1. HTML Basics - HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms

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Telerik Software Academy: http://mobiledevcourse.telerik.com
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Content:
Introduction to HTML
HTML in Details
The <div> and <span> elements

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1. HTML Basics - HTML, Text, Images, Tables, Forms

  1. 1. HTML Basics HTML, Text, Images, Tables, FormsDoncho MinkovTechnical Trainerhttp://minkov.it/Telerik Software Academyhttp://academy.telerik.com
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Introduction to HTML  How the Web Works?  What is a Web Page?  My First HTML Page  Basic Tags: Hyperlinks, Images, Formatting  Headings and Paragraphs2. HTML in Details  The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration  The <head> Section: Title, Meta, Script, Style 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents (2)  The <body> Section  Text Styling and Formatting Tags  Hyperlinks: <a>  Hyperlinks and Sections  Images: <img>  Lists: <ol>, <ul> and <dl>  HTML Special Characters3. The <div> and <span> elements 3
  4. 4. How the Web Works? WWW use classical client / server architecture  HTTP is text-based request-response protocol HTTP Page request HTTP Server response Server running WebClient running a Server Software Web Browser (IIS, Apache, etc.) 4
  5. 5. What is a Web Page? Web pages are text files containing HTML HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language  A notation for describing  document structure (semantic markup)  formatting (presentation markup)  Looks (looked?) like:  A Microsoft Word document The markup tagsprovide information about the page content structure 5
  6. 6. Creating HTML Pages An HTML file must have an .htm or .html file extension HTML files can be created with text editors:  NotePad, NotePad ++, PSPad Or HTML editors (WYSIWYG Editors):  Microsoft FrontPage  Macromedia Dreamweaver  Netscape Composer  Expression Web 6
  7. 7. HTML BasicsText, Images, Tables, Forms
  8. 8. HTML Structure HTML is comprised of “elements” and “tags”  Begins with <html> and ends with </html>  When writing XHTML, must define a namespace <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> Elements (tags) are nested one inside another: <html> <head></head> <body></body> </html> Tags have attributes: <img src="logo.jpg" alt="logo" /> HTML describes structure using two main sections: <head> and <body> 8
  9. 9. HTML Code Formatting The HTML source code should be formatted to increase readability and facilitate debugging.  Every block element should start on a new line.  Every nested (block) element should be indented.  Browsers ignore multiple whitespaces in the page source, so formatting is harmless. For performance reasons, formatting can be sacrificed 9
  10. 10. First HTML Pagetest.html<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body></html> 10
  11. 11. First HTML Page: Tags<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> Opening tag <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> Closing tag <p>This is some text...</p> </body></html>An HTML element consists of an opening tag, a closing tagand the content inside. 11
  12. 12. First HTML Page: Header<!DOCTYPE HTML> HTML header<html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body></html> 12
  13. 13. First HTML Page: Body<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head> <title>My First HTML Page</title> </head> <body> <p>This is some text...</p> </body></html> HTML body 13
  14. 14. Some Simple Tags Hyperlink Tags <a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title="Telerik">Link to Telerik Web site</a> Image Tags <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /> Text formatting tags This text is <em>emphasized.</em> <br />new line<br /> This one is <strong>more emphasized.</strong> 14
  15. 15. Some Simple Tags – Examplesome-tags.html<!DOCTYPE HTML><html><head> <title>Simple Tags Demo</title></head><body><a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title= "Telerik site">This is a link.</a><br /><img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /><br /><strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text.</body></html> 15
