USA Broadband Telecommunications 2007 GIGA
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USA Broadband Telecommunications 2007 GIGA

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GIGA Broadband Telecommunications in USA 2007

GIGA Broadband Telecommunications in USA 2007

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USA Broadband Telecommunications 2007 GIGA USA Broadband Telecommunications 2007 GIGA Document Transcript

  • BroadbandTelecommunications in USA 2007
  • BROADBAND TELECOMMUNICATION IN THE U.S.:EXECUTIVE SUMMARYU.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKETTurmoil And Change:As in many other countries, the communications infrastructure of the United Statesevolved as a collection of separate, regulated bodies in voice telecommunications,broadcast radio and television, postal service, cable television, and wireless services. Fornearly 5 decades these were stable industries showing low rates of technical change.The Telecommunications Act of 1996 brought deregulation and more competition butalso led into the 2000-2001 technology business collapse.Today, new digital technologies allow traditional and new services to be transported overthe same networks. Operators are able to offer integrated devices and services forpurposes such as combined TV, Internet and voice services. All this results in a state inwhich the formerly separated industry segments continuously converge and a fiercecompetition among the markets developed.Used Technologies And Their Market Shares:Currently, in the United States the following types of broadband technologies are in use: 1. Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) technologies, which provide speeds in one direction greater than speeds in the other direction; 2. Symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) technologies; 3. Traditional landline technologies "other" than ADSL and SDSL, including traditional telephone company high-speed services that provide equivalent functionality, and also Ethernet service if delivered to the subscribers location over copper (as opposed to optical fiber) plant; 4. Cable modem, including the typical hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) architecture of upgraded cable TV systems; 5. Optical fiber to the subscribers premises (FFTP or FTTH); 6. Satellite and fixed and mobile terrestrial wireless systems, which use radio spectrum to communicate with a radio transmitter; and 7. Electric broadband over power line (BPL) Page 2 of 28
  • As of June 2006 the distribution of the 64.6 million total high-speed lines (200 kbps in atleast one direction) among these technologies was 44.1% cable modem, 34.9% ADSL,17.6% wireless (fixed and mobile), 1.5% SDSL or traditional landline, 1.1% FTTH, and0.7% Satellite.Telecommunications Industry Revenues:In 2005, telecommunication industry revenues totaled to $292,739 million. End userrevenues (consumer and businesses) totaled to about $231,441 million whereas the localservice made about 35.8%, wireless service 43.6% and toll / long distance service 20.7%.The wireless services revenues are estimated to constantly increase by about 10% eachyear, rising from about $135 billion in 2006 to about $180 billion in 2009.Broadband Internet access revenues are projected to further increase. The expected gainof almost 13% from $23 billion in 2006 to $26 billion in 2007 will decrease to a bit morethan 7% from 2008 to 2009.Installation Of The Networks:The original telephone (legacy) network is essentially in possession of the IncumbentLocal Exchange Carriers (ILECs). Many of them deployed and further deploy additionalfiber networks.As of end 2005, the then five largest ILECs were in possession of about 90% of allloops/lines of the ILECs while the networks of all Competitive Local Exchange Carriers(CLECs) made less then 20%.The owners of the cable network are the cable providers. As of March 2007, there wereabout 10.8 million cable telephone customers in the U.S.The power line network is in possession of the local power providers, the Power UtilityCommissions (PUCs).The wireless industry is dependent on the spectrum it licenses. Technically, U.S.airwaves are a publicly owned natural resource. The Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) grants licenses for companies to use specific chunks in specificgeographic areas, and usually only in specific ways. Page 3 of 28
  • Operation Of The Networks:The facility-based companies offer services such as local calls, longdistance/international calls, and Internet access by DSL. They also started offering TVservices over fiber optic networks, and they resell the use of their networks.The cable industry operators package their traditional TV services with Internetbroadband access, VoIP services for local and long distance call service, and in 2007started offering wireless contracts which are handled over third-party networks.Utilities and Municipalities still continue constructing their own networks and they teamup with Internet service providers (ISPs) in order to offer data services of all kinds.The general trend in network development is the further deployment of fiber in order tosupport the transport of high data volumes used for services such as Video on Demand(VoD) and TV.Wireless providers especially invest in spectrum and in the coverage of rural areas, butthey also compete with landline service in urban areas.Operators:The data for 2004 show total revenues for local telephone industry of $119,785 millionwhereas the ILECs make about 84.2% and the CLECs and others 15.8%.In the long distance telephony market more than 1,200 companies offer their services,with AT&T, Verizon, Sprint and SBC (an AT&T company) being the largest U.S.providers.U.S. cable providers today are no longer restricted to offering TV services, theycommonly offer a so-called Triple Play which usually consists of two broadband services(such as TV and Internet access) together with one narrowband service (such astelephony), provided over a single broadband connection. As of March 2007, there wereabout 34 million digital cable customers. Most of these are broadband subscribers. Thelargest U.S. cable operators are Comcast Cable Communications and Time WarnerCable.BPL has developed faster in Europe than in the U.S. Most important BPL vendors in theU.S. are Amperion, Current Technologies, Corinex, IBEC, and InovaTech, all of themhaving deployed BPL systems in limited areas. Page 4 of 28
  • U.S. WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKETMobile Voice & Mobile Data Services:Mobile voice and mobile data services are no longer clearly delineated in themarketplace. Many mobile voice operators offer mobile data services using the samespectrum, network facilities, and customer equipment as for their mobile voice services,and most U.S. wireless carriers market mobile voice and data services together.Currently, wireless telephone operators primarily use three types of spectrum licenses toprovide mobile voice and mobile data services: cellular, broadband PCS (PersonalCommunication Services), and (E)SMR ((Enhanced) Specialized Mobile Radio), togetherCMRS industry.The mobile voice sector includes all operators that offer commercially availableinterconnected mobile voice services.As of 2006, there were four mobile telephone operators in the United States that aretypically described as “nationwide”: Sprint Nextel, Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile, andCingular Wireless whereas Cingular Wireless will re-brand as AT&T Mobility by the endof 2007.Resellers – Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) – purchase airtime from MobileNetwork Operators (MNOs). Resale competition is currently growing, and there areabout 25 MVNOs active in the resale market.Mobile data service is defined as the delivery of non-voice information to a mobiledevice. The available services include paging, text messaging, multimedia messagingservices (MMS) such as digital photos, information alerts, entertainment applications(ring tones and games), Web browsing, email, access to files stored on corporate servers,and wireless telemetry.Satellite plays also an important role in the U.S. as it supports public safety and nationaland homeland security. Satellite voice and data customers include businesses that operatein areas where cellular coverage is poor or non-existent and landline service isunavailable.Market Figures:As of 2006, CMRS industry consists of about 180 wireless licensees. Page 5 of 28
  • Their number of total subscribers is estimated 233 million, the total revenues areestimated $125.5 billion, the roaming revenues are estimated $3.5 billion, the number ofcell cites are estimated 196,000, the direct service provider employees are estimated254,000, the average local monthly bill is estimated $50.56, and the average call lengthwas about 3 minutes.In the last three years alone, the total mobile telephone subscriber base has increased by50%. Wireless subscribers continue to increase the amount of time they communicateusing their wireless phones. Average minutes-of-use (MOU) per subscriber per monthjumped again in 2005, to 820 minutes, or more than 13 hours of use, for the averagesubscriber.Analysts attribute this high subscriber growth to the attractiveness of innovative servicemodels – such as prepaid, family, and unlimited local service plans which targetpreviously underserved markets such as youth, ethnic minorities, and the credit-challenged – as well as wireless substitution for landline.Handset-based mobile data applications have been gaining popularity among U.S. mobilesubscribers. While surveys clearly reveal that the most popular type of application is stilltext messaging, figures reported by large carriers also show increased MMS trafficvolumes. With the launch of wireless broadband services based on EV-DO orWCDMA/HSDPA technologies by three of the nationwide carriers and some smallerregional carriers, the number of subscribers using mobile data services at broadband-likespeeds has also been growing.Estimates place the number of subscribers to mobile satellite telephone servicesworldwide, including the United States, at 1.1 million at the end of 2005, up from theestimate of 892,000 subscribers in 2004. In the U.S. two-way satellite-based fixedbroadband service was first offered only in 2005, and satellite-based broadband of alltypes represents less than 1% of the U.S. broadband subscriber base.Competition:Roughly 268 million people, or 94% of the U.S. population, live in counties with four ormore mobile telephone operators competing to offer service.Some of the nationwide operators extended their coverage through contractual affiliationswith smaller carriers. In the past two years, as the need for affiliates diminished, the vastmajority of these affiliations have ended.Today, less densely populated counties have an average of 3.6 mobile competitors, whilethe more densely populated counties have an average of 4.9 competitors. Wirelesscompetition is increasing in rural areas, particularly as a landline substitute. One of thechallenges for wireless companies in rural areas is the access to cell sites. Page 6 of 28
  • While exact percentages are difficult to determine, not only in rural areas but generallywireless substitution has grown significantly in recent years. The overall wirelesspenetration rate in the United States is now at 71% and virtually everyone in the UnitedStates ages 20 to 49 has a wireless phone.Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks(WMANs) are playing an increasing role as a competitor and supplement to the servicesoffered by the CMRS industry.Consolidation and exit of service providers, whether through secondary markettransactions or bankruptcy, affects the structure of the mobile telecommunicationsmarket. A reduction in the number of competing service providers due to consolidation orexit increases the market power of any given service provider, but does not always resultin a negative impact on consumers as consolidation enables carriers to achieve certaineconomies of scale and increased efficiencies compared to smaller operators. Among thepolicies potentially affecting consolidation in the telecommunications market, the FCC in2003 eliminated a rule limiting the amount of spectrum a CMRS licensee could own orcontrol in a given licensed area.International Comparison:After the merger of Sprint and Nextel, there are 4 nationwide mobile operators in the U.S.Thus today, the U.S. wireless market is more similar in structure to comparable wirelesstelephone markets in Western Europe and Asia: There are three or four national wirelesstelephone operators in most Western European wireless markets. As of 2006, only twoWestern European countries – the United Kingdom and Austria – have five nationalwireless operators.The least concentrated mobile market and thus the most competitive one is in the UK,most concentrated and thus least competitive are the markets of France and Finland. Onaverage, market concentration is lower and competition is higher in the U.S. mobilemarket than in Western European mobile markets with the exception of the UK. At thesame time there are several regions together representing approximately 5% of the U.S.population with higher mobile market concentration levels and less competition than inFrance and Finland.With respect to mobile voice service, the mobile penetration is still higher in WesternEurope and developed Asian-Pacific countries than in the United States. The UnitedStates continues to lead the world in average minutes of use per subscriber, and mobilecalls continue to be significantly less expensive on a per minute basis in the United Statesthan in Western Europe and Japan. Page 7 of 28
