkMTAsDownlinkA,B 2 x 15 MHz MTAC 2 x 15 MHz BTAD, E, F 2 x 5 MHz BTA60 MHz 60 MHzFigure 3-2 Spectrum allocation for PCS 1900 in the UnitedStatesFor telecommunications purposes, the US is divided into 51regions or Major Trading Areas (MTA) and 493 Basic TradingAreas (BTA). One MTA can be as large in geographical area as astate, while a BTA can be about the size of a large city. The FCCissued two PCS 1900 licenses for each MTA and four licensesfor each BTA3. Thus, if a city such as Los Angeles will be servedby 6 operators: 2 MTA companies operating in California and 4BTA companies operating in Los Angeles.3Note: The choice of technology to use with the 1900 MHz frequencies is made by the successful companies. BothD-AMPS 1900 and GSM 1900 have been popular choices
  • 9. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 43 –BANDWIDTHBandwidth is the term used to describe the amount of frequencyrange allocated to one application. The bandwidth given to anapplication depends on the amount of available frequencyspectrum. The amount of bandwidth available is an importantfactor in determining the capacity of a mobile system, i.e. thenumber of calls, which can be handled.CHANNELSAnother important factor in determining the capacity of a mobilesystem is the channel. A channel is a frequency or set offrequencies which can be allocated for the transmission, andpossibly the receipt, of information. Communication channels ofany form can be one of the following types:Type Description ExamplesSimplex One way only FM radio, televisionHalf duplex Two way, only one at a time Police radioFull duplex Two way, both at the same time Mobile systemsA simplex channel, such as a FM radio music station, uses asingle frequency in a single direction only. A duplex channel,such as that used during a mobile call, uses two frequencies: oneto the MS and one from the MS. The direction from the MS tothe network is referred to as uplink. The direction from thenetwork to the MS is referred to as downlink.UplinkDownlinkFigure 3-3 Uplink and downlink on a radio channelF Did you know?Because it requiresless power to transmita lower frequencyover a given distance,uplink frequencies inmobile systems arealways the lower bandof frequencies - thissaves valuable batterypower of the MSs.
  • 10. GSM System Survey– 44 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ADuplex DistanceThe use of full duplex requires that the uplink and downlinktransmissions must be separated in frequency by a minimumdistance, which is called duplex distance. Without it, uplink anddownlink frequencies would interfere with each other.890 960915 935MHzUplink DownlinkDuplex Distance (45 MHz)Bandwidth (2 x 25 MHz)Figure 3-4 Duplex DistanceCarrier SeparationIn addition to the duplex distance, every mobile system includesa carrier separation4. This is the distance on the frequency bandbetween channels being transmitted in the same direction. This isrequired in order to avoid the overlapping of information in onechannel into an adjacent channel.The length of separation between two channels is dependent onthe amount of information which is to be transmitted within thechannel. The greater the amount of information to transmit, thegreater the amount of separation required.Carrier Separation (200 KHz)895.4 895.6MHzFigure 3-5 Carrier separationFrom the figure above, it can be seen that the information to besent is modulated around the carrier frequency of 895.4 MHz.The same is true of the information to be sent on 895.6 MHz. Toavoid interference between the two sets of information, aseparation distance of 200 kHz is required. If less separationwere used, they would interfere and a caller on 895.4 MHz mayexperience crosstalk or noise from the caller on 895.6 MHz.4Carrier separation is sometimes referred to as carrier bandwidth.
  • 11. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 45 –Capacity and Frequency Re-useIt is the number of frequencies in a cell that determines the cell’scapacity. Each company with a license to operate a mobilenetwork is allocated a limited number of frequencies. These aredistributed throughout the cells in their network. Depending onthe traffic load and the availability of frequencies, a cell mayhave one or more frequencies allocated to it.It is important when allocating frequencies that interference isavoided. Interference can be caused by a variety of factors. Acommon factor is the use of similar frequencies close to eachother. The higher interference, the lower call quality.To cover an entire country, for example, frequencies must be re-used many times at different geographical locations in order toprovide a network with sufficient capacity. The same frequenciescan not be re-used in neighboring cells as they would interferewith each other so special patterns of frequency usage aredetermined during the planning of the network.BGACGADFFEFigure 3-6 Neighboring cells cannot have the same frequency(simplified)These frequency re-use patterns ensure that any frequenciesbeing re-used are located at a sufficient distance apart to ensurethat there is little interference between them. The term“frequency re-use distance” is used to describe the distancebetween two identical frequencies in a re-use pattern. The lowerfrequency re-use distance, the more capacity will be available inthe network.