  16. 16. Some Simple Tags – Example (2)some-tags.html<!DOCTYPE HTML><html><head> <title>Simple Tags Demo</title></head><body><a href="http://www.telerik.com/" title= "Telerik site">This is a link.</a><br /><img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" /><br /><strong>Bold</strong> and <em>italic</em> text.</body></html> 16
  17. 17. Some HTML Tags Live Demo
  18. 18. Tags Attributes Tags can have attributes  Attributes specify properties and behavior  Example: Attribute alt with value "logo" <img src="logo.gif" alt="logo" />  Few attributes can apply to every element:  id, style, class, title  The id is unique in the document  Content of title attribute is displayed as hint when the element is hovered with the mouse  Some elements have obligatory attributes 18
  19. 19. Headings and Paragraphs Heading Tags (h1 – h6) <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> Paragraph Tags <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> Sections: div and span <div style="background: skyblue;"> This is a div</div> 19
  20. 20. Headings and Paragraphs – Exampleheadings.html<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body></html> 20
  21. 21. Headings and Paragraphs – Example (2)headings.html<!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head><title>Headings and paragraphs</title></head> <body> <h1>Heading 1</h1> <h2>Sub heading 2</h2> <h3>Sub heading 3</h3> <p>This is my first paragraph</p> <p>This is my second paragraph</p> <div style="background:skyblue"> This is a div</div> </body></html> 21
  22. 22. Headings and Paragraphs Live Demo
  23. 23. Introduction to HTMLHTML Document Structure in Depth
  24. 24. Preface It is important to have the correct vision and attitude towards HTML  HTML is only about structure, not appearance  Browsers tolerate invalid HTML code and parse errors – you should not  Always think about semantics 24
  25. 25. The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration HTML documents must start with a document type definition (DTD)  It tells web browsers what type is the served code  Possible versions: HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 (Transitional or Strict), XHTML 1.1, HTML 5 Example: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">  See http://w3.org/QA/2002/04/valid-dtd-list.html for a list of possible doctypes 25
  26. 26. HTML vs. XHTML XHTML is more strict than HTML  Tags and attribute names must be in lowercase  All tags must be closed (<br/>, <img/>) while HTML allows <br> and <img> and implies missing closing tags (<p>par1 <p>par2)  XHTML allows only one root <html> element (HTML allows more than one) 26
  27. 27. XHTML vs. HTML (2) Many element attributes are deprecated in XHTML, most are moved to CSS Attribute minimization is forbidden, e.g. <input type="checkbox" checked> <input type="checkbox" checked="checked" /> Note: Web browsers load XHTML faster than HTML and valid code faster than invalid! 27
  28. 28. The <head> Section Contains information that doesn’t show directly on the viewable page Starts after the <!doctype> declaration Begins with <head> and ends with </head> Contains mandatory single <title> tag Can contain some other tags, e.g.  <meta>  <script>  <style>  <!–- comments --> 28
  29. 29. <head> Section: <title> tag Title should be placed between <head> and </head> tags <title>Telerik Academy – Winter Season 2009/2010 </title> Used to specify a title in the window titlebar Search engines and people rely on titles 29
  30. 30. <head> Section: <meta> Meta tags additionally describe the content contained within the page <meta name="description" content="HTML tutorial" /> <meta name="keywords" content="html, web design, styles" /> <meta name="author" content="Chris Brewer" /> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5; url=http://www.telerik.com" /> 30
  31. 31. <head> Section: <script> The <script> element is used to embed scripts into an HTML document  Script are executed in the clients Web browser  Scripts can live in the <head> and in the <body> sections Supported client-side scripting languages:  JavaScript (it is not Java!)  VBScript  JScript 31
  32. 32. The <script> Tag – Example<!DOCTYPE HTML> scripts-example.html<html> <head> <title>JavaScript Example</title> <script type="text/javascript"> function sayHello() { document.write("<p>Hello World!</p>"); } </script> </head> <body> <script type= "text/javascript"> sayHello(); </script> </body></html> 32
  33. 33. Using Scripts Live Demo
