AHRD Presentation 2011


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Winner of Academy of Human Resource Development 2011 Cutting-Edge Award - Paper: Trust & Presence and Executive Coaching Competencies

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AHRD Presentation 2011

  1. 1. Trust and Presence as Relational,Executive Coaching Competencies:Reviewing Literature to Inform Practice and Future Research! Symposium 22: Coaching Executives, Coaching Competencies, & Your Boss’s Feedback Terrence Maltbia, Rajashi Ghosh & Victoria Marsick Friday February 25, 2011: 1:30 – 3:00 PM
  2. 2. Outline Foundations – Problem, Purpose and Research Questions – Method: Conceptual Framework Findings – Selective Integrative Literature Review: (1) Trust & (2) Presence Insights & Connections to HRD 2 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  3. 3. Research FoundationsProblem, Purpose, RQs, Method & Conceptual Framework
  4. 4. Framing Problem… Drivers… Problem StatementLearning Demands on Leaders Lack of Agreement…Coaching as Supported LFE Meaning & Role of CoachingAccelerated in Pace & Depth Major Investment: 2 Billion + 2006Rapid Organizational Change GapLearning & Competitive Advantage Lack of Clear Framework…Innovative Work Climates Call for coach-specific researchAttract/Retain Talent Growing research interest (Grant 2008) None focused on providing empiricalTop 5 Leadership Development grounding of 2 central competenciesPractices (Grant 2008) 4 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  5. 5. Broader Context – Emergence ofExecutive Coaching… Executive Coaching over a billion $ Industry – Harvard Business Review, 2004 70% to 88% of Companies report they utilize coaching – Charted Institute of Personnel and Development, 2005; and the Australian Institute of Management -- reported by Society of Human Resource Management Executive Coaching Brief Reports Dramatic increase in utilization of executive coaching in the past five years as evidenced by (AMA Study 2008 | Conference Board Industry Study 2010): – 58% of Respondents Say Coaching Utilization has Increased in Their Organizations in the Past Year – 95% Say Coaching has Increased in Past Five Years – 0% Say Coaching Utilization has Declined in Past Five Years 5 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  6. 6. Broader Context – Emergence ofExecutive Coaching (cont.)… Industry Growth Driving “Coaching Training Providers” and Coaches Entering the Field – ICF Website “Training Program Search Service” list over 200 providers of ACTP, ACSTH, and/or CCE for “Executive Coaching” specialty area… – ICF Website notes over 7,000 Credentialed Coaches @ 3-Levels since the launch of the program over a decade ago – University Based Programs: GSAEC 2008 Study (on-going database) Baseline: 17 Institutions in Australia; 20 in Canada; 52 in the UK, Ireland & Scotland; & 124 in the US Four Categories: (1) Graduate Degree, (2) Graduate Certificate, (3) Non- Degree Certificate & (4) Application of Coaching In US: 45 Graduate Degree Programs; 12 Graduate Certificate Programs; 5-Non-Degree Graduate Certificate; & 65 Coach Application Programs 6 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  7. 7. Professional AssociationsAssociation Coaching CompetenciesInternational Since the early 1990s ICF has developed, refined, and promoted the use of 11 core coaching competencies: 1.Coach Federation meeting ethical guidelines and profession standards 2. establishing the coaching agreement 3.establishing trust(ICF) and intimacy with the client 4. coaching presence, 5. active listening, 6. powerful questioning 7. direct communication 8. creating awareness (LFE) 9. designing actions 10. planning and goal setting 11. managing progress and accountability.Worldwide Since 1997 WABC has worked to define the emerging practice of business coaching and distinguish it fromAssociation of other forms of coaching—WABC promotes an elaborate competency structure where coaching skills is one ofBusiness Coaches the 3 major clusters—the skills include: working within established ethical guidelines and professional(WABC) standards; agreeing on a clear and effective contract for the coaching relationship; establishing trust and respect; establishing rapport; listening to understand; questioning effectively; communicating clearly; facilitating depth of understanding (LFE); promoting action; focusing on goals; building resiliency; managing termination of coaching; maintaining and improving professional skills.International ICC has identified 9 key competencies coaches need to demonstrate as part of the certification processCoaching including: 1. general (i.e., ethics, distinctions between process and content, and client choice) 2. knowledgeCommunity (i.e., background/ history of coaching, distinctions between coaching and other helping practices such as(ICC) counseling and therapy, and criteria for testing process and outcomes) 3. relationship 4. listening 5. self- management 6. enquiry and questioning 7. feedback (LFE) 8. goals, values and behaviors 9. design actions and task.GSAEC GSAEC (In Press) is working to clarify the following coaching skills as part of a broader, more comprehensive set of 20 academic standards targeted for university based coaching programs: 1. establishing trust, 2. coaching presence, 3. questioning, 4. listening, 5. framing/reframing, & 6. contributing. 