  • 12. GSM System Survey– 46 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ATRANSMISSION RATEThe amount of information transmitted over a radio channel overa period of time is known as the transmission rate. Transmissionrate is expressed in bits per second or bit/s. In GSM the net bitrate over the air interface is 270kbit/sMODULATION METHODIn GSM 900, the frequency that is used to transfer theinformation over the air interface is around 900 MHz. Since thisis not the frequency at which the information is generated,modulation techniques are used to translate the information intothe usable frequency band. Frequency translation is implementedby modulating the amplitude, frequency or phase of the so calledcarrier wave in accordance with the waveform of the input signal(e.g. speech). Any modulation scheme increases the carrierbandwidth and hence is a limit on the capacity of the frequencyband available. In GSM, the carrier bandwidth is 200 kHz.The modulation technique used in GSM is Gaussian MinimumShift Keying (GMSK). GMSK enables the transmission of270kbit/s within a 200kHz channel. This gives a bitrate of1.3 bit/s per Hz. This is rather low bitrate but acceptable as thechannel used has high interference level in the air.The channel capacity in GSM does not compare favorably withother digital mobile standards, which can fit more bits/s onto achannel. In this way the capacity of other mobile standards ishigher. However, GSM’s GMSK offers more tolerance ofinterference. This in turn enables tighter re-use of frequencies,which leads to an overall gain in capacity, which out-performsthat of other systems.
  • 13. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 47 –ACCESS METHOD: TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)Most digital cellular systems use the technique of Time DivisionMultiple Access (TDMA) to transmit and receive speech signals.With TDMA, one carrier is used to carry a number of calls, eachcall using that carrier at designated periods in time. Theseperiods of time are referred to as time slots. Each MS on a call isassigned one time slot on the uplink frequency and one on thedownlink frequency. Information sent during one time slot iscalled a burst.In GSM, a TDMA frame consists of 8 time slots. This means thata GSM radio carrier can carry 8 calls.0Frequency 11 2 3 4 5 6 7Figure 3-7 TDMANote: Only the downlink direction is shown. There is also acorresponding frame in the uplink direction.F Did you know?TDMA is not the onlypossible accessmethod for mobilesystems. Analogsystems useFrequency DMA(FDMA) while somesystems use CodeDMA (CDMA).
  • 14. GSM System Survey– 48 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3AANALOG AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONINTRODUCTION TO ANALOG AND DIGITALAnalog InformationAnalog information is continuous and does not stop at discretevalues. An example of analog information is time. It iscontinuous and does not stop at specific points. An analog watchmay have a second-hand which does not jump from one secondto the next, but continues around the watch face withoutstopping.Analog SignalsAn analog signal is a continuous waveform which changes inaccordance with the properties of the information beingrepresented.Figure 3-8 Analog SignalDigital InformationDigital information is a set of discrete values. Time can also berepresented digitally. However, digital time would be representedby a watch which jumps from one minute to the next withoutstopping at the seconds. In effect, such a digital watch is taking asample of time at predefined intervals.Digital SignalsFor mobile systems, digital signals may be considered to be setsof discrete waveforms.Figure 3-9 Digital Signal
  • 15. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 49 –ADVANTAGES OF USING DIGITALHuman speech is a form of analog information. It is continuousand changes in both frequency (higher and lower pitches) andamplitude (whispering and shouting).At first, analog signals may appear to be a better medium forcarrying analog information such as speech. Analog informationis continuous and if it were to be represented by discrete samplesof the information (digital signal), then some information wouldbe missing (like the seconds on the digital watch). An analogsignal would not miss any values, as it too is continuous.All signals, analog and digital, become distorted over distances.In analog, the only solution to this is to amplify the signal.However, in doing so, the distortion is also amplified. In digital,the signal can be completely regenerated as new, without thedistortion.Transmitted Received RegeneratedFigure 3-10 Regeneration of digital signalThe problem with using digital signals to transfer analoginformation is that some information will be missing due to thetechnique of taking samples. However, the more often thesamples are taken, the closer the resulting digital values will be toa true representation of the analog information.Overall, if samples are taken often enough, digital signalsprovide a better quality for transmission of analog informationthan analog signals.