  34. 34. <head> Section: <style> The <style> element embeds formatting information (CSS styles) into an HTML page <html> style-example.html <head> <style type="text/css"> p { font-size: 12pt; line-height: 12pt; } p:first-letter { font-size: 200%; } span { text-transform: uppercase; } </style> </head> <body> <p>Styles demo.<br /> <span>Test uppercase</span>. </p> </body> </html> 34
  35. 35. Embedding CSS Styles Live Demo
  36. 36. Comments: <!-- --> Tag Comments can exist anywhere between the <html></html> tags Comments start with <!-- and end with --> <!–- Telerik Logo (a JPG file) --> <img src="logo.jpg" alt=“Telerik Logo"> <!–- Hyperlink to the web site --> <a href="http://telerik.com/">Telerik</a> <!–- Show the news table --> <table class="newstable"> ... 36
  37. 37. <body> Section: Introduction The <body> section describes the viewable portion of the page Starts after the <head> </head> section Begins with <body> and ends with </body> <html> <head><title>Test page</title></head> <body> <!-- This is the Web page body --> </body> </html> 37
  38. 38. Text Formatting Text formatting tags modify the text between the opening tag and the closing tag  Ex. <b>Hello</b> makes “Hello” bold <b></b> bold <i></i> italicized <u></u> underlined <sup></sup> Samplesuperscript <sub></sub> Samplesubscript <strong></strong> strong <em></em> emphasized <pre></pre> Preformatted text <blockquote></blockquote> Quoted text block <del></del> Deleted text – strike through 38
  39. 39. Text Formatting – Exampletext-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br /> Next line.</p> </body></html> 39
  40. 40. Text Formatting – Example (2)text-formatting.html<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html> <head> <title>Page Title</title> </head> <body> <h1>Notice</h1> <p>This is a <em>sample</em> Web page.</p> <p><pre>Next paragraph: preformatted.</pre></p> <h2>More Info</h2> <p>Specifically, we’re using XHMTL 1.0 transitional.<br /> Next line.</p> </body></html> 40
  41. 41. Text Formatting Live Demo
  42. 42. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag Link to a document calledform.html on the same server in the same directory: <a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> Link to a document calledparent.html on the same server in the parent directory: <a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> Link to a document calledcat.html on the same server in the subdirectory stuff: <a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> 42
  43. 43. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (2) Link to an external Web site: <a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a>  Always use a full URL, including "http://", not just "www.somesite.com"  Using the target="_blank" attribute opens the link in a new window Link to an e-mail address: <a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=Bug+Report"> Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a> 43
  44. 44. Hyperlinks: <a> Tag (3) Link to a document called apply-now.html  On the same server, in same directory  Using an image as a link button: <a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg" /></a> Link to a document called index.html  On the same server, in the subdirectory english of the parent directory: <a href="../english/index.html">Switch to English version</a> 44
  45. 45. Hyperlinks and Sections Link to another location in the same document: <a href="#section1">Go to Introduction</a> ... <h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2> Link to a specific location in another document: <a href="chapter3.html#section3.1.1">Go to Section 3.1.1</a> <!–- In chapter3.html --> ... <div id="section3.1.1"> <h3>3.1.1. Technical Background</h3> </div> 45
  46. 46. Hyperlinks – Examplehyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br /><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br /><a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br /><a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a><br /><a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=BugReport">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a><br /><a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg”/></a> <br /><a href="../english/index.html">Switch to Englishversion</a> <br /> 46