7 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  8. 8. Grounding Coaching Practice in Theory& Research… ICF Core Coaching Competencies… Theoretical and/or Empirical Basis… Meeting Ethical Guidelines and Professional Standards Establishing the Coaching Agreement] Conversational Competencies (2010) Establishing Trust & Intimacy w/ the Client Questioning Coaching Presence Listening Powerful Questioning Relational Competencies (2011) Active Listening Trust Creating Awareness Presence Direct Communication Designing Actions Planning & Goal Setting Managing Progress & Accountability 8 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  9. 9. Problem & Purpose Statements The problem this paper addresses grows out of the lack of a clearly documented theory and research to support the use of 2 commonly-espoused, core coaching competencies of trust and presence. Our aim is to understand what evidence exists that support claims of the centrality of trust and presence as relational coaching competencies used by practitioners to help clients learn from, and through their experience, in order to achieve desired results. 9 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  10. 10. Research Questions… In what ways are the concepts of trust, presence, and learning from experience defined in selected literature? In what ways does the available literature: – (a) inform the practice of executive coaching (with an emphasis on developing the core competencies of trust and presence) and – (b) suggest implications for further competency research in the area of executive coaching and organizational coaching? Method: Selective Integrated Literature (Torraco 2005 & see our paper - #256) 10 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  11. 11. Conceptual Framework Goal, Reality, Obstacles/Options, Will/Way Forward (GROW) (Topic/Focus: of Coaching Conversation)Coaching Competencies:• Listening Concrete• Questioning Experience• Trust• Presence Active Reflective• Others? Experimentation ObservationTheoretical Basis:• Kolb (e.g., 1984, 2005a, 2005b)• Roberts & Jarrett (2006) Abstract• Whitmore (e.g., 2002, 1996) Conceptualization• Gallwey (1971, 1980, 2001) Goal Progress, Attainment, Outcomes 11 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  12. 12. Emergent Findings Summary of Key Discoveries…
  13. 13. Executive Coaching Competencies:Trust & Presence Structure of Findings… Describe the various ways trust and presence have been defined List the major components of each through the lens of learning from, and through, experience Make connections between these concepts including sample research Outline insights gains from this inquiry 13 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  14. 14. Executive Coaching Competencies:Trust and Presence Key Word (combinations)… “Definitions” Social and/or Emotional – “Trust” and “Presence” Intelligence Combined with… – Self-awareness – History, Literature Review, – Self- management/regulation Research, Studies, Meta-analysis – Social-awareness – Relationship management Presencing Coaching Presence Relationship Building Executive Coaching Organizational Coaching 14 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  15. 15. Sample Data Displays: Trust (Meaningof…) Author(s) Definition/Description Deutsch (1958, “An individual may be said to have trust in the occurrence of an event if he expects its 1960) occurrence and his expectation leads to behavior which he perceives to have greater negative motivational consequences if the expectation is not confirmed than positive motivational consequences if it is confirmed” (1958, p. 266). Rotter (1967) Interpersonal trust: “an expectancy held by an individual or a group that the word, promise, verbal or written statement of another individual or group can be relied upon” (p. 651). Schlensker, Helm, “a reliance upon information received from another person about uncertain & Tedschi (1972) environmental states and their accompanying outcomes in a risky situation” (p. 419). 15 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  16. 