  • 16. GSM System Survey– 50 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ATRANSMISSION PROBLEMSMany problems may occur during the transmission of a radiosignal. Some of the most common problems are described below.PATH LOSSPath loss occurs when the received signal becomes weaker andweaker due to increasing distance between MS and BTS, even ifthere are no obstacles between the transmitting (Tx) andreceiving (Rx) antenna. The path loss problem seldom leads to adropped call because before the problem becomes extreme, a newtransmission path is established via another BTS.SHADOWINGShadowing occurs when there are physical obstacles includinghills and buildings between the BTS and the MS. The obstaclescreate a shadowing effect which can decrease the received signalstrength. When the MS moves, the signal strength fluctuatesdepending on the obstacles between the MS and BTS.A signal influenced by fading varies in signal strength. Drops instrength are called fading dips.Figure 3-11 Shadowing
  • 17. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 51 –MULTIPATH FADINGMultipath fading occurs when there is more than onetransmission path to the MS or BTS, and therefore more than onesignal is arriving at the receiver. This may be due to buildings ormountains, either close to or far from the receiving device.Rayleigh fading and time dispersion are forms of multipathfading.Rayleigh fadingThis occurs when a signal takes more than one path between theMS and BTS antennas. In this case, the signal is not received ona line of sight path directly from the Tx antenna. Rather, it isreflected off buildings, for example, and is received from severaldifferent indirect paths. Rayleigh fading occurs when theobstacles are close to the receiving antenna.Figure 3-12 Rayleigh fadingThe received signal is the sum of many identical signals thatdiffer only in phase (and to some extent amplitude). A fading dipand the time that elapses between two fading dips depends onboth the speed of the MS and the transmitting frequency. As anapproximation, the distance between two dips caused byRayleigh fading is about half a wavelength. Thus, for GSM 900the distance between dips is about 17 cm.
  • 18. GSM System Survey– 52 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ATime DispersionTime dispersion is another problem relating to multiple paths tothe Rx antenna of either an MS or BTS. However, in contrast toRayleigh fading, the reflected signal comes from an object faraway from the Rx antenna.Time dispersion causes Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) whereconsecutive symbols (bits) interfere with each other making itdifficult for the receiver to determine which symbol is the correctone. An example of this is shown in the figure below where thesequence 1, 0 is sent from the BTS.111.002.113.10Figure 3-13 Time dispersionIf the reflected signal arrives one bit time after the direct signal,then the receiver detects a 1 from the reflected wave at the sametime it detects a 0 from the direct wave. The symbol 1 interfereswith the symbol 0 and the MS does not know which one iscorrect.F Did you know?One bit is transmittedevery 3.7 µs. Radiowaves travel at 3x108m/s. Therefore, onebit travelsapproximately 1 kmwithin one bit period.Thus, if the directpath is 1km and theindirect path is 3 kmlong, the first bittransmitted willinterfere with the 3rdbit transmitted.
  • 19. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 53 –TIME ALIGNMENTEach MS on a call is allocated a time slot on a TDMA frame.This is an amount of time during which the MS transmitsinformation to the BTS. The information must also arrive at theBTS within that time slot. The time alignment problem occurswhen part of the information transmitted by an MS does notarrive within the allocated time slot. Instead, that part may arriveduring the next time slot, and may interfere with informationfrom another MS using that other time slot.A large distance between the MS and the BTS causes timealignment. Effectively, the signal cannot travel over the largedistance within the given time.A. Close to BTSBTSTDMA-frameB. Far awayfrom BTSA.B.TS0 TS1 TS2Figure 3-14 The time alignment problemFor example, an MS is close to a BTS and has been allocatedtime slot 3 (TS 3). During the call, the MS moves away from theBTS causing the information sent from the BTS to arrive at theMS later and later. The answer from the MS also arrives later atthe BTS. If nothing is done, the delay becomes so long that thetransmission from the MS in time slot 3 overlaps with theinformation which the BTS receives in time slot 4.