  • The percentage of mobile data service revenues continues to be higher in Western Europeand parts of Asia than in the United States.Although early 3G licensing gave European operators a head start in the deployment ofWCDMA networks, with all competing carriers using the same technology, Europeancarriers may be under less pressure to upgrade, knowing that a competitor’s early leadwill not be insurmountable. The advantages of technological competition overstandardization may account for the ability of U.S. carriers to leapfrog their Europeancounterparts.WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIESDeployment And Upgrade Paths:In the United States the mobile telecommunications carriers have the freedom to chooseamong the various standards for second-generation and more advanced networktechnologies.Thanks to this flexibility, different U.S. carriers have deployed a variety of differenttechnologies and associated technology migration paths, and competition among multipleincompatible standards has emerged as an important dimension of non-price rivalry in theU.S. mobile telecommunications market.For CMRS industry, the FCC licenses cellular, broadband PCS and (E)SMR spectrum.Broadband PCS is similar to cellular service, except that broadband PCS systems operatein different spectrum bands and have been designed from the beginning to use a digitalformat. The primary use for SMR traditionally has been dispatch services. In apparentresponse to the dispatch functionality of ESMR services, many cellular and broadbandPCS carriers have begun to offer push-to-talk functionality on their networks, includingVerizon Wireless, Cingular, Sprint Nextel (on its CDMA network), and Alltel.Digital technology today is dominant in the mobile telephone sector, with approximately97% of all wireless subscribers using digital service.The four main digital technologies used in the United States are Code Division MultipleAccess (CDMA), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), integrated DigitalEnhanced Network (iDEN), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).Beyond the 2G digital technologies, wireless telephone carriers have been deployingnext-generation network technologies in order to be able to offer mobile data services athigher data transfer speeds and, in some cases, in order to increase voice capacity. Page 8 of 28
  • Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) is the next migration step for GSM carriers beyond EDGEand allows maximum data transfer speeds of up to 2 mbps and average user speeds of220-320 kbps.Deployment of WCDMA with HSDPA (High Speed Data Packet Access) technologywill allow average download speeds of 400-700 kbps with burst rates of up to severalmbps.Many CDMA carriers have upgraded their networks to CDMA2000 1xRTT (also referredto as CDMA2000 1X, or 1xRTT), a technology that doubles voice capacity and deliverspeak data rates of 307 kbps in mobile environments and typical speeds of 40-70 kbps.The next step in the CDMA migration beyond 1xRTT is CDMA2000 1xEV-DO(Evolution Data Optimized, or Evolution Data Only), which allows maximum datathroughput speeds of 2.4 mbps.Carriers Choices:Of the four nationwide wireless telephone operators, AT&T and T-Mobile useTDMA/GSM as their 2G digital technology, Verizon Wireless and Sprint Nextel useCDMA, and Sprint Nextel also uses iDEN. Over the past year, the four nationwidewireless carriers, together with other U.S. wireless carriers, have continued to deploynext-generation network technologies.Verizon Wireless has deployed 1xRTT technology throughout a big part of its network.Prior to its merger with Nextel in August 2005, the former Sprint had already deployed1xRTT across its entire CDMA network footprint. Sprint Nextel plans to develop anddeploy the first 4G nationwide broadband network beginning in 2007 using mobileWiMAX IEEE 802.16e-2005 technology as the standard.Apart from the two nationwide CDMA carriers, some of the regional CDMA carriershave also begun to deploy EV-DO.When Cingular acquired AT&T Wireless in October 2004, the latter had alreadydeployed WCDMA. In 2004, Cingular decided to upgrade WCDMA with HSDPA in aneffort to compete with Verizon Wireless’ EV-DO network.T-Mobile has a nationwide EDGE network. The company was successful bidder forAWS spectrum (PCS) in auction 66. T-Mobile is expected to launch a wireless 3Gbroadband network in late 2007 or in 2008.The networks discussed above are used by telephone carriers to offer both voice and dataservices. Mobile carriers operate a number of other types of networks in order to provideIP-based broadband, as well as narrowband, data-only commercial mobile services. Page 9 of 28
  • WLAN:Currently the WLAN standard 802.11b is dominant in the U.S. but also the 802.11gstandard, released in June 2003, is widely accepted.The Wi-Fi capabilities of modern notebooks increase the deployment of WLAN in theenterprise market but the corporate segment is still a small market for WLANs, mostlydue to security concerns.Homes are a huge market for WLAN networks, and the demand is still rising. Themajority of systems in use support 802.11b, the majority of sold systems today support802.11g, but a switch to Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems is expected.The number of hot spots in the U.S. is estimated to be about 63,000 as of 2007 and theTIA expects it to grow to 77,000 in the year 2009. The revenues are more than $400million.Femtocells have been developed to bring UMTS into buildings. Femtocells utilizeInternet protocol and flat base station architectures, and connect to mobile operatornetworks via a wired broadband Internet service such as DSL, cable, or fiber optics.Many cities and towns plan to provide free or low-cost wireless Internet access using Wi-Fi technology. Phone carriers and cable companies build a strong lobby against suchplans since they fear unfair competition.The Wi-Fi revenues in the U.S. are estimated to be $6.7 billion in 2007 with a projectedgrowth of more than 10% for each of the coming years.WiMAX:The new WiMAX standard 802.16e, being able to use licensed as well as unlicensedspectrum and allowing portable use, is tested in 2007 with very good results.Sprint owns about 70% of the 2.3 and 2.5 GHz spectrum, Clearwire is the second-largestholder and is the only license-holder other than Sprint that is capable of providingnationwide WiMAX service in that spectrum.Currently in the U.S. only fixed wireless WiMAX technologies are available, commercialmobile services are not expected until 2008, nevertheless there is a lot of WiMAX Page 10 of 28
  • activity. Cable operators are also interested in pushing the new technology since it allowsthem offering a quadruple play by adding wireless to their service bundle.Satellite:Mobile satellite services (MSS) are targeted to industries such as military, mining,construction and maritime in areas where terrestrial wireless service is unavailable. Manyof the companies trying to launch wireless services have gone into bankruptcy.Subsequently, the FCC gave permission to MSS operators to expand their services byusing ancillary terrestrial components (ATC). In addition, the industry came up withsmaller and less expensive satellite phones making MSS operators possibly viable. Aconsiderable growth potential can be seen in the U.S.: All satellite operators have newlyemerged, with Iridium and Globalstar as industry segment leaders.Coverage:Almost the entire population of the United States lives in counties where operators offerdigital mobile telephone service, using CDMA, TDMA/GSM, or iDEN (including theirrespective next generation technologies), or some combination of the three.As of 2006, CDMA has been launched in at least some portion of counties containing 284million people, or roughly 99% of the U.S. population, while TDMA/GSM has beenlaunched in at least some portion of counties containing 280 million people, or 98% ofthe U.S. population.To date, iDEN-based service is available in at least some portion of counties containingover 268 million people, or approximately 94% of the U.S. population.The higher speed technologies 1xEV-DO and WCDMA/HSDPA are available in countieswith 63% and 20% of the U.S. population, respectively.WIRELESS BUSINESS MODELSWirelesss Value Chain:Traditional businesses have well-defined operational processes, organizational structures,and financial forecasts. Those are being severely disrupted as new communicationinnovations emerge. With the wish for a seamless and always accessible intelligentinfrastructure that provides a connection for everyone to everything from anywhere Page 11 of 28
  • companies in the wireless market need to be flexible and they compete on many differentlevels.Infrastructure:Traditionally, network operators have integrated the whole network operating valuechain, consisting of spectrum brokerage, mobile network transport, and mobile serviceprovisioning, and nowadays also advertising services.The nationwide operators have affiliates, partners, joint ventures and alliances to extendtheir coverage, to build-out mid-sized and small markets, to extend their own productofferings, to cut costs, to stabilize the own market position, to extend competitiveness, toexplore new markets and product offerings, and to lobby congress.Affiliations between nationwide operators with smaller carriers create “families” ofoperating companies. In the past two years the majority of these affiliations have ended,either through acquisition of the affiliate or through termination of the affiliationagreements.Business partners refer to b2b relationships in which one commercial entity has a certainform of alliance with another commercial entity for the benefit of both. In wirelessindustry, coverage & roaming partners, R&D and application development partners,MVNOs, equipment manufacturers, entertainment / multimedia and content partners areespecially important.Joint ventures are commonly used to experiment with new product and service offerings,and to explore the customer reactions towards the either new or bundled offerings. Aninteresting observation is that leading IT companies such as Microsoft and Google seemdetermined to enter the wireless broadband market using the whole range of possibilitiesincluding participation in spectrum auctions but also through building alliances, jointventures and partnerships with telecommunication companies.In telecom industry, we find numerous trade associations, alliances for Telcos and relatedsuppliers. The most prominent U.S. wireless alliance is the CTIA (CellularTelecommunications Industry Association). The telecom alliances area also importantbodies in the standard development process as the development of standards is almostentirely a matter of private, rather than public, action and the standardization happensdecentralized.Customer value is the balance between what the customer receives (product and service)and what it costs the customer to receive this (costs for the product plus the time andeffort spent acquiring the product and learning how to use it). To create customer value inthe wireless market means the capability of the operator to provide high-speed high-quality communications everywhere to everyone and at affordable prices while still Page 12 of 28
  • making a profit. In the operator to customer exchange the creation of customer valueincludes emotional and informational factors, as well as quality customer service and acertain degree of innovation.Even though innovation is understood to be a key asset of a telecommunication company,and most operators focus on coming up with new products and services, the actualamount of in-house R&D significantly decreased during the last years: After the dotcomcrash, numerous small and innovative companies disappeared from the market, and manylarge carriers passed this expensive and risky work to the leading equipmentmanufacturers and application providers who shall do the innovation on their behalf.Offerings:There is evidence of a sharp decline in mobile telephone prices ever since the launch ofPCS service. According to analysts the average per-minute cost of wireless callingplunged 72% in the five years before 2006 and the decline slightly continued through2006.In the last quarter of 2005, revenues through data services accounted for almost 10% ofaverage revenues per user (ARPU) for each of the four nationwide carriers, almost twicethe percentage of the year before. The growth of data services is widely to explain by theintroduction of 3G technology. While the growth in data revenue has been significant, ithas not been large enough to offset the decline in voice revenue, and the highexpectations many analysts had in year 2004 have not yet been fulfilled.Typical price schedules are bucket plans, family plans, mobile to anyone calling options,lifestyle plans, and more and more also prepaid offerings suiting segments of the marketthat do not want or cannot get a traditional cellular plan, particularly the youth market.High quality of service and extensive coverage are most important reasons customers donot switch between carriers, allowing a carrier to maintain low churn.Outside their own geographical coverage areas, most carriers have agreements with othercarriers to still be able to offer service to their subscribers while their calls are handled bythe agreement partner.Carriers try to get ahead of each other with both the promotion of better coverage and lessdropped calls as well as with great investments in order to improve the network quality toacceptable values. Dropped calls along with congestion are the two most importantcustomer perceived problems that affect the quality of wireless service.In addition to investing in their networks, carriers increase capacity and improve servicequality by acquiring additional spectrum. This is done through the Commission’sspectrum auctions, the purchase of licenses in the secondary market, and mergers and Page 13 of 28
  • acquisitions. Experience shows that improvements in service quality tend to followmergers with a lag due to the time it takes to complete the process of network integration.Wireless networks, in terms of Internet connections, are typically slower than those thatare directly connected through an Ethernet cable. The newer 3G wireless datatechnologies consisting of WCDMA and its HSDPA extension for GSM networks, andEV-DO Rev 0 for CDMA networks allow for much faster transfer speeds. 60% ofbroadband households indicate they first subscribed to broadband because they wanted afaster connection and greater speed at home.The major mobile telephone carriers and other mobile data providers have introduced awide variety of mobile data services and applications. Content providers, contentaggregators and portals are all part of the data content value chain. Data services aremarketed primarily as an add-on to mobile voice service. To a minor degree they aremarketed through monthly mobile Internet access packages for customers who wish toconnect to wireless networks primarily or exclusively for data, rather than voice use, andwho typically access the Internet through laptops or PDAs.In the past year carriers have continued to expand and enhance their mobile data offeringswith services such as streaming video clips, mobile television, over-the-air musicdownloading, GPS tracking, mobile Push-to-Talk (PTT) features, and others. In contrastto the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, more and more operators offeradditional TV content over a closed network.Handset vendors and network equipment providers are a well established part of themobile value system. At the moment however, there is an ongoing conflict between thedevice and network business models: Both wireless networks and handsets become moreadvanced. The carriers want wireless applications to be offered as additional subscriptiondownloaded over their networks, equipment manufacturers want to bundle the applicationwith the device.Advertising on mobile devices is a new but promising way for carriers to create value.Especially content providers and data service providers want to use this medium toexpand their product demand. Research firm Ovum estimates that such mobileadvertising could generate as much as $2 billion in revenue by 2010.Customer:At about 73% subscriber penetration at the end of 2006, the wireless industry in the U.S.is nearing saturation. Even though data services have started to boost total service,competition is high and every customer is the customer a carrier wants to attract,including customers that belong to segments of the market that do not want or cannot geta traditional cellular plan. Page 14 of 28