  47. 47. Hyperlinks – Example (2)hyperlinks.html<a href="form.html">Fill Our Form</a> <br /><a href="../parent.html">Parent</a> <br /><a href="stuff/cat.html">Catalog</a> <br /><a href="http://www.devbg.org" target="_blank">BASD</a><br /><a href="mailto:bugs@example.com?subject=BugReport">Please report bugs here (by e-mail only)</a><br /><a href="apply-now.html"><img src="apply-now-button.jpg”/></a> <br /><a href="../english/index.html">Switch to Englishversion</a> <br /> 47
  48. 48. Hyperlinks Live Demo
  49. 49. Links to the Same Document – Examplelinks-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1><p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br /><a href="#section2">Some background</A><br /><a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br />...the rest of the table of contents...<!-- The document text follows here --><h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2>... Section 1 follows here ...<h2 id="section2">Some background</h2>... Section 2 follows here ...<h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3>... Section 2.1 follows here ... 49
  50. 50. Links to the Same Document – Example (2)links-to-same-document.html<h1>Table of Contents</h1><p><a href="#section1">Introduction</a><br /><a href="#section2">Some background</A><br /><a href="#section2.1">Project History</a><br />...the rest of the table of contents...<!-- The document text follows here --><h2 id="section1">Introduction</h2>... Section 1 follows here ...<h2 id="section2">Some background</h2>... Section 2 follows here ...<h3 id="section2.1">Project History</h3>... Section 2.1 follows here ... 50
  51. 51. Links to the Same Document Live Demo
  52. 52. Images: <img> tag Inserting an image with <img> tag: <img src="/img/basd-logo.png"> Image attributes: src Location of image file (relative or absolute) alt Substitute text for display (e.g. in text mode) height Number of pixels of the height width Number of pixels of the width border Size of border, 0 for no border Example: <img src="./php.png" alt="PHP Logo" /> 52
  53. 53. Miscellaneous Tags <hr />: Draws a horizontal rule (line): <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center></center>: Deprecated! <center>Hello World!</center> <font></font>: Deprecated! <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font> 53
  54. 54. Miscellaneous Tags – Examplemisc.html<html> <head> <title>Miscellaneous Tags Example</title> </head> <body> <hr size="5" width="70%" /> <center>Hello World!</center> <font size="3" color="blue">Font3</font> <font size="+4" color="blue">Font+4</font> </body></html> 54
  55. 55. Miscellaneous Tags Live Demo
  56. 56. Ordered Lists: <ol> Tag Create an Ordered List using <ol></ol>: <ol type="1"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ol> Attribute values for type are 1, A, a, I, or i 1. Apple i. Apple 2. Orange ii. Orange 3. Grapefruit iii. Grapefruit a. Apple A. Apple b. Orange I. Apple B. Orange c. Grapefruit II. Orange C. Grapefruit III. Grapefruit 56
  57. 57. Unordered Lists: <ul> Tag Create an Unordered List using <ul></ul>: <ul type="disk"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li> </ul> Attribute values for type are:  disc, circle or square • Apple o Apple  Apple • Orange o Orange  Orange • Pear o Pear  Pear 57
  58. 58. Definition lists: <dl> tag Create definition lists using <dl>  Pairs of text and associated definition; text is in <dt> tag, definition in <dd> tag <dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup language …</dd> <dt>CSS</dt> <dd>Language used to …</dd> </dl>  Renders without bullets  Definition is indented 58
  59. 59. Lists – Example<ol type="1"> lists.html <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li></ol><ul type="disc"> <li>Apple</li> <li>Orange</li> <li>Grapefruit</li></ul><dl> <dt>HTML</dt> <dd>A markup lang…</dd></dl> 59
  60. 60. Creating Lists Live Demo
  61. 61. HTML Special Characters Symbol Name HTML Entity Symbol Copyright Sign &copy; ©Registered Trademark Sign &reg; ® Trademark Sign &trade; ™ Less Than &lt; < Greater Than &gt; > Ampersand &amp; & Non-breaking Space &nbsp; Em Dash &mdash; — Quotation Mark &quot; " Euro € € British Pound &pound; £ Japanese Yen &yen; ¥ 61
  62. 62. Special Characters – Example<p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome special-chars.html &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥.</p> <p>►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫</p> <p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; histeam</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p> 62