  • 20. GSM System Survey– 54 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ACOMBINED SIGNAL LOSSEach of the problems described above occurs independently ofeach other. However, in most calls some of these problems mayoccur at the same time. An illustration of what the signal strengthmay look like at the MS Rx antenna when moving away from theBTS Tx antenna is shown in Figure 3-15. The problems of pathloss, shadowing and Rayleigh fading are present for thistransmission path.The signal strength as a global mean value decreases with thedistance (path loss) and finally results in a lost connection.Around this global mean, slow variations are present due toshadowing effects and fast variations are present due to Rayleighfading.log (distance)Signallevel(dB)Path loss ( )Rayleigh fading (-)Log normalfading ( )Figure 3-15 Rx signal strength versus distance
  • 21. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 55 –At any one point from the Tx antenna, the received signal canlook like the signal in Figure 3-16 below.FadingmarginSS (dB)Distance (meters)Global mean valueFading dip (Rayleigh)Receiver sensitivityFigure 3-16 Rx signal strengthThe lowest signal strength value required for a specified output iscalled receiver sensitivity level. To detect the information sentfrom Tx antenna, X watts must be received. If the signal fallsbelow X, the information will be lost and the call may bedropped. To ensure that no information is lost, the global meanvalue must be as many dB above the receiver sensitivity level asthe strongest (deepest) fading dip gives rise to. This fadingmargin is the difference between the global mean value and thereceiver sensitivity.
  • 22. GSM System Survey– 56 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASOLUTIONS TO TRANSMISSION PROBLEMSThis section describes some solutions to the problems describedin previous sections. Although many of these do not entirelysolve all problems on the radio transmission path, they do play animportant part in maintaining call quality for as long as possible.CHANNEL CODINGIn digital transmission, the quality of the transmitted signal isoften expressed in terms of how many of the received bits areincorrect. This is called Bit Error Rate (BER). BER defines thepercentage of the total number of received bits which areincorrectly detected.Transmitted bits 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0Received bits 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0Errors ↑ ↑ ↑ 3/10 = 30% BERThis percentage should be as low as possible. It is not possible toreduce the percentage to zero because the transmission path isconstantly changing. This means that there must be an allowancefor a certain amount of errors and at the same time an ability torestore the information, or at least detect errors so the incorrectinformation bits are not interpreted as correct. This is especiallyimportant during transmission of data, as opposed to speech, forwhich a higher BER is acceptable.Channel coding is used to detect and correct errors in a receivedbit stream. It adds bits to a message. These bits enable a channeldecoder to determine whether the message has faulty bits, and topotentially correct the faulty bits.
  • 23. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 57 –INTERLEAVINGIn reality, bit errors often occur in sequence, as caused by longfading dips affecting several consecutive bits. Channel coding ismost effective in detecting and correcting single errors and shorterror sequences. It is not suitable for handling longer sequencesof bit errors.For this reason, a process called interleaving is used to separateconsecutive bits of a message so that these are transmitted in anon-consecutive way.For example, a message block may consist of four bits (1234). Iffour message blocks must be transmitted, and one is lost intransmission, without interleaving there is a 25% BER overall,but a 100% BER for that lost message block. It is not possible torecover from this.1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 41 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4message blocksinterleavinginterleavedmessage blocksFigure 3-17 InterleavingIf interleaving is used, as shown in Figure 3-18, the bits of eachblock may be sent in a non-consecutive manner. If one block islost in transmission, again there is a 25% BER overall. However,this time the 25% is spread over the entire set of message blocks,giving a 25% BER for each. This is more manageable and thereis a greater possibility that the channel decoder can correct theerrors.1 X 3 4 1 X 3 4 1 X 3 4 1 X 3 4Figure 3-18 Received interleaved message blocksF Did you know?Interleaving could becompared to sendinga group of importantpeople from A to B ondifferent planes. Bydoing so, thelikelihood of losingthe entire group isminimised.