  • Wireless consumers are more and more interested in more information on the availabilityand quality of mobile telecommunications services. Wireless consumers are alsoparticularly disloyal. Most carriers report churn rates between 1.5% and 3.0% per month,and according to the FCC, approximately 20.4 million wireless subscribers ported theirnumbers to another wireless carrier from December 2003 through December 2005.Businesses need transportation, equipment and information in the right place, at the righttime, and communication as well as business-critical data and applications have to beaccessed or transmitted in a fast and secure way. The more security and convergenceissues can be solved, the more likely the growth rate of the mobile enterprise market isgoing to go up considerably.Seamless service means an all-in-one seamless convergence of voice, video and data,anywhere and anytime including in-building wireless systems so that end users can travelbetween urban and rural sites, be inside or outside buildings while maintainingcontinuous communications. It also refers to one bill provided by their traditional serviceprovider covering all other services in it. Current strategies for seamless service includethe combination of various technologies and networks, roaming, new or more cell sites,and smart antennas to support cell signals, or UMA (Unlicensed Mobile Access)technology that allows seamless merging of cellular and Wi-Fi calls.Wireless operator especially use direct and indirect distribution channels. Indirectchannels are independent wireless retailers such as authorized agents, dealers, wirelessdistributors, or wireless boutiques.All wireless companies also use the heavy force of marketing to create revenues andestablish their technology. The companies follow essentially two goals when engaging inadvertising or marketing: either they intend to inform consumers of available products orservices or they wish to increase sales by changing consumer preferences. Advertising forgoods such as wireless telecommunication is considered to be persuasive rather thaninformational in nature. In 2005, telecommunications ad spending for the top seven cellphone carriers dropped to $4 billion from $4.7 billion in 2004, or 14.6%. The mainreason behind that was the merger of Sprint and Nextel.Carriers also pursue marketing strategies designed to differentiate their brand from rivalofferings based on service quality issues such as superior network coverage, reliability,and voice quality.Finances:The wireless industry needs to invest huge amounts of money to reach higher speed andbetter quality of service, to extend coverage and lower roaming costs. But alsoadvertising & marketing, and differentiation contribute considerably to the costs. Last butnot least another costly part of the business is maintenance services and innovation. Page 15 of 28
  • Overall, insiders estimate that the wireless industry spent roughly $25 billion in 2005 oncapital expenditures consisting primarily of spending to expand and improve thegeographic coverage of networks, increase the capacity of existing networks so they canserve more customers, and improve the capabilities of networks.EQUIPMENT & EQUIPMENT VENDORSMarket Overview:Telecommunications equipment such as network equipment, enterprise equipment,consumer telecommunications equipment, wireless capital expenditures (capex), Wi-Fiequipment, WiMAX equipment and wireless handsets is necessary to deliver data, video,and voice communications over telephone, cable television, Internet, broadcast, wireless,and enterprise networks.Landline equipment revenues grew 5.2% in 2005, driven mainly by investment in fiberoptic networks. This sector is expected to increase its revenues by about 5% each year forthe coming years, growing to $24.4 billion in 2009.Revenues with respect to traditional enterprise systems continue to decrease linearly; theyare expected to go down from about $1.8 billion in 2006 to $1 billion in 2009. Therevenues for IP related converged systems – that is IP-PBX equipment – are expected togrow from $3.78 billion in 2006 up to $4.78 billion in 2009. The enterprise equipment asa whole – also containing internetworking equipment, videoconferencing equipment, andcomputer-telephony integration systems and software – is projected to go from $105billion as of 2006 to about $122 billion in 2009.Due to a shift from traditional consumer products to pure wireless equipment theconsumer telecommunications equipment market is expected to decrease slightly fromabout $3 billion in 2006 to about $2.9 billion in 2009.Wireless devices revenues are estimated having a yearly two digit growth, going from$17.8 billion in 2006 to about $24.5 billion in 2009.Wireless Capital Expenditures:The forecasts foresee about $26 billion in wireless capital expenditures during 2007,representing a 5.5% decline over their data for 2006. Capital spending during 2007 is Page 16 of 28
  • expected to exhibit seasonality as carriers plan network upgrades and expect industrycapex to increase during the second half of the year.Wireless capital spending is projected to increase 3.8% during 2008 to $27 billion, owingto increased investment in 3G and 4G networks as well as initial build-out of spectrumpurchased in auction 66. Furthermore, the FCC is on-track to auction 700 MHz spectrumby January 16, 2008, which should provide ample demand for capital spending over thenext several years. The auction is expected to draw at least $10 billion in bids.Among the key players on the U.S. wireless equipment market are many firms withheadquarters in foreign countries. Given the market capitalizations as of January 2007,the Finnish company Nokia comes first with $116.6 billion, followed by QUALCOMM(U.S.) with $75.2 billion, the Swedish-Japanese Ericsson with $66.1 billion, Corning(U.S.) with $42 billion, and Motorola (U.S.) with $41.7 billion. A look at the revenuesreveals that Nokia is leading with $57.2 billion, followed by Motorola ($42 billion),Ericsson with 27.1 billion, DirecTV Group making $15.3 billion, and QUALCOMM with$8.2 billion.Wireless technology requires mounting antennas and electronic communicationsequipment to create a cell in a cellular network for the use of mobile phones. Mostly notthe operators themselves but specialized companies built the structures and then lease itto operators. Due to the policy call for ubiquitous broadband deployment and the newspectrum policy, new leasing activity should accelerate in the second half of 2007 andthrough 2008, and analysts expect new site deployment to jump 12% in 2008. The threeU.S. market leading tower builders, American Tower, Crown Castle and SBACommunications, generated each revenues up to $1.4 billion in 2006.Internetworking Equipment:All key players in the U.S. on the Internetworking market are multinational companies.According to their market capitalization as of August 2007, the biggest U.S. companiesare Cisco Systems ($182 billion), Juniper Networks ($17 billion), Riverbed Technology($3.3 billion), 3Com Corporation ($1.8 billion), and Finisar ($1.3 billion).A look at the revenues (2006) reveals an only slightly different picture: Cisco Systems($28.5 billion), Juniper Networks ($2.4 billion), 3Com Corporation ($800 million), BlackBox Corporation ($1 billion), Supermicro Computer ($400 million), and Finisar ($388million). Canada based Nortel Networks with an extensive North American market showsa market capitalization of about $9.8 billion and revenues of about $11.5 billion. TheAmerican-French joint venture Alcatel-Lucent with a market capitalization of about $30billion has revenues of about $24 billion. Page 17 of 28
  • Consolidation:When it comes to consolidation of equipment providers on the local U.S. market, thereare no highlights in the sense that two equipment giants have merged into a new evenlarger company or one big player acquired another one. The large equipment vendorstend to buy small and medium sized companies (SMEs) that fit into their strategicbusiness development. The wireless network equipment providers concentrate onacquiring specialized SMEs, some of them software houses, some designers ormanufacturers of specialized wireless equipment, in order to better support or tailor theirservices. In addition, some companies consolidate by divesting those business segmentsthat do no longer fit into the strategic orientation and focus of the company.Import And Outsourcing:Traditional outsourcing manufacturing strategies are more and more replaced by enteringcontracts with large, sometimes fabless companies headquartered in Asian countries,especially in high-cost economies such as Singapore, Taiwan or South Korea, which havecontracts with contract manufacturers in low-cost economies such as mainland China andIndia.Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) design, test, manufacture, distribute andprovide return/repair services for electronic component and assemblies for originalequipment manufacturers (OEMs). Some of them maintain sites and locations all over theworld. It is not uncommon that they absorb whole divisions of original manufacturers andequipment providers as part of the deal. Similarly, Original Design Manufacturers(ODMs) are companies that manufacture a product which ultimately will be branded byanother firm for sale.The worldwide spending for outsourcing processes in 2007 is projected to be about $198billion and shall further increase over the coming 5 years, with cutting costs as maindriving force. Since the competition is continuously getting harder and the margins aregoing down, and with VoIP becoming more and more important, telecommunicationcompanies are in the course of a transition process.It is a general trend that outsourcing is moving further up the value chain. It started manyyears ago with side services and processes such as accounting, network management, andcustomer management. Today it has already conquered large parts of the core businessessuch as R&D and product manufacturing. This development will definitely continue asthe prospect to decrease cost will overpower any other considerations. Page 18 of 28
  • While many U.S. firms are outsourcing much of their manufacturing overseas, most U.S.telecom equipment companies maintain their principal software development and R&Doperations in the United States.Manufacturing Locations:Number one producer of equipment for the American market is China, followed by SouthKorea, Mexico, Malaysia, Canada, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Sweden and Singapore. Theimports from Asian countries are continuously increasing, whereas imports fromEuropean countries, which currently make less then 6% of the whole, are more and moredecreasing.Leading equipment companies such as Finnish Nokia, Swedish-Japanese Ericsson,Korean Samsung and the Canadian company Research in Motion (RIM) are operatinginternationally and export handsets and other equipment into the U.S. According to theU.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. imported telecommunications equipmentaccounted for about $37 billion in 2004. Cellular phones are not only number one when itcomes to imports (with value of $17 billion in 2004) but have also the highest growthrate.Most prominent EMS companies that partner with the large U.S. equipment providers areFlextronics (Singapore), Foxconn (Taiwan), HTC (Taiwan), and Celestica (Canada).IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGYCompetition As Driver:It might be true that the United States’ wireless infrastructure is not yet level with the onein leading European and Asian countries; but when it comes to technologies, speed andapplication offerings, the USA are slightly ahead of most other countries and are furtherspeeding up.Hereby, the technological development is primarily driven by competition: Technology isone important means to competitive advantage, and many of the underlying processes areof reflexive or circular nature. A better offer of services requires availability ofsupporting technologies; it then attracts more users which will lead to a competitiveadvantage and possibly a further extension of new services and investment in newtechnologies and devices. Page 19 of 28
  • Given the competition, wireless operators can not increase the prices for already availableservices or wireless minutes. Thus, they rather increase the number of minutes of theservices they sell. Providers need to offer new, especially more time consuming, servicessuch as mobile TV, online gaming, or service bundles which usually come along withbigger broadband requirements.Technology As Driver:Innovation requires Research & Development and experimentation. Rarely technologyalone creates the demand and is the exclusive driving force for innovative services.However, once new technology is deployed it drives demand and supports the definitionof new services creating the need for even more advanced technological features.New networks with more bandwidth are usually rolled out to enable the most difficult toachieve service that is desired to have. Currently, mobile TV is one of the main drivingforces to upgrade the networks. Better technologies by means of the services they enableultimately drive the development of technologies even further as the services extend.WiMAX is a truly disruptive technology which in addition will allow companies such asGoogle and Yahoo entering the broadband market and offering their services withoutusing cable or telecom networks. Mobile WiMAX, covering all demands of the users, is asubstantial threat to cable and telephone industry.Customer As Driver:Availability of advanced technologies in itself creates the space for innovative ideas,which might be turned into new service ideas then sold to the customer after the demandhas been created by marketing and advertising.Sometimes demand is first, especially when it comes to available landline services whichcustomers expect to use in their mobile environment as well. Hereby, the underlyingtechnology is of no importance to the customer as long as the delivered resultscorrespond with the customer’s expectation.There is a considerable demand for mobile wireless solutions, and once the technology isthere, users will use the arising all-mobile possibilities: America is on the move andcustomers want the anywhere network. Hereby, speed matters: Customers are interestedin fast service.The interest of users in new and advanced services is closely related to the degree ofinteroperability. The less restricted the use of a service is, and the better it interoperateswith existing services and devices, the higher the acceptance by the users will be. Page 20 of 28