  63. 63. Special Chars – Example (2)<p>[&gt;&gt;&nbsp;&nbsp;Welcome special-chars.html &nbsp;&nbsp;&lt;&lt;]</p> <p>►I have following cards: A♣, K♦ and 9♥.</p> <p>►I prefer hard rock ♫ music ♫</p> <p>&copy; 2006 by Svetlin Nakov &amp; histeam</p> <p>Telerik Academy™</p> 63
  64. 64. HTML Special Characters Live Demo
  65. 65. Using <DIV> and <SPAN>Block and Inline Elements
  66. 66. Block and Inline Elements Block elements add a line break before and after them, and expand to 100% width  <div>, <p>, <h1>, <ul> are block elements Inline elements don’t break the text before and after them  <span>, <a>, <em> are inline elements http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2/visuren.html#blo ck-boxes 66
  67. 67. The <div> Tag <div> creates logical divisions within a page Block style element Used with CSS Example: div-and-span.html <div style="font-size:24px; color:red">DIV example</div> <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> 67
  68. 68. <DIV>Live Demo
  69. 69. The <span> Tag Inline style element Useful for modifying a specific portion of text  Dont create a separate area (paragraph) in the document Makes sense only with some CSSspan.html <p>This one is <span style="color:red; font- weight:bold">only a test</span>.</p> <p>This one is another <span style="font-size:32px; font-weight:bold">TEST</span>.</p> 69
  70. 70. <SPAN>Live Demo
  71. 71. HTML Tags Index http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/index/elements. html http://www.htmldog.com/reference/htmltags/ 71
  72. 72. HTML Basics курсове и уроци по програмиране, уеб дизайн – безплатно BG Coder - онлайн състезателна система - online judge курсове и уроци по програмиране – Телерик академия форум програмиране, форум уеб дизайн уроци по програмиране и уеб дизайн за ученици ASP.NET курс - уеб програмиране, бази данни, C#, .NET, ASP.NET http://mobiledevcourse.telerik.com програмиране за деца – безплатни курсове и уроци ASP.NET MVC курс – HTML, SQL, C#, .NET, ASP.NET MVC безплатен SEO курс - оптимизация за търсачки алго академия – състезателно програмиране, състезаниякурсове и уроци по програмиране, книги – безплатно от Наков курс мобилни приложения с iPhone, Android, WP7, PhoneGap уроци по уеб дизайн, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Photoshop Дончо Минков - сайт за програмиране free C# book, безплатна книга C#, книга Java, книга C# Николай Костов - блог за програмиране безплатен курс "Качествен програмен код" безплатен курс "Разработка на софтуер в cloud среда" C# курс, програмиране, безплатно
  73. 73. Exercises1. Write an HTML page like the following: * Use headings and divs 73
  74. 74. Exercises (2)2. Write an HTML page like the following:3. Write an HTML page looking like the PNG file named 3.Introduction.PNG. Using the <a> tag add anchors to the corresponding sections in the same page. 74
  75. 75. Exercises (3)4. Create an user profile Web page Profile.html, friends page named Friends.html and info page named Info.html. Link them to one another using <a> tag 75
  76. 76. Exercises (4)5. Create a Web site like the following: See the image InetJava-site.png. 76
  77. 77. TODO: Presentation Title курсове и уроци по програмиране, уеб дизайн – безплатно BG Coder - онлайн състезателна система - online judge курсове и уроци по програмиране – Телерик академия форум програмиране, форум уеб дизайн уроци по програмиране и уеб дизайн за ученици ASP.NET курс - уеб програмиране, бази данни, C#, .NET, ASP.NET http://mobiledevcourse.telerik.com програмиране за деца – безплатни курсове и уроци ASP.NET MVC курс – HTML, SQL, C#, .NET, ASP.NET MVC безплатен SEO курс - оптимизация за търсачки алго академия – състезателно програмиране, състезаниякурсове и уроци по програмиране, книги – безплатно от Наков курс мобилни приложения с iPhone, Android, WP7, PhoneGap уроци по уеб дизайн, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Photoshop Дончо Минков - сайт за програмиране free C# book, безплатна книга C#, книга Java, книга C# Николай Костов - блог за програмиране безплатен курс "Качествен програмен код" безплатен курс "Разработка на софтуер в cloud среда" C# курс, програмиране, безплатно
  78. 78. Free Trainings @ Telerik Academy Cross-Platform Mobile Development http://mobiledevcourse.telerik.com Telerik Software Academy  academy.telerik.com Telerik Academy @ Facebook  facebook.com/TelerikAcademy Telerik Software Academy Forums  forums.academy.telerik.com

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