  • 24. GSM System Survey– 58 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3AANTENNA DIVERSITYAntenna diversity increases the received signal strength by takingadvantage of the natural properties of radio waves. There are twoprimary diverstiy methods: space diversity and polarizationdiversity.Space DiversityAn increased received signal strength at the BTS may beachieved by mounting two receiver antennae instead of one. Ifthe two Rx antennae are physically separated, the probability thatboth of them are affected by a deep fading dip at the same time islow. At 900 MHz, it is possible to gain about 3 dB with adistance of five to six meters between the antennae. At 1800MHz the distance can be shortened because of its decreasedwavelength.By choosing the best of each signal, the impact of fading can bereduced. Space diversity offers slightly better antenna gain thanpolarization diversity, but requires more space.TxRx (B)Rx (A)AntennaDiversityDiversitySystemOutputReceiverSensivityLevelReceivedSignalLevelA, B combinedReceiver AReceiver BNo DiversityTx RxFigure 3-19 Space diversity
  • 25. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 59 –Polarization DiversityWith polarisation diversity the two space diversity antennae arereplaced by one dual polarized antenna. This antenna has normalsize but contains two differently polarized antenna arrays. Themost common types are vertical/horizontal arrays and arrays in±45 degree slant orientation. The two arrays are connected to therespective Rx branches in the BTS. The two arrays can also beused as combined Tx/Rx antennas. For most applications, thedifference between the diversity gain for space diversity andpolarization diversity is negligible, but polarization diversityreduces the space required for antennae.
  • 26. GSM System Survey– 60 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3AADAPTIVE EQUALIZATIONAdaptive equalization is a solution specifically designed tocounteract the problem of time dispersion. It works as follows:1. Eight sets of predefined known bit patterns exist, known astraining sequences. These are known to the BTS and the MS(programmed at manufacture). The BTS instructs the MS toinclude one of these in its transmissions to the BTS.2. The MS and BTS includes the training sequence (shown inthe figure as “S”) in its transmissions.3. The other party receives the transmission and examines thetraining sequence within it. The received training sequence iscompared with the known training sequence that is used inthis cell. It can be assumed that problems in the radio pathaffected these bits must also have had a similar affect on thespeech data bits sent in the same burst.4. The receiver begins a process in which it uses its knowledgeof what happened the training sequence to correct the speechdata bits of the transmission.Data S’ Data}? S ?}CorrelatorChannelmodel“diff.”Choose“?”so that“diff.”isminimizedReceived burstProbable transmittedbit pattern:VITERBIFigure 3-20 Adaptive equalizationBecause some assumptions are made about the radio path,adaptive equalization may not result in a 100% perfect solutionevery time. However, a “good enough” result will be achieved. Aviterbi equalizer is an example of an adaptive equalizer.
  • 27. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 61 –FREQUENCY HOPPINGAs mentioned previously, Rayleigh fading is frequencydependent. This means that the fading dips occur at differentplaces for different frequencies. To benefit from this fact, it ispossible for the BTS and MS to hop from frequency to frequencyduring a call. The frequency hopping of the BTS and MS issynchronized.In GSM there are 64 patterns of frequency hopping, one of themis a simple cyclic or sequential pattern. The remaining 63 areknown as pseudo-random patterns, which an operator can choosefrom.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Downlink C1Uplink C1N N + 1TDMA frame no.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 70 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Downlink C2Uplink C2N N + 1TDMA frame no.Figure 3-21 Frequency hoppingDuring TDMA frame N, C1 is used and during TDMA frameN+1, C2 is used. The call uses the same time slot but changesfrequencies according to an identified pattern.