  • Integrated security features are also a significant customer expectation, and securityissues are especially important for enterprise users.TRENDS & OPPORTUNITIESWireless Broadband:A growing number of consumers are abandoning their traditional home-Internet servicein lieu of a mobile-broadband connection.As worldwide usage of 3G technology continues to climb, in-building coverage demandis expected to sharply increase and disruptive technologies such as femtocells emerge.In 2007 cable operators started offering wireless contracts which are handled over third-party networks, and wireless offerings are expected to become more and more importantfor cable industry in order to better compete against phone companies.Due to the policy call for ubiquitous broadband deployment and the new spectrum policy,new cell site leasing activity is expected to further accelerate in the second half of 2007and through 2008.After a considerable consolidation of the large telecommunication companies nationwide,the already starting consolidation in the rural telecommunications sector will alsocontinue.Leading IT companies such as Microsoft and Google seem determined to enter thewireless broadband marketHomes are a huge market for WLAN networks, and the demand is still rising.Utilities and Municipalities continue constructing their own networks and they team upwith Internet service providers (ISPs) in order to offer data services of all kinds.Femtocells represent a threat to Wi-Fi routers and may save wireless providers money byoffsetting any loss of revenue from voice over Wi-Fi.WiMAX will change the market and provide even more consumer choice in broadbandservices and devices.Fixed to Mobile Convergence (FMC) is the first step to seamless service, as it connectsthe mobile phone to the fixed line infrastructure. Page 21 of 28
  • Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) is expected to be deployed by CDMA providers till2009.Broadband Over Power Line:Broadband over Power Line (BPL) has a considerable growth potential in the U.S.However, the future of BPL in the U.S. will highly depend on the decision oftelecommunication carriers to experiment with and deploy BPL.Wireless Service Models:Most carriers are constantly developing new pricing strategies such as rollover, automaticadjustment of plans, free nights and weekend plans as well as free calling amongsubscribers to the same carrier and other types of flat rates.Prepaid services will also gain more and more market shares as they target previouslyunderserved markets such as youth, ethnic minorities, and the credit-challenged.While exact percentages are difficult to determine, not only in rural areas but generallywireless substitution has grown significantly in recent years.Advertising on mobile devices is a new but promising way for carriers to create value.Cell Phone Features & Mobile Applications:The use of IPTV, mobile video and video on demand is expected to increasedramatically.Voice over Wireless IP (VoWIP) will attract more and more enterprise customers.Web conferencing revenues are estimated to have two digit growth rates in the comingyears.More and more mobile payment services will enable consumers to charge onlinepurchases to their cell phone bill.Various GPS based services will enable wireless-service carriers to win a significantportion of the navigational-service market away from suppliers of personal-navigationdevices. Page 22 of 28
  • Many of the consumers anticipate using a search engine on their mobile phones.More and new multimedia messaging services are created and innovate what people dowith their cell phones.Equipment:It is a general trend that outsourcing is moving further up the value chain.It is expected that some providers consider stopping subsidizing the handsets thusopening the market to the manufacturers.Enterprises are increasingly using wireless data via smart phones and other devices thusenterprise device management services will increase.Finnish Trade Organizations:There are a number of Finnish-American business alliances such as FinPro and Finnish-American Chamber of Commerce helping to identify opportunities.REGULATION AND POLITICSAgencies & Commissions:The policy behind telecommunications in the U.S. is primarily directed by thegovernment and the Regulatory Commissions. Among a large number of agenciesconcerned with telecommunication policy, the National Telecommunications andInformation Administration (NTIA), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC orCommission), and the State Public Utilities Commissions (PUCs) are the most importantones.Federal Regulations:The Telecommunications Acts such as of 1934 and of 1996 are federal law, that is, lawsof the United States, enacted by Congress and signed by the President. They applynationwide and supersede any conflicting state laws or regulations. Page 23 of 28
  • Commissions are created by statute, that is, by a federal law. They have the power andauthority established by their enabling legislation. The regulatory entity fortelecommunications is the FCC, empowered through the Communications Act of 1934.Telecommunication carriers are classified as “common carrier” and as such subject totitle II of the Telecommunications Act. However, this only holds to the extent that theyare engaged in providing telecommunications services: In 2005, the FCC reclassifiedDSL, the high-speed Internet service offered by phone companies, as an "informationservice." The ruling puts phone companies on the same regulatory footing as cablecompanies, which are exempt from having to offer access on their infrastructure tocompeting ISPs.Cable ISPs and the DSL ISPs have market power and have both the incentive andopportunity to discriminate with regard to content and applications used over theirnetworks. The FCC has claimed some jurisdiction over the issue of net neutrality, and haslaid down guideline rules that it expects the telecommunications industry to follow.Currently there is full network neutrality in the United States, meaning thattelecommunications companies do not offer different rates to Internet consumers basedon content or service type; however, there are no legal restrictions against this.The FCC shares spectrum management responsibilities and functions with the NTIA.While the FCC has authority over commercial spectrum usage as well as that of local andstate governments, NTIA manages the federal governments use of spectrum for defenseand other federal purposes. Because radio spectrum is a limited resource and decisions byone agency often affect the other, the two agencies work closely together.In the past, the FCC relied often on comparative hearings, in which the qualifications ofcompeting applicants were examined to award licenses. Since 1994, the FCC hasconducted auctions of licenses for spectrum. Beginning in 2003 the FCC also allowedCommercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) licensees to lease all or a portion of theirspectrum usage rights for any length of time within the license term, and over anygeographic area encompassed by the license. Now it is planned to allow CMRS licenseesto buy and sell licenses, in whole or in part, on the secondary market.Acts & Agendas:The United States are in the middle of a major review of their telecommunications law. Infocus of today’s legislative debates are questions around the new possibilities offered byhigh-speed / broadband networks: How to regulate IPTV and IP telephony, how to treatvideo franchise service providers, how to ensure affordable universal broadband, andsimilar more. Page 24 of 28
  • A draft bill sets the roadmap for the next years, and various laws such as the COPE Actof 2006, and the Wireless Innovation Act of 2007 already implement (parts of) theproposed telecommunications legislation.Agencies, Organizations and Wireless Key Players:Find a Telecommunications Who Is Who including short profiles and addresses inAppendix C.TRADE BARRIERSForeign Status:The United States are the world’s most attractive telecommunication market, but accessto it is expensive and requires awareness of certain political and cultural barriers.Three main U.S. government entities are responsible for assessing foreign ownership andforeign investment in the telecommunications sector in the United States: The U.S.Department of Treasury’s Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States(CFIUS), the FCC, and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). For potential nationalsecurity, law enforcement and public safety issues also the Federal Bureau ofInvestigation (FBI) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are involved.The United States and 130 other countries agreed in 1997 to open theirtelecommunication markets to foreign competition. Under the terms of the WTOAgreement that took effect January 1, 1998, most of the worlds major trading nationsmade binding commitments to open their telecommunications and satellite markets.A foreign government, individual, or corporation may own 20% directly, or 25%indirectly, in a U.S. broadcast, common carrier, or aeronautical radio station license.Provided the Commission does not find the foreign ownership to be inconsistent with thepublic interest the foreign entity might own up to 100% of the stock.Restrictions on foreign investment in certain telecommunications services were originallyintended to protect America from the perils of wireless telegraphy by foreign agents.Today, the FCC treats foreign investments from WTO member countries and non-WTOmember countries differently. In the exceptional case where an application poses a veryhigh risk to competition in the U.S. market, where conditions imposed by theCommission would not satisfactorily address competition concerns, the Commissioncould deny the application. Page 25 of 28
  • Voluntary security agreements facilitate U.S. law enforcement for undertakingsurveillance activities, preventing foreign government surveillance activities, and preventimproper foreign access to U.S. telecommunications networks. To date, voluntarysecurity agreements have been entered into by such companies as BritishTelecommunications, Voicestream/T-Mobile (owned by Deutsche Telekom), and VideshSanchar Nigam Limited of India.The U.S. Department of Treasury’s CFIUS reviews the national security implications offoreign acquisitions of U.S. companies. Since September 11, 2001, the CFIUS reviewprocess has intensified due to heightened national security concerns. Generally, rejectionof the transaction is unlikely but the U.S. may require certain restructuring measures to beundertaken before they will approve the transaction.Costs:While a first-mover advantage sometimes exist, it is also true that telecommunicationcustomers are rather disloyal. Thus not only the innovation of the offered service, buteven more the prominence and branding of a company, product and service name iscrucial for long running success. Costs for branding add considerably to the costsrequired to successfully enter the U.S. market.Starting a business in the U.S. is comparatively easy and inexpensive.Telecommunications however has historically been an industry characterized by largeinvestments in network infrastructure and vast scale economies, thus the capitalrequirements of telecommunication companies are high. Unfortunately, due to venturecapitalist’s selection criteria, there is a certain inability of new (foreign) firms to borrowsums in the U.S. that would be sufficient to finance the required investments.Spectrum:Today the practice of spectrum auctions includes few, if any, conditions in a licensedocument issued to a specific service provider. Instead, regulatory conditions aregenerally established in rules or regulations that apply equally to all service providers ofthe same class (e.g. cellular mobile providers) or across the whole telecommunicationsindustry. With increased liberalization, some regulators are also removing allauthorization requirements for some telecommunications services. These service marketsare then open to entry by any new service provider, without restriction. Page 26 of 28
  • Cell Sites:Lack of available cell sites can considerably slow down operators in their plans to rollouttheir networks. This is the main reason for the fact that most operators do not constructbut lease cell sites from specialized construction companies which are also familiar withthe process to receive a permission to construct such a site. In contrast to scarceness ofspectrum, the scarceness of access to cell sites is widely unknown to foreign investors;however, it can become a very surprising and severe problem factor in the course of awireless project.Interoperability:In the United States where carriers / mobile operators pay hefty fees for their licensedspectrum and in addition offer free or deeply discounted phones with cell plans, thephones are commonly locked so that they will not work with other carriers. In August,the FCC set the auction rules for 2008 which state that one-third of the 62 MHz ofspectrum at issue is going to be subject to open access. For the time being, the lockedphones are a barrier to anyone who wants to sell a service that requires use of a cellphone operated by another carrier.Lobbying:Lobbying activities are intended to influence, encourage, promote, or retard legislation.For foreign investors, to understand the power and significance of lobbying in the U.S.can be crucial for the success of a project within the U.S. territory.Some of the lobbying tools are easy to identify and use: campaign contributions,television ads that run only in Washington DC, and meetings with influential members ofCongress. Other concealed and not unobjectionable tactics are Astroturf lobbying and thefunding of supposedly independent "think tanks" and nonprofit groups to write reports,white and policy papers.Standards:Different to most other countries, the development of standards in the U.S. is almostentirely a matter of private, rather than public, action and the standardization happensdecentralized. Page 27 of 28