16. Sample Data Displays: Trust(Components…) Author(s) Components/Elements Deutsch Process of Mutual Trust - complementary social trust; I trusts II to behave in a certain way (1958, 1960) and is willing to do what II trusts him to do; the same is true for II. Each perceives that the other person is aware of his intent and his trust (p. 267); Conditions Affecting Trust - (1) as the individuals confidence that his trust will be fulfilled is increased, the probability of his engaging in trusting behavior will be increased; (2) as the ratio of anticipated positive to anticipated negative motivational consequences increases, the probability of his engaging in trusting behavior will be increased; (3) open-communication, (4) power dynamics and (5) influence of third parties (pp. 268-277). Rotter Generalized expectancy: individuals differ in belief that statements of other people can be (1967) relied upon based directly or indirectly on behavior and statements of significant others (p. 653); Measure’s focus variables: (1) Interpersonal Trust Scale, (2) Trust Self-Rating, and (3) Trustworthiness; Measure’s control variables: (1) Dependency, (2) Humor, (3) Gullibility, (4) Popularity, (5) Friendship, and (6) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (pp. 661-664). Schlensker, Conditions Affecting Trust - (1) expressed confidence in another’s intentions, (2) sincerity of Helm, & another’s words and actions, (3) reliance upon the communication behavior of another person Tedschi in order to achieve a desired but uncertain objective in a risky situation, (4) reception of (1972) relevant interpersonal information providing cues of the probability of the occurrence of an expected, future event, and (5) credibility of a communicator (pp. 419-421). 16 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  17. 17. Sample Data Displays: Presence(Meaning of…)Field DefinitionsHelping professions Presence is the quality of a therapist connecting with his/her patient (Rogers, 1979;(e.g., nursing, Rogers, 1980).therapy, medicine) Presence in relation to the patient and the clinical process is the experiential heart and soul of my effort as a therapist, the essential élan vital of my contribution to patients growth toward greater psychological well-being; bringing one’s complete self to the client with little or if possible no self-centered purpose in mind (Craig, 1986). Presence is a name for the quality of being in a situation or a relationship in which one intends at a deep level to participate as fully as she is able. Presence is expressed through mobilization of one’s sensitivity- both inner and outer- and bringing into action one’s capacity for response (Bugental, 1987). Presence is experienced as an enveloping comfort that emerges from the nurses’ gifts of authentic being and time (Gilje, 1993). Therapeutic presence involves bringing one’s whole self into the encounter with the client, being completely in the moment on a multiplicity of levels, physically, emotionally, cognitively, and spiritually (Geller & Greenberg, 2002). Presence is an affective quality with somatosensory components, felt by clients, which changes their state from suffering toward a sense of well-being. (Curry, 2003). 17 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  18. 18. Sample Data Displays: Presence(Components…)Field Components/Elements/ProcessesHelping Two Facets of Presence - (1) accessibility: designates the extent to which one intends thatprofessions what happens to a situation will matter, which calls for a reduction of our usual defenses(e.g., against being influenced by others and a measure of commitment and (2) expressiveness:nursing, opening oneself to another’s influence is significantly investing in that relationship; has to dotherapy, with the extent to which one intends to let oneself to be truly known by the other(s) in amedicine) situation, which involves disclosing without disguise some of one’s subjective experiencing, and willingness to put forth some effort (Bugental, 1987, p. 27)…. Three Domains of Therapeutic Presence - (1) preparation for presence occurs prior to or at the beginning of a session (getting in the space to attend to the client); (2) process (i.e., namely receptivity, inwardly attending, and extending contact – with self and related boundaries); (3) in-session experience of presence itself: including the therapists’ experience of being immersed in the moment with the client; the experience of an expansion of awareness and sensation, being tuned into nuances that exist with the client, within the self and within the relationship; and the therapists’ sense of being grounded in their selves while entering the client’s experiential world while maintaining the intention to respond in a way that is with and for the client’s healing process (Geller & Greenberg, 2002, p. 78-80). General Characteristics of the Experience of Presence - those which are: (1) felt; (2) viewed as a pre-conditioned need or suffering; (3) promoters; (4) blockers; (5) co-created; (6) interpreted as meaningful by the experiment; and (7) descriptions of lasting change or transformations of heart, mind, or body (Curry, 2003, p. 199). 18 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  19. 