  • 28. GSM System Survey– 62 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ATIMING ADVANCETiming advance is a solution specifically designed to counteractthe problem of time alignment. It works by instructing the mis-aligned MS to transmit its burst earlier or later than it normallywould.In GSM, the timing advance information relates to bittimes.Thus, an MS may be instructed to do its transmission by acertain number of bittimes earlier or later related to previousposition, to reach its timeslot at the BTS in right time. Maximum63 bittimes can be used in GSM systems. This limits GSMnormal cell size to 35km radius. However with extended rangeequipment, distances up to 70Km or even 121Km can behandled, using 2 timeslots.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Time0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7“Synchronization time”StartSendingFigure 3-22 Timing advance
  • 29. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 63 –GSM TRANSMISSION PROCESSSTAGE 1: ANALOG TO DIGITAL (A/D) CONVERSIONOne of the primary functions of an MS is to convert the analogspeech information into digital form for transmission using adigital signal. The analog to digital (A/D) conversion processoutputs a collection of bits: binary ones and zeros whichrepresent the speech input.AnalogA/D ConversionDigitalFigure 3-23 A/D conversionThe A/D conversion is performed by using a process called PulseCode Modulation (PCM). PCM involves three main steps:• Sampling• Quantization• CodingStep 1: SamplingSampling involves measuring the analog signal at specific timeintervals.tAnalogue signaltSamplingTstSampled signalFigure 3-24 Analog signal samplingThe accuracy of describing the analog signal in digital termsdepends on how often the analog signal is sampled. This isexpressed as the sampling frequency. The sampling theory statesthat:
  • 30. GSM System Survey– 64 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ATo reproduce an analog signal without distortion, the signalmust be sampled with at least twice the frequency of the highestfrequency component in the analog signal.Normal speech mainly contains frequency components lowerthan 3400 Hz. Higher components have low energy and may beomitted without affecting the speech quality much. Applying thesampling theory to analog speech signals, the samplingfrequency, should be at least 2 x 3.4 kHz = 6.8 kHz.Telecommunication systems use a sampling frequency of 8 kHz,which is acceptable based on the sampling theory.Step 2: QuantizationThe next step is to give each sample a value. For this reason, theamplitude of the signal at the time of sampling is measured andapproximated to one of a finite set of values. The figure belowshows the principle of quantization applied to an analog signal. Itcan be seen that a slight error is introduced in this process whenthe signal is quantized or approximated. The degree of accuracydepends on the number of quantization levels used. Withincommon telephony, 256 levels are used while in GSM 8,192levels are used.q7q6q5q4q3q2q1q0Ts 2Ts 3Ts 4Ts 5Ts 6Ts 7Ts 8Tstime}SampledvalueQuantizedvalueD = Quantized errorFigure 3-25 Quantization
  • 31. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 65 –Step 3: CodingCoding involves converting the quantized values into binary.Every value is represented by a binary code of 13 bits (213=8192). For example, a quantized value of 2,157 would have a bitpattern of 0100001101101:Bit 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 TotalSet to 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1Value 0 2048 0 0 0 0 64 32 0 8 4 0 1 2157Table 3-2 Coding of quantised value 2157Summary of A/D ConversionThe result from the process of A/D conversion is 8,000 samplesper second of 13 bits each. This is a bit rate of 104 kbits/s.When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one radio channel,the overall bit rate would be 8 x 104 kbits/s = 832 kbits/s.Recalling the general rule of 1 bit per Hertz, this bit rate wouldnot fit into the 200 kHz available for all 8 subscribers. The bitrate must be reduced somehow - this is achieved usingsegmentation and speech coding.