  • Thus to reach a standard in the U.S. requires close cooperation and effectivecommunication between organizations and the government in order to have thosestandards transported into national agendas and international treaties.For foreign investors, this rather non-governmental private and voluntary, consensusstandard setting can become a trade barrier as much as an opportunity: There is noconsistent deployment of one telecommunications technology as there has been nogovernment decision to favour one standard and deploy it U.S. wide. To date there is nounited U.S. policy concerning the deployment of broadband. This offers opportunities fornew technologies and products, but also puts investments at risk as there might be atechnology shift that has not been foreseen.This Executive Summary of the study “Broadband Telecommunication in the U.S.” was prepared byQuappa Inc. (Dr. Christian Uhrig and Angelika Kirchmeyer) for the Finnish Funding Agency forTechnology and Innovation (Tekes).All descriptions and analyses of the telecommunications industries and the factors having a significantimpact on how these industries evolve were carried out between June and August 2007. Page 28 of 28
  • APPENDICESTable of contents1 APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................. 42 APPENDIX B: ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS ....................................................................................... 123 APPENDIX C: US TELECOM ORGANIZATIONS........................................................................................ 21 3.1 FEDERAL & QUASI FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS ................................................................................... 21 3.1.1 CSTB...................................................................................................................................................... 21 3.1.2 FCC........................................................................................................................................................ 21 3.1.3 FTC ........................................................................................................................................................ 22 3.1.4 FTS......................................................................................................................................................... 22 3.1.5 NANPA .................................................................................................................................................. 23 3.1.6 NIST....................................................................................................................................................... 23 3.1.7 NTIA ...................................................................................................................................................... 24 3.1.8 PITAC / PCAST.................................................................................................................................... 24 3.1.9 USAC ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 3.2 TRADE ORGANIZATIONS, ASSOCIATIONS & NETWORKS ............................................................ 25 3.2.1 3G AMERICAS .................................................................................................................................... 25 3.2.2 3GPP ...................................................................................................................................................... 26 3.2.3 ANSI....................................................................................................................................................... 26 3.2.4 APCO..................................................................................................................................................... 26 3.2.5 ARRL..................................................................................................................................................... 27 3.2.6 ATIS....................................................................................................................................................... 27 3.2.7 BENTON FOUNDATION ................................................................................................................... 28 3.2.8 CFA........................................................................................................................................................ 28 3.2.9 CITEL.................................................................................................................................................... 29 3.2.10 CTIA ...................................................................................................................................................... 29 3.2.11 COMMON CAUSE .............................................................................................................................. 30 3.2.12 COMPTEL ............................................................................................................................................ 30 3.2.13 CU .......................................................................................................................................................... 30 3.2.14 FTCR ..................................................................................................................................................... 31 3.2.15 GSM ASSOCIATION .......................................................................................................................... 31 3.2.16 HTBC..................................................................................................................................................... 32 3.2.17 IEEE....................................................................................................................................................... 32 3.2.18 IETF....................................................................................................................................................... 32 3.2.19 IIA .......................................................................................................................................................... 33 3.2.20 ITIF........................................................................................................................................................ 33 3.2.21 ITTA ...................................................................................................................................................... 33 3.2.22 ITU ......................................................................................................................................................... 34 3.2.23 NATOA.................................................................................................................................................. 34 3.2.24 NECA..................................................................................................................................................... 35 3.2.25 NEW AMERICA FOUNDATION ...................................................................................................... 35 3.2.26 NCTA..................................................................................................................................................... 35 3.2.27 NTCA..................................................................................................................................................... 36 3.2.28 NSTL...................................................................................................................................................... 36 3.2.29 OPASTCO............................................................................................................................................. 37 3.2.30 PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE ..................................................................................................................... 37 3.2.31 RICA...................................................................................................................................................... 38 3.2.32 RTG ....................................................................................................................................................... 38 3.2.33 TELEPHIA ........................................................................................................................................... 38 3.2.34 TIA ......................................................................................................................................................... 39 Page 2 of 54
  • 3.2.35 UMTS FORUM..................................................................................................................................... 40 3.2.36 PIRG ...................................................................................................................................................... 40 3.2.37 USTELECOM....................................................................................................................................... 40 3.2.38 UTC........................................................................................................................................................ 41 3.2.39 VAA ....................................................................................................................................................... 41 3.2.40 WiMAX FORUM ................................................................................................................................. 42 3.2.41 WiSOA................................................................................................................................................... 42 3.3 WIRELESS MARKET LEADERS .............................................................................................................. 42 3.3.1 ALLTEL ................................................................................................................................................ 42 3.3.2 AT&T MOBILITY............................................................................................................................... 43 3.3.3 DOBSON ............................................................................................................................................... 43 3.3.4 LEAP WIRELESS................................................................................................................................ 44 3.3.5 SPRINT NEXTEL ................................................................................................................................ 44 3.3.6 T-MOBILE............................................................................................................................................ 45 3.3.7 US CELLULAR CORPORATION..................................................................................................... 46 3.3.8 VERIZON WIRELESS........................................................................................................................ 474 APPENDIX D: DOCUMENTS AND SOURCES .............................................................................................. 48 Page 3 of 54
  • 1 APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY1-103G – 3G or third-generation describes mobile systems evolved from the first and secondgeneration of mobile communications networks. 3G systems feature higher data transmissionspeeds, advanced services and typically make use of new allocations of radio spectrum notavailable to operators of 2G networks.14G – 4G or fourth-generation is not yet recognized by the ITU as one specific technology.However, the vision of 4G is a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network ofnetworks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer,consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will becapable of providing 1 gbps and 100 mbps, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments withend-to-end quality of service and high security, offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere, ataffordable cost and one billing.2AAdvanced Service Lines – Advanced service lines are a subset of high-speed lines. They areconnections that deliver services at speeds exceeding 200 kbps in both directions.Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) – AWS are wireless telecommunications technologies usedfor mobile data services, voice, video, and messaging. The AWS band uses frequencies in twosegments: from 1710 to 1755 MHz, and from 2110 to 2155 MHz.3Average Revenue Per Unit (ARPU) – Measures the average monthly revenue generated for eachcustomer unit, such as a cellular phone or pager that a carrier has in operation. ARPU is anindicator of a wireless business’ operating performance.4Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) – The first large-scale deployment of DSL,typically provided to residential customers, providing access to the Internet, live video, and a widevariety of other multimedia broadband services over existing copper twisted-pair; usually theADSL operates with different data rates in the two directions.51 Definition: UMTS Forum2 Definition: Wikipedia3 Definition: TIA4 Definition: eAccess Solutions Inc.5 Definition: TIA