19. Executive Coaching Competencies: Trust and Presence Foundational & Complementary Trust Chronological Review Presence (Over 50 Years:1958 - 2010)Major fields…• Communication, Leadership, Negotiation, Psychology, Major fields…Sociology, Anthropology, Organizational Behavior etc. • Helping Professions, Organizational• Trust requiring interdependence :connection between Developmentexpectations and behavior in the coaching relationship. • Two types: (1) Physical Presence,(Deutsch 1958, 1960; Rotter, 1967). (2) Psychological Presence (Co-existence)• Implications of accompanying environmental states • Presence being foundational in(Schlensker, Helm, & Tedschi, 1972). interpersonal interaction (Bugental, 1987;• Researchers in the 1980s pushed the boundaries of trust Gilje, 1993; Geller & Greenburg, 2002; Curry,to include an environmental perspective (Johnson-George 2003)& Swap, 1982 ; Lewis & Weigert, 1985). • Presence requiring letting go of old identities•Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, researchers framed and the need to control (Senge, et al. 2004)trust to include cognitive and emotional components(Baron & Morin, 2009 ; Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman,1995, 2007; Viljanen, 2005;) 19 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  20. 20. Insights Literature on Trust & Presence – Provided additional insight for coaches to sustain, or when necessary restore, trust throughout the coaching engagement – Attending to the conditions that affect trust while learning from and through experience in pursuit of goal attainment (I.e., reviewing “What happened?: O/D; exploring reactions to what happened?: R/D; abstracting the key themes & lessons learned: I/D; & determining potential next steps: D/D – form of social awareness & relationship management) – Catalogue various options for coaches to access and express the critical relational competency of presence (i.e., strive to understand client’s context; support meaning making; encourage to take, informed action – form of self awareness & self regulation) Dynamic Interplay: Trust & Presence – Inside-out: (i.e., an awareness of dispositions, beliefs, emotions, and choices influence one’s responses to others and situations) – Outside-in: (i.e., the dispositions, beliefs, emotions, and choices of others and situations have an impact on our experience). Context for Deep Learning and Change! 20 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  21. 21. Insights Key enablers… – Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Stages – Jackson’s (1991) Science of Human Performance 21 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  22. 22. Integration—ORID: LeverageConversational Tool (Trust & Presence) What’s happening? How am I feeling/reacting? Context CE RO Conduct Content AE AC What do I What does it do/respond? mean? 22 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia (2003) © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  23. 23. Implications for HRD Practice Theoretical and empirical support (definitions, components, connections) for the inclusion of trust and presence as core competencies in coach preparation programs & ongoing professional development Document important connections between the trust and presence literature combined with “experiential learning theory” (i.e., trust and coaching presence skills) as enablers for establishing a personal bond and the designed alliance needed to effectively combine the challenge with support for client’s to realize insight through guided dialogue and reflection with a trusted thought partner when the stakes are high, to achieve their intended outcomes Cataloguing trust and presence in both descriptive and operational terms can service as a resource for: – (1) coach-training providers to develop learning modules designed to enhanced these target competencies; – (2) researchers to use as indicators for future investigations; and – (3) practicing executive coaches to deepen their understanding of the conditions that constitute productive coach-client working relationships. 23 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)
  24. 24. Implications for Research Devise a more complete picture of the role of trust in the executive coaching working relationship by including Rotter’s Measure of Interpersonal Trust combined with Johnson’s (et al., 1982) Specific Trust Measurement, in a battery of assessments in research projects examining the coach-client relationship in organizations; Continue to search for existing scales intended to measure presence to complement the assessments listed in the first point and better capture the “co-creating the relationship” component of the executive coaching process; Explore the interplay between the antecedents and related consequences of trust on optimal and excessive forms in coaching engagements and potential outcomes; and When assessing coaching effectiveness, research needs to attend to social-organizational factors within which coaching is embedded (barriers, supports, culture, etc.), especially with respect to assessment of progress toward strategic goals. 24 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2011)