  • 32. GSM System Survey– 66 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASTAGE 2: SEGMENTATION AND STAGE 3: SPEECH CODINGThe key to reducing the bit rate is to send information about thespeech instead of the speech itself. This can be explained withthe following analogy:Person A wishes to listen to a certain piece of music and theyknow that person B has it on record. A rings B asking for theuse of the record for some time. Unfortunately, the record isscratched and cannot be used. Instead, B sends A parametersof how the music is built up - the sheets of music - togetherwith information about how fast it should be played - thefrequency - and A reproduces the music.In GSM, the speech coding process analyzes speech samples andoutputs parameters of what the speech consists of the tone, lengthof tone, pitch, etc. This is then transmitted through the networkto another MS, which generates the speech based on theseparameters.The process of segmentation and speech coding is explained inmore detail as follows:The human speech process starts in the vocal chords or speechorgans, where a tone is generated. The mouth, tongue, teeth, etc.act as a filter, changing the nature of this tone. The aim of speechcoding in GSM is to send only information about the originaltone itself and about the filter.Segmentation: Given that the speech organs are relatively slow inadapting to changes, the filter parameters representing the speechorgans are approximately constant during 20 ms. For this reason,when coding speech in GSM, a block of 20 ms is coded into oneset of bits. In effect, it is similar to sampling speech at a rate of50 times per second instead of the 8,000 used by A/Dconversion.01100011000111110011100Speech Code20 msSpeech SignalFigure 3-26 Segmentation and speech codingF Did you know?In his childhood,Alexander Graham Bellconstructed an artificialspeaking machine. Itwas an anatomicalmodel of the humanvoice tract, completewith teeth, throat, nasalpassages and tongue.By carefully positioningthese elements, whilesimultaneouslyintroducing a soundsource in the throat,Bell was able toarticulate simpleEnglish words.
  • 33. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 67 –Speech Coding5: Instead of using 13 bits per sample as in A/Dconversion, GSM speech coding uses 260 bits. This calculates as50 x 260 = 13 kbits/s. This provides a speech quality which isacceptable for mobile telephony and comparable with wirelinePSTN phones.Many types of speech coders are available. Some offer betterspeech quality, at the expense of a higher bit rate (waveformcoders). Others use lower bit rates, at the expense of lowerspeech quality (vocoders). The hybrid coder which GSM usesprovides good speech quality with a relatively low bit rate, at theexpense of speech coder complexity.ExcellentGoodAverageBadSpeechquality2 4 8 16 32 64Bitrate(kbit/s)Hybrid codersIncreasing complexityWaveform codersVocodersFigure 3-27 Speech quality vs. bit rateSummary of Segmentation and Speech CodingThe GSM speech coder produces a bit rate of 13 kbits/s persubscriber. When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one radiochannel, the overall bit rate would be 8 x 13 kbits/s = 104 kbits/s.This compares favorably with the 832 kbits/s from A/Dconversion.However, speech coding does not consider the problems whichmay be encountered on the radio transmission path. The nextstages in the transmission process, channel coding andinterleaving, help to overcome these problems.5The function of converting from PCM coded information to GSM speech coder information is called transcoding.F Did you know?The speech codingprocess described hereis for full rate speechonly. Alternatives are:• Half rate: 6.5 kbits/s• Enhanced Full Rate(EFR): 13.0 kbits/s
  • 34. GSM System Survey– 68 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASTAGE 4: CHANNEL CODINGChannel coding in GSM uses the 260 bits from speech coding asinput to channel coding and outputs 456 encoded bits.The 260 bits are split according to their relative importance:• Block 1: 50 very important bits• Block 2: 132 important bits and• Block 3: 78 not so important bitsThe first block of 50 bits is sent through a block coder, whichadds three parity bits that will result in 53 bits. These three bitsare used to detect errors in a received message.The 53 bits from first block, the 132 bits from the second blockand 4 tail bits (total = 189) are sent to a 1:2 convolutional coderwhich outputs 378 bits. Bits added by the convolutional coderenable the correction of errors when the message is received.The bits of block 3 are not protected.Blockcoder50 Very important bits132 Important bits78 Not so important bits1:2ConvolutionalCoder4564 Tail bits53 bits 378 bitsFigure 3-28 Channel coding