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) – A circuit-switching technology that organizes and sendsdata using digital technology. ATM requires an established connection between sender andreceiver.BBand – Electromagnetic frequencies between two defined limits, authorized for use in ageographical area, to be used in the transmission of communications.6Bandwidth – For data, bandwidth is the capacity to carry data at a given time. For radiocommunications, bandwidth is the width of the range of frequencies that an electronic (or radio)signal uses.7Big Broadband – The term Big Broadband refers to fiber optic broadband with mbps from 20mbps to more than 100 mbps.Bluetooth – A low-power, short-range, RF (Radio Frequency) technology that allows theconnection of intelligent communications devices in a short-range wireless network. Examples ofBluetooth applications are transferring data between cell phones, radios, pagers, PDAs, notebookcomputers, and local area networks.8Broadband – An advanced communications capability offering high-speed communications thatenables users to originate and receive high-quality voice, data, graphics, and videocommunications using any technology.9 The FCC generally defines broadband service as datatransmission speeds exceeding 200 kbps in at least one direction: downstream or upstream. This ismuch slower than what is supposed to be broadband in most other countries of the world.Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) – Broadband Internet access through ordinary power linesusing Power Line Communication (PLC) technology. A computer (or any other device) needs onlyto have a BPL “modem” plugged into any outlet in an equipped building to have high-speedInternet access.10CCDMA – General term describing mobile air interface technologies based on spread spectrumdigital radio access methods, offering benefits including increased capacity, quality and securityover second generation TDMA systems. The technology is fundamental to 3G mobile systemsincluding WCDMA and CDMA2000.116 Definition: TIA7 Definition: TIA8 Definition: TIA9 Definition: TIA10 Definition: TIA11 Definition: UMTS Forum Page 5 of 54
  • Churn – The turnover of subscribers due to disconnects and/or new subscribers.12Commercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) – An FCC designation for any carrier or licenseewhose wireless network is connected to the public switched telephone network and/or is operatedfor profit.13Common Carrier – A telephone company that holds itself out to the public for hire to providecommunications transmission services. A common carrier is regulated under Title II of theCommunications Act of 1934, as amended.14Competitive Access Carriers (CAP) – CAPs are the predecessor of the CLECs. They began tooffer private line and special access services in competition with the incumbent carriers (ILECs)beginning in 1985.15Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC) – A telephone company that competes with theincumbent carriers (ILECs) by leasing or buying the ILEC facilities and/or creating services thatuse ILEC infrastructure. The Regional Bells are ILECs; local phone companies are frequentlyCLECs, as of passage of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended.16Convergence – Competing and sometimes complementary infrastructure platforms thatincreasingly support voice, video, data, and other converged multimedia services as well as thecapability to access such services at any time, at any place, and with an ever-expanding array ofnetwork-agnostic devices.17DData Local Exchange Carrier (DLEC) – A Data Local Exchange Carrier (DLEC) is a CLEC thatspecializes in DSL services by leasing lines and reselling them to Internet Service Providers(ISPs).18Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) – Broadband Internet access technology that permits thetransmission of high-speed Internet over existing copper lines.19EElectronic Contracting Manufacturer (ECM) – ECM is a term used for companies that offercontracts for electronic assembly for another company.2012 Definition: Horizon Media Inc.13 Definition: Indus Mobile Communications14 Definition: TIA15 Definition: Wikipedia16 Definition: TIA17 Definition: TIA18 Definition: TIA19 Definition: TIA Page 6 of 54
  • Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) –EMS is a term used for companies that design, test,manufacture, distribute and provide return/repair services for electronic component and assembliesfor original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).21Eligible Telecommunications Carrier (ETC) – An ETC is a carrier designated as such by a statecommission and as such eligible to receive universal service funds.Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE) – EDGE is a 3G network and the second upgradeto GSM and software upgrade to GPRS. Class 10 EDGE offers up to 236 kbps. Cingular hasconverted to EDGE, and T-Mobile is following.22Evolution Data Only (EV-DO) – EVDO is the third upgrade to CDMA, 3G EV-DO deliversaverage speeds of 300 to 500 kbps, although it promises speeds up to 2.4 mbps. Offered byVerizon; Sprint will roll out EV-DO later this year.23Evolution Data and Voice (EV-DV) – EV-DV is the most advanced CDMA upgrade. EV-DVmerges voice and data traffic as UMTS does, but improves download speeds to up to 3.1 mbps. Itis not yet available in the U.S. 24FFixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) – see IMS.Footprint – The area in which specific network transmissions can be received by customers.25GGlobal System for Mobile Communications (GSM) – A 2G digital cellular standard used formobile phones offering high digital voice quality and data rates.26General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) – GPRS is he first upgrade to GSM, this 2.5G networkoffers data speeds of around 30 to 50 kbps. Currently almost all GSM networks have GPRS.2720 Definition: Wikipedia21 Definition: Wikipedia22 Definition: PC Magazine23 Definition: PC Magazine24 Definition: PC Magazine25 Definition: TIA26 Definition: TIA27 Definition: PC Magazine Page 7 of 54
  • HHandset – The part of the phone held in the hand to speak and listen, which contains a transmitterand receiver.28High-speed Line – High-speed lines are connections to end-user locations that deliver services atspeeds exceeding 200 kbps in at least one direction.High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) – A collection of mobile telephony protocols that make betteruse of the existing radio bandwidth provided by Universal Mobile Telecommunications System(UMTS /WCDMA).29IiBurst – iBurst (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) is a wirelessbroadband technology developed by ArrayComm. It optimizes the use of its bandwidth with thehelp of smart antennas.30iDEN – iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network) is Nextels unique 2G mobile phonetechnology, which has no obvious upgrade path. Now that Nextel has merged with Sprint, iDENwill slowly be phased out in favor of CDMA.31Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC) – ILEC is the existing telephone provider or localexchange carrier in any given area, as opposed to CLEC, as of passage of the Communications Actof 1934, as amended.32Inter Exchange Carrier (IXC) – An IXC is a long-distance telephone company which providesinter local access and transport area communication. An IXC carries traffic, usually voice trafficbetween telephone exchanges.Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) – A digital television service delivered using IP over anetwork infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection.33Internet Service Provider (ISP) – An ISP, also Internet Access Provider (IAP) is a non-facilitiesbased provider that offers its customers broadband Internet access via dial-up, ISDN, T-1, or otherconnections.Interoperability – The capability to provide the exchange of electronic data among differentsignal formats, transmission media, applications, or devices. 3428 Definition: TIA29 Definition: TIA30 Definition: Wikipedia31 Definition: PC Magazine32 Definition: TIA33 Definition: TIA34 Definition: TIA Page 8 of 54
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) – IMS (also called: Fixed/Mobile Convergence (FMC)) is anarchitectural framework for delivering internet protocol (IP) multimedia to mobile users.KKilobit / second (kbps) – Bit rates in telecommunications in this study use SI prefixes, that means,one kbps are 1000 bits per second, 1 mbps are 1 million bits per second, and so on.LLast Mile – The connection or infrastructure between the customer and the broadband Internetaccess provider. 35Legacy Network – Legacy Network is a communications system that is still in use but wasdeveloped at an earlier time; typically refers to a network that is not based on IP.36MMegabit / second (mbps) – see Kilobit / second.Mobile Broadband – Mobile Broadband is used both (1) as synonym for Wireless Broadband aswell as (2) as technical term to describe the ability to provide a broadband experience remotely andon the move.Multiple Services Operator (MSO) – A MSO offers Triple or Quadruple Play. Many MSOs arecable providers who are no longer restricted to TV offerings.NNet(work) Neutrality – Network neutrality is a principle of Internet regulation that suggests that(1) information networks ought be as neutral as possible – a network is neutral when it does notfavour one application – and (2) if necessary, government ought intervene to guarantee theneutrality of the network.OOriginal Design Manufacturer (ODM) – An ODM is a company that designs and manufacturesproducts that are then sold under other brand names.35 Definition: TIA36 Definition: TIA Page 9 of 54
  • Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) – The term OEM is usually used in twocontradicting meanings. In its former usage, OEM is the original manufacturer of a hardwarecomponent or sub-component. In the modern definition OEM refers to the value-added reseller(VAR), i.e., the company which originally designed the component and ordered the manufacturing.The actual manufacturer – formerly called OEM – today is called (electronic) contractmanufacturer (ECM) or electronic manufacturing services provider (EMS).Operator Service Provider (OSP) – The OSP is the company that accepts the billing information,initiates the validation process, and records the details of the call.PPersonal Communications Service (PCS) – PCS is the name for the 1900 MHz radio band usedfor digital mobile phone services in Canada and the United States. Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA), GSM, and D-AMPS systems can be used on PCS frequencies.Public Utility Commission (PUC) – PUC is a state agency which regulates utilities. In some areasPUCs are also known as Public Service Commission (PSC).37QQuadruple Play – Quadruple Play is a Triple Play with an additional service such as TV.RRegional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) – RBOCs were originally known as RegionalHolding Companies, or RHCs. RBOCs are the result of the U.S. Department of Justice antitrustsuit against American Telephone & Telegraph. Effective January 1, 1984, AT&Ts local operationswere split into seven independent Regional Bell Operating Companies also known as "BabyBells."38SSpectrum – A continuous range of frequencies made up of invisible electro-magnetic waves thatsurround the earth and are used for radio transmission and reception and for other purposes.3937 Definition: PUC38 Definition: Wikipedia39 Definition: TIA Page 10 of 54
  • TTime Division Multiple Access (TDMA) – Radio access technology used in second generationmobile systems including GSM, IS-54 and PDC.40Triple Play – The offering of two broadband services and one narrowband service (for instancevoice, video, and data services) over a single broadband connection.41UUltra Mobile Broadband (UMB) – The brand name is used to describe advanced technologiesand services that will improve CDMA2000 technology for next generation applications andrequirements; has the ability to support peak download speeds up to 280 mbps in a mobileenvironment.42WWide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) – WCDMA, also known as UMTS inEurope, is a 3G standard for GSM in Europe, Japan and the United States. Its also the principalalternative being discussed in Asia. It uses one 5 MHz channel for both voice and data, offeringdata speeds of up to 2 mbps.43Wi-Fi – Wi-Fi was originally a brand licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the embeddedtechnology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. As of2007, common use of the term Wi-Fi has broadened to describe the generic wireless interface ofmobile computing devices, such as laptops in LANs. The term Wi-Fi was chosen as a play on theterm "Hi-Fi", and is often also referred to as an abbreviation for wireless fidelity.Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) – Open, global standard for providing Internetcommunications and advanced non-voice services on digital mobile phones and other portabledevices. 44Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) – WiMAX is atelecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a varietyof ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. It is based on the IEEE802.16 standard, which is also called WirelessMAN.4540 Definition: UMTS Forum41 Definition: TIA42 Definition: UMTS Forum43 Definition: Javvin Technology’s Network Dictionary44 Definition: UMTS Forum45 Definition: Wikipedia Page 11 of 54
  • 2 APPENDIX B: ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS1 – 103GPP Third-Generation PartnershipAAAA Authentication, Authorization and AccountingADSL Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber LineADSL2+ Very High Speed ADSLAFE Application Front EndA-IMS Advanced IMSAMPS Advanced Mobile Phone SystemsANSI American National Standards InstituteAOEN All Optical Ethernet Networks; see also P2P networkAP Access PointAPCO Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International, Inc.APON ATM Passive Optical NetworkARM Advanced Risk MachineARPU Average Revenue Per UserARRL American Radio Relay LeagueARS Automated Response SystemASIC Application-Specific Integrated CircuitATC Ancillary Terrestrial ComponentATM Asynchronous Transfer ModeAWS Advanced Wireless ServicesBBGAN Broadband Global Area NetworkBITS Broadband Internet Transmission ServicesBLS Bureau of Labor StatisticsBOC Bell Operating CompanyBPL Broadband over Power LinesBPON Broadband Passive Optical NetworkBRS Broadband Radio Service, formerly: MDSBTA Basic Trading Area Page 12 of 54
  • CCAGR Compound Annual Growth RateCALA Caribbean and Latin AmericaCALEA Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement ActCAP Competitive Access ProviderCAPEX Capital ExpendituresCATV Cable TV, formerly Community Antenna TelevisionCDMA Code Division Multiple AccessCETC Competitive Eligible Telecommunications CarrierCFA Consumer Federation of AmericaCFIUS Committee on Foreign Investment in the United StatesCLEC Competitive Local Exchange CarrierCMA Cellular Market AreaCMOS Complementary Metal Oxide SemiconductorCMRS Commercial Mobile Radio ServicesCPE Customer Premises EquipmentCPI Consumer Price IndexCSIM CDMA Subscriber Identity ModuleCSTB Computer Science and Telecommunications BoardCTIA Cellular Telecommunications Industry AssociationCU Consumers UnionDD-AMPS Digital – Advanced Mobile Phone SystemDAS Distributed Antenna SystemDBS Direct Broadcast SatelliteDDoS Distributed Denial of ServiceDHS Department of Homeland SecurityDLEC Data Local Exchange CarrierDLP Digital Light ProcessingDMCA Digital Millennium Copyright ActDOJ Department Of JusticeDSL Digital Subscriber LineDSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access MultiplexerDSP Digital Signal ProcessorDVR Digital Video RecorderDWDM Dense Wave Division MultiplexingEEBS Educational Broadband Service Page 13 of 54
