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Pulmonary embolism

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  • 1. Pulmonary Embolism Natalie Bermudez, RN, BSN, MS Clinical Educator for Telemetry Telemetry Course
  • 2. Pulmonary Embolism
    • Statistics
    Occurs in more than 600,000 patients annually in the U.S. Contributes to 50,000 to 200,000 deaths per year Two-thirds of patients with fatal cases will die within one hour of presentation (Woods et al, 2005, p.166)
  • 3. Pulmonary Embolism
    • Statistics
    The mortality rate for hospitalized patients with PE has remained at approximately 15% over the past 40 years. (Woods et al, 2005, p.166)
  • 4.
    • An obstruction of the pulmonary artery or
    • one o f its branches by a thrombus (or
    • thrombi) that originates in the venous
    • system or the right side of the heart .
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Most common thromboembolic problem in patients with
    • heart failure
    • Also caused by fat, air, amniotic fluid or septic emboli
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 7.
    • Risk Factors:
    • DVT
    • Atrial Fibrillation
    • CAD
    • CHF
    • Hemostasis
    Pulmonary Embolism
    • Risk Factors:
    • Postpartum
    • Postoperative
    • Oral Contraceptives
    • Obesity
  • 8.
    • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
    Pulmonary Embolism
    • Dyspnea
    • Chest Pain
    • Hemoptysis
    • Tachycardia
    • Hypoxia
    • Anxiety
    • Fever
    • Cough
    • Diaphoresis
    • S/S of DVT
  • 9.
    • Diagnostic Evaluation
    Pulmonary Embolism Chest x-ray
  • 10.
    • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION:
    • CT Angiogram of Chest
    • V/Q Scan
    • D-dimer
    • ABG’s
    • Peripheral Vascular Studies (etiology)
    • EKG (etiology)
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 11.
    • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION:
    • D-dimer
    • It is a fibrin degradation fragment
    • Occurs through fibrinolysis
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 12.
    • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION:
    • V/Q Scan
    • Ventilation & Perfusion Scan
    • 2-part Test
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 13.
    • TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMS:
    • Analgesics
    • Supplemental O 2 Therapy
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 14.
    • MEDICAL MANAGEMENT:
    • Anticoagulant Therapy
    • Thrombolytic Therapy
    • Bedrest
    • Surgical Embolectomy
    Pulmonary Embolism
  • 15.  
  • 16. References
    • Hodgson, B. B., & Kizior, R. J. (2007). Saunders nursing drug handbook. St. Louis, MS: Saunders Elsevier.
    • Skidmore-Roth, L. et al. (2007). Mosby’s nursing drug reference, (20 th ed.). St. Louis, MS: Mosby Elsevier.
    • Smeltzer et al. (2008). Brunner and suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing, (11 th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
    • Woods, S. L., Sivarajan Froelicher, E. S., Underhill Motzer, S., & Bridges, E. J. (2005). Cardiac Nursing (5 th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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