  • 35. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 69 –STAGE 5: INTERLEAVINGFirst level of interleavingThe channel coder provides 456 bits for every 20 ms of speech.These are interleaved, forming eight blocks of 57 bits each, asshown in the figure below.191725IIIIIIIIIIII449210IIIIIIIIIIIIII450311IIIIIIIIIIIIII451412IIIIIIIIIIIIII452513IIIIIIIIIIIIII453614IIIIIIIIIIIIII454715IIIIIIIIIIIIII455816IIIIIIIIIIIIII4568 blocks57 bitsFigure 3-29 Interleaving of 20 ms of encoded speechIn a normal burst there is space for two of these speech blocks of57 bits, as can be seen in Figure 3-30. (The remaining bits in theburst are explained later in this book.) Thus, if one bursttransmission is lost, there is a 25% BER for the entire 20 ms ofspeech (2/8 = 25%).57 1 26 1 573 3Figure 3-30 Normal burst
  • 36. GSM System Survey– 70 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASecond level of interleavingIf only one level of interleaving is used, a loss of this burstresults in a total loss of 25%. This is too much for the channeldecoder to correct. A second level of interleaving can beintroduced to further reduce the possible BER to 12.5%.Instead of sending two blocks of 57 bits from the same 20 ms ofspeech within one burst, a block from one 20 ms and a blockfrom next sample of 20 ms are sent together. A delay isintroduced in the system when the MS must wait for the next 20ms of speech. However, the system can now afford to loose awhole burst, out of eight, as the loss is only 12.5% of the totalbits from each 20ms speech frame. 12,5% is the maximum losslevel that channel decoder can correct.20 ms speech456 bits = 8x57A20 ms speech456 bits = 8x57B20 ms speech456 bits = 8x57C20 ms speech456 bits = 8x57DFigure 3-31 Speech frameA/8A/8A/8A/8B/8 A/8B/8 A/8B/8 A/8B/8 A/8C/8 B/8C/8 B/8C/8 B/8C/8 B/8D/8 C/8D/8 C/8D/8 C/8Figure 3-32 Second level of interleaving
  • 37. 3 Wireless ConceptsEN/LZT 123 3321 R3A – 71 –STAGE 6: CIPHERING/ENCRYPTIONThe purpose of ciphering is to encode the burst so that it cannotbe interpreted by any other device than the intended receiver.The ciphering algorithm in GSM is called the A5 algorithm. Itdoes not add bits to the burst, meaning that the input and outputto the ciphering process is the same as the input: 456 bits per 20ms.STAGE 7: BURST FORMATTINGAs previously explained, every transmission from an MS/BTSmust include some extra information such as the trainingsequence. The process of burst formatting is to add these bits(along with some others such as tail bits) to the basic speech/databeing sent. This increases the overall bit-rate, but is necessary tocounteract problems encountered on the radio path.In GSM, the input to burst formatting is the 456 bits receivedfrom ciphering. Burst formatting adds a total of 136 bits perblock of 20 ms, bringing the overall total to 592.However, each time slot on a TDMA frame is 0.577 ms long.This provides enough time for 156.25 bits to be transmitted (eachbit takes 3.7 µs), but a burst only contains 148 bits. The rest ofthe space, 8.25 bit times, is empty and is called the Guard Period(GP). This time is used to enable the MS/BTS “ramp up” and“ramp down”. To ramp up means to get power from thebattery/power supply for transmission. Ramping down isperformed after each transmission to ensure that the MS is nottransmitting during time slots allocated to other MSs.The output of burst formatting is a burst of 156.25 bits or 625bits per 20 ms. When it is considered that there are 8 subscriberper TDMA frame, the overall bit rate for GSM can be calculatedto be 270.9 kbits/s.
  • 38. GSM System Survey– 72 – EN/LZT 123 3321 R3ASTAGE 8: MODULATION & TRANSMISSIONThe bits must then be sent over the air using a carrier frequency.As previously explained, GSM uses the GMSK modulationtechnique. The bits are modulated onto a carrier frequency andtransmitted (e.g. 912.2 MHz).The following figure summarizes the GSM transmission process.053933.8 kbit/s22.8 kbit/s13 kbit/s8 kHz13 bitsTransmitting partReceiving partSpeakerReceiverDemodulatorAdaptiveEqualizationDe-cipheringDe-interleavingChannel decodingSpeech decodingD/A-conversionTransmitterModulatorBurst formattingCipheringInterleavingChannel codingSpeech codingSegmentationA/D-conversionMicrophone13 kbit/sTransmitting partReceiving partTransmitterModulatorBurst formattingCipheringInterleavingChannel codingD/D-conversion8 kHz8 bits64 kbit/s PCMReceiverDemodulatorAdaptiveEqualizationDe-cipheringDe-interleavingChannel DecodingGSM NetworkMobile equipmentFigure 3-33 GSM transmission process

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