  • ECM Electronic Contracting ManufacturerECMA European Computer Manufacturers AssociationECO Effective Competitive OpportunitiesEDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM EvolutionEMEA European, Middle East and AfricaEMS Electronic Manufacturing ServicesEPON Ethernet Passive Optical NetworkESMR Enhanced Specialized Mobile RadioETF Early Termination FeeETSI European Telecommunications Standards InstituteEVDO Evolution Data Optimized or Evolution Data OnlyFFBC Facilities Based Carrier, also MNOFBI Federal Bureau of InvestigationFCC Federal Communications CommissionFDI Foreign Direct InvestmentFiOS (Verizon) Fiber Optic ServiceFMC Fixed Mobile ConvergenceFTC Federal Trade CommissionFTCR Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer RightsFTS Federal Technology Service, formerly Federal Telecommunications ServiceFTTB Fiber To The BuildingFTTC Fiber To The CurbFTTH Fiber To The Home, see also FTTPFTTN Fiber To The NodeFTTP Fiber To The Premises, see also FTTHFY Fiscal YearGGAN Generic Access Network, see also UMAGDP Gross Domestic ProductGePON GigaEthernet Passive Optical NetworkGPON Gigabit Passive Optical NetworkGPRS General Packet Radio Service, also GSM/GPRSGRS Gross Regional ProductGSA General Service AdministrationGSM Global System for Mobile communications Page 14 of 54
  • HHC-SDMA High Capacity – Spatial Division Multiple AccessHDTV High Definition TeleVisionHFC Hybrid Fiber-COAXHNO Host Network OperatorHR House of RepresentativesHSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access for UMTSIIAP Internet Access Provider, see also ISPIDP Internet Datagram ProtocolIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.IIA Internet Innovation AllianceILEC Incumbent Local Exchange CarrierIMS IP Multimedia SubsystemIMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications-2000IOT InterOperability TestingIPTV Internet Protocol TeleVisionIRAC Interdepartment Radio Advisory CommitteeISM Industrial, Scientific, MedicalISO International Organization for StandardizationISP Internet Service Provider, see also IAPITA International Trade AdministrationITC International Trade CenterITFS Instructional Television Fixed Service, now: EBSITIF Information Technology and Innovation FoundationITS NTIA Institute for Telecommunication SciencesITTA Independent Telephone and Telecommunications AllianceITU International Telecommunication UnionIXC Inter Exchange CarrierJJ2ME Java Platform, Micro EditionKKTS Key Telephone Systems Page 15 of 54
  • LLAN Local Area NetworkLATA Local Access and Transport AreaLBS Location Based ServiceLFA Local Franchise AuthorityLMDS Local Multipoint Distribution ServiceLNP Local Number PortabilityLOS Line Of SightLTE (UMTS) Long Term EvolutionMM2M Machine-to-MachineMAN Metropolitan Area NetworkMAS Multi-Antenna SignalMDS Multipoint Distribution Service, now: BRSMEMS Micro Electro Mechanical SystemsMIMO Multiple Input Multiple OutputMMD Multi Media DomainMMS Multimedia Messaging ServicesMNO Mobile Network Operator, also FBCMOU Minutes Of UseMoU Memorandum of UnderstandingMPLS Multi-Protocol Label SwitchingMSA Metropolitan Statistical AreaMSO Multiple Services OperatorMSS Mobile Satellite ServicesMTA Major Trading AreaMVNO Mobile Virtual Network OperatorNNAC Network Access ControlNAICS North American Industry Classification SystemNANP(A) North American Plan (Administration)NASoC Network Attached Storage-on-a-ChipNATOA National Association of Telecommunications Officers and AdvisorsNCTA National Cable and Telecommunications Association, formerly the National Cable Television AssociationNECA National Exchange Carrier AssociationNFC Near Field CommunicationsNGN Next Generation NetworkNID Network Interface Device Page 16 of 54
  • NII National Information InfrastructureNLOS No Line Of SightNRUF Numbering Resource Utilization/ForecastNSTL National Software Testing LabsNTCA National Telecommunications Cooperative AssociationNTIA National Telecommunications and Information AdministrationOOEM Original Equipment ManufacturerODM Original Design ManufacturerOFDM(A) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple (Access)OLT Optical Line TerminalOIA NTIA Office of International AffairsONT Optical Network TerminalOPAD NTIA Office of Policy Analysis and DevelopmentOPASTCO Organization for the Promotion and Advancement of Small Telecommunications CompaniesOSP Operator Service ProviderOSS Operational Support SystemsOTIA NTIA Office of Telecommunications and Information ApplicationsPP2P Point to Point (network), see also AOENPBX Private Branch eXchangePCAST Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and TechnologyPCB Printed Circuit BoardPCS Personal Communications ServicePDA Personal Digital AssistantPDC Personal Digital CellularPIRG U.S. Public Interest Research GroupPITAC Presidents Information Technology Advisory CommitteePLC Power Line CommunicationPON Passive Optical NetworkPOP Point Of PresencePOTS Plain Old Telephone ServicePPV Pay Per ViewPRO Performance Rights OrganizationsPSC Public Service Commission, see also PUCPSTN Public Switched Telephone NetworkPUC Public Utilities Commission, see also PSCPVR Personal Video Recorder, see also DVR Page 17 of 54
  • QQoS Quality of ServiceRRAN Radio Access NetworkRBOC Regional Bell Operating CompanyRev. RevisionRFID Radio Frequency IdentificationRFP Request For ProposalRICA Rural Independent Competitive AllianceRPM Revenue Per MinuteRSA Rural Statistical AreaRTG Rural Telecommunications GroupR-UIM Removable User Identity ModuleSSB Senate BillSDSL Symmetrical DSLSDTV Standard Definition TeleVisionSIM Subscriber Identification ModuleSIP Session Initiated ProtocolSME Small and Medium Sized EnterprisesSMR Specialized Mobile RadioSMS Text Messaging ServicesSOA Service Oriented ArchitectureSOC System-On-a-ChipSOFDMA Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple AccessSONET Synchronous Optical NetworksSSL Secure Sockets LayerTTA Telecommunications ActTCA TeleCommunications ArchitectureTCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet ProtocolTDD Time-Division DuplexTDMA Time Division Multiplexing AccessTelco Telecom and Communication CompanyTIA Telecommunications Industry Association Page 18 of 54
  • TRS Telecommunications Relay ServiceUUHF Ultra High FrequencyUM Unified MessagingUMA Unlicensed Mobile Access, see also GANUMB Ultra Mobile BroadbandUMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, see also WCDMAUICC Universal Integrated Circuit CardUSAC Universal Service Administrative CompanyUS(F) Universal Service (Fund)USTelecom United States Telecom Association, formerly USTAUSIM Universal Subscriber Identity ModuleUTC United Telecom Council doing business as Utilities Telecom CouncilUWB Ultra WidebandVVAA Video Access AllianceV(H)DSL Very High Speed DSLVLSI Very Large Scale IntegrationVOD Video On DemandVoIP Voice over IPVoWIP Voice over Wireless IPVPN Virtual Private NetworkVRS Video Relay ServicesVSI Virtual Switching InstanceWWAN Wide Area NetworkWAP Wireless Application ProtocolWASP Wireless Application Service ProviderWISP Wireless Internet Service ProviderWCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, see also UMTSWCS Wireless Communications ServiceWEP Wireless Equivalency ProtocolWLAN Wireless Local Area NetworkWMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area NetworkWiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave AccessWPS Wi-Fi Protected SetupWTO World Trade Organization Page 19 of 54
  • XXRN Expandable Resilient Networking Page 20 of 54
  • 3 APPENDIX C: US TELECOM ORGANIZATIONS3.1 FEDERAL & QUASI FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS3.1.1 CSTBThe Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) is part of the National ResearchCouncil of the National Academies of Science. The CSTB is the advisor to the Federal governmenton technical and public policy issues related to computing and communications. It is composed ofleaders in the information technology and complementary fields from industry and academia.CSTB conducts studies of critical national issues that recommend actions or changes in actions bygovernment, industry, academic researchers, and the larger nonprofit sector. Current project inprogress: “Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options”. The final report has beenpublished in 2007. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board The National Academies, 500 Fifth Street NW, Washington, DC 20001 Phone: (202) 334.2605 URL: www.cstb.org3.1.2 FCCThe Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States governmentagency, directly responsible to Congress. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio,television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCCs jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District ofColumbia, and U.S. possessions. Federal Communications Commission 445 12th Street SW, Washington, DC 20554 Phone: 1-888-225-5322 URL: www.fcc.gov Page 21 of 54
  • 3.1.3 FTCThe Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government,established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotionof consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices.The Federal Trade Commissions Internet Access Task Force just released its report "BroadbandConnectivity Competition Policy" and the group advises policy makers to "proceed with caution"when it comes to regulating this nascent industry. Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20580 Phone: (202) 326.2222 URL: www.ftc.gov3.1.4 FTSThe Federal Technology Service (FTS, formerly Federal Telecommunications Service) belongs tothe U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). The mission of GSA’s FTS is to deliver bestvalue and innovative acquisition solutions for Information Technology (IT), Network Services(telecommunications), and Professional Services to support government agency requirementsworldwide.Through partnerships with industry partners, FTS helps agencies to obtain the full-range of end-to-end telecommunications products and services, including local and global voice, data, and videoservices, to support local users (Regional) and long-distance users (Global Network Solutions).Both the FTS Regional and Global Network Solutions operating units assist in definingrequirements, identifying solutions, ordering services, and managing the ongoing provision ofservices, including billing operations.For wireless non-satellite communications the FTS has a 4 year agreement (expires January 2008)with Verizon Wireless. Federal Technology Service 10304 Eaton Place, Fairfax, VA 22030 Phone: (703) 306.6000 URL: www.gsa.gov Page 22 of 54
  • 3.1.5 NANPAThe North American Plan Administration (NANPA) holds overall responsibility for the neutraladministration of NANP numbering resources, subject to directives from regulatory authorities inthe countries that share the NANP. NANPAs responsibilities include assignment of NANPresources, and, in the U.S. and its territories, coordination of area code relief planning andcollection of utilization and forecast data.NANPA is not a policy-making entity. In making assignment decisions, NANPA followsregulatory directives and industry-developed guidelines. NANPAs responsibilities are defined inFederal Communication Commission (FCC) rules and in comprehensive technical requirementsdrafted by the telecommunications industry and approved by the FCC.North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 16 Caribbeannations. It is a system of three-digit area codes and seven-digit telephone numbers that directstelephone calls to particular regions on a public switched telephone network (PSTN), where theyare further routed by the local network. Neustar Inc. 46000 Center Oak Plaza, Sterling, VA 20166 Phone: (571) 434.5748 URL: www.nanpa.com3.1.6 NISTThe National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known from 1901–1988 as theNational Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Departmentof Commerce’s Technology Administration. The institutes mission is to promote U.S. innovationand industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology inways that enhance economic security and improve quality of life.NIST had an operating budget for fiscal year 2006 (October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006) of about$930 million. NIST is also involved in the telecommunication standards development process. NIST 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1070, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Phone: (301) 975.6478 URL: www.nist.gov Page 23 of 54
  • 3.1.7 NTIAThe National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of theDepartment of Commerce. The NTIA is the most important agency as to telecommunicationsissues. It is the Presidents principal adviser on telecommunications and information policy issues,and in this role frequently works with other Executive Branch agencies to develop and present theAdministrations position on these issues. The NTIA has its headquarters in D.C., the relatedInstitute for Telecommunications Sciences – the research and engineering laboratory of the NTIA– is located in Boulder, CO. U.S. Department of Commerce / NTIA 1401 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20230 Phone: (202) 482.7002 URLs: www.ntia.doc.gov, www.its.bldrdoc.gov/index.php3.1.8 PITAC / PCASTThe Presidents Information Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) was authorized byCongress under the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 and the Next Generation InternetAct of 1998 as a Federal Advisory Committee. The Committee provides the President, Congress,and the Federal agencies involved in networking and information technology research anddevelopment with expert, independent advice on maintaining Americas preeminence in advancedinformation technologies, including such elements of the national information technologyinfrastructure as high performance computing, large-scale networking, cyber security, and highassurance software and systems design.As part of this assessment, the PITAC reviews the Federal Networking and InformationTechnology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. In 1997 PITAC was charged to reviewthe full breadth of the Federal government’s IT R&D portfolio. The resulting report, “Investing inOur Future”, released in 1999, emphasized a return to Federal investment in long-term IT researchand development. In 2001 President Bush assigned the role and responsibilities of PITAC to thePresidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). In 2003 PITAC wasreconstituted in three areas: IT and Health Care, Cyber Security, and the Current State of ScientificComputing.Reports to the President and Meeting Agendas are online accessible at: www.nitrd.gov/pitac/reports/index.html (PITAC) www.ostp.gov/PCAST/pcast.html (PCAST) Executive Director Celia Merzbacher: Phone: (202) 456.6108 E-Mail: cmerzbacher@ostp.eop.gov Page 24 of 54
  • 3.1.9 USACThe Universal Service Administrative Company (USAC) is an independent, not-for-profitcorporation designated as the administrator of the federal Universal Service Fund by the FCC.USAC administers Universal Service Fund (USF) programs for high cost companies serving ruralareas, low-income consumers, rural health care providers, and schools and libraries. The UniversalService Fund helps provide communities across the country with affordable telecommunicationsservices. USAC 2000 L Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 776.0200 URL: www.universalservice.org3.2 TRADE ORGANIZATIONS, ASSOCIATIONS & NETWORKS3.2.1 3G AMERICASThe mission of 3G Americas is to promote and facilitate the seamless deployment throughout theAmericas (U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean) of GSM and its evolution to 3G andbeyond. The organization fully supports the Third Generation (3G) technology migration strategyto EDGE and UMTS/HSPA adopted by many operators in the Americas that is expected toaccount for up to 85% of next-generation customers worldwide. 3G Americas is headquartered inBellevue, WA with an office for Latin America and the Caribbean in Dallas, TX.3G Americas is working with regulatory bodies, technical standards bodies, and other globalwireless organizations to promote interoperability and convergence. These relationships includeMarket Representation Partner for 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), membership inCITEL (Inter-American Telecommunications Commission), collaborative working agreementswith the GSM Association, UMTS Forum, and ASETA (Association of TelecommunicationsEnterprises of the Andean Community). 3G Americas, LLC 1750 - 112th Avenue NE Suite B220 Bellevue, WA 98004 Phone: 425 372.8925 URL: www.3Gamericas.org Page 25 of 54
  • 3.2.2 3GPPThe 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was establishedin December 1998. It is a co-operation between ETSI (Europe), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CCSA(China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea).The scope of 3GPP is to make a globally applicable 3G mobile phone system specification withinthe scope of the ITUs IMT-2000 project. 3GPP specifications are based on evolved GSMspecifications. 3GPP standardization encompasses Radio, Core Network and Service architecture.The 7th release is expected in 2007, it focuses on decreasing latency, QoS and improvements toreal-time applications like VoIP, HSPA+ (High Speed Packet Access Evolution), SIM high-speedprotocol and contactless front-end interface (Near Field Communication enabling operators todeliver contactless services like Mobile Payments), and EDGE Evolution.Release 8 planned for 2009 constitutes a refactoring of UMTS as an entirely IP based fourth-generation network. ETSI Mobile Competence Centre, 650, route des Lucioles, 06921 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, FR Email: 3gppContact@etsi.org URL: www.3gpp.org3.2.3 ANSIThe American National Standards Institute or ANSI is a private nonprofit organization thatoversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes,systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards withinternational standards so that American products can be used worldwide. The organizationsheadquarters are in Washington, DC. ANSIs operations office is located in New York City. ANSI 1819 L Street NW, 6th floor, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 293.8020 URL: www.ansi.org3.2.4 APCOThe Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International, Inc. – APCOInternational – is the worldwide oldest and largest not-for-profit professional organizationdedicated to the enhancement of public safety communications. With more than 16,000 members Page 26 of 54
  • around the world, APCO International addresses to people who manage, operate, maintain, andsupply the communications systems used to safeguard the lives and property of citizenseverywhere.APCO supports a conditional auction approach that would require the winner of a FCC’s plannedspectrum auction to build a broadband network that serves both public safety and commercialusers, and is designed, built, and maintained to meet public safety requirements. APCO World Headquarters 351 N. Williamson Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 Phone: (386) 322.2500 URL: www.apcointl.org3.2.5 ARRLThe American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is the national association for amateur radio in theU.S. The ARRL serves as the primary representative of amateur radio operators to the U.S.government. It performs this function by lobbying the U.S. Congress and FCC. The ARRL is alsothe international secretariat of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU). In 2005, theARRL, along with amateur radio operators, provided key communications assistance to officialscoordinating Hurricane Katrina disaster relief.The ARRL has opposed Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) making the case that the power lineswill radiate interfering radio energy, impeding amateur radio activities. The League has filedseveral interference reports with the FCC. They also support less strict spectrum licensingrequirements. ARRL 225 Main Street, Newington, CT 06111 Phone: (860) 594.0200 URL: www.arrl.org3.2.6 ATISThe Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) is a standardization organizationfor information technologies in the telecommunications industry.ATIS members include more than 300 companies representing communications service providers,equipment manufacturers, and related industry segments. Current technologies being addressed byATIS’ 23 industry committees and ad hoc focus groups include, but are not limited to: IPTV, fixedmobile convergence (FMC), Next Generation Networks (NGN), VoIP, Network Security, networkinterconnection and interoperability, telecommunications fraud and other areas. Page 27 of 54
  • ATIS is a member of the ITU’s telecom and radio sectors (ITU-T and ITU-R), an OrganizationalPartner of the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), and founding member of the GlobalStandards Collaboration (GSC, hosted by European Telecommunication Standards Institute ETSI).ATIS is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ATIS 1200 G Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005 Phone: ( 202) 628.6380 URL: www.atis.org3.2.7 BENTON FOUNDATIONThe mission of the Benton Foundation is to articulate a public interest vision for the digital age andto demonstrate the value of communications for solving social problems. Current prioritiesinclude: promoting a vision and policy alternatives for the digital age in which the benefit to thepublic is paramount; raising awareness among funders and nonprofits on their stake in criticalpolicy issues; enabling communities and nonprofits to produce diverse and locally responsivemedia content.In view of the Universal Service Reform the Benton Foundation is supporting a series of papersadvancing a new vision for Universal Service. Benton Foundation 1625 K Street NW, 11th Floor, Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 638.5770 URL: www.benton.org3.2.8 CFAConsumer Federation of America (CFA) is an advocacy, research, education, and serviceorganization. It works to advance pro-consumer policy on a variety of issues before Congress, theWhite House, federal and state regulatory agencies, state legislatures, and the courts. CFAinvestigates consumer issues, behavior, and attitudes using surveys, polling, focus groups, andliteratures reviews. It disseminates information on consumer issues to the public and the media, aswell as to policymakers and other public interest advocates. Conferences, reports, books,brochures, news releases, a newsletter, and a Web site all contribute to CFAs education program.The CFA is a long-standing consumer organization. However, it does accept funding from unionsand corporations. Page 28 of 54
  • CFA 1620 I Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 387.6121 URL: www.consumerfed.org3.2.9 CITELThe Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL) is an entity of the Organization ofAmerican States (OAS). It was originally created as the Inter-American Electrical CommunicationCommission at the Fifth International American Conference in May 1923. CITELs job is tocoordinate telecommunications related mandates of the OAS General Assembly and those enactedduring the Summits of the Americas. CITEL 1889 F St. NW, Washington DC 20006 Phone: (202) 458.3004 URL: www.citel.oas.org3.2.10 CTIAThe Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association is an international membershiporganization founded in 1984. CTIA represents all sectors of wireless communications – cellular,personal communication services, enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite servicesserving the interests of service providers, manufacturers and others. CTIA advocates on theirbehalf before the Executive Branch, the FCC, Congress, and state regulatory and legislativebodies.CTIA also coordinates the industry’s voluntary efforts to bring consumers a wide variety ofchoices and information regarding their wireless service, and supports important industryinitiatives such as Wireless AMBER Alerts.46The association also operates the industry’s leading trade shows, as well as equipment testing andcertification programs to ensure a high standard of quality for consumers. CTIA is activelyinvolved in initiatives to make wireless accessible to all, and mobile broadband. CTIA 1250 Connecticut Ave. NW, Ste. 800, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 785.0081 URL: www.ctia.org46 AMBER Alert is a notification to the general public, by various media outlets, of confirmed child abduction. Page 29 of 54
  • 3.2.11 COMMON CAUSECommon Cause is a U.S. organization that seeks a “reordering of national priorities andrevitalization of the public process to make our political and governmental institutions moreresponsive to the needs of the nation and its citizens.” Established in 1970 by John W. Gardner, itsucceeded the Urban Coalition Action Council, founded in 1968. Common Cause supports a largenumber of political reforms. The group has about 200,000 members. Common Cause joined localgovernments and public interest groups across the U.S. to fight legislation that would ban citiesand towns from setting up wireless networks. Common Cause 1133 19th Street NW, 9th floor, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 833.1200 URL: www.commoncause.org3.2.12 COMPTELCOMPTEL is an industry association representing communications service providers such asVerizon, Sprint and Cisco. COMPTEL offers policy advocacy, education, networking and tradeshows. COMPTEL has currently more than 500 member companies, deploying networks toprovide competitive voice, data, and video services.COMPTEL contradicts the plan of the FCC to put a cap on the amount of high-cost support thatcompetitive eligible telecommunications carriers (CETCs) receive for providing service toconsumers in rural areas. COMPTEL 1900 M Street NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 296.6650 URL: www.comptel.org3.2.13 CUConsumers Union (CU) is an independent, nonprofit testing and information organization servingconsumers in the United States. Its mission is to test products, inform the public, and protectconsumers. Its income is derived from the sale of Consumer Reports and other services, and fromnoncommercial contributions, grants, and fees. CU also gives recommendations with respect to thecable reform and other telecommunication regulations.Hearusnow.org (http://www.hearusnow.org/) is a project of CU. Page 30 of 54
  • Consumers Union should not be mistaken with Consumers for Cable Choice which is anorganization that bills itself as a grassroots organization with "members throughout the UnitedStates who are committed to the development of a competitive, vibrant cable communicationsmarket”. However, they are mainly funded by communication carriers such as AT&T and Verizon,and used for Astroturf lobbying.47 Consumers Union 101 Truman Avenue, Yonkers, NY 10703 Phone: (914) 378.2000 URL: www.consumersunion.org3.2.14 FTCRThe Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights (FTCR) is a nationally recognized consumergroup founded in 1985. The FTCR filed the class action suit in California in June 2004 against thepractice of carriers locking phones and using proprietary settings which defeat many of thebenefits of SIM handsets. The Foundation for Taxpayer & Consumer Rights 1750 Ocean Park Blvd. Ste 200, Santa Monica, CA 90405 Phone: (310) 392.0522 URL: www.consumerwatchdog.org3.2.15 GSM ASSOCIATIONFounded in 1987, The GSM Association (GSMA) is a global trade association representing over700 GSM mobile phone operators across 218 countries of the world. In addition, more than 200manufacturers and suppliers support the Association’s initiatives as associate members.The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of roaming agreements in standardized form forits members. GSM Association Block 2, Deansgrange Business Park, Deansgrange, Co. Dublin, Ireland Phone: +353 1 289 1800 URL: www.gsmworld.com47 Astroturfing describes the posting of supposedly independent messages which in fact are not independent. Page 31 of 54
  • 3.2.16 HTBCThe High-Tech Broadband Coalition (HTBC) is an industry alliance formed by leading tradeassociations, including TIA, BSA, CEA, ITIC, NAM, and SIA, representing more than 12,000corporations engaged in high-technology industry.The HTBC works to ensure regulatory decisions and to promote increased investment inbroadband networks and technologies. The coalition also supports other selective policy initiativesthat hold the promise of having a positive and meaningful impact on broadband deployment. TheHTBC is advocating net neutrality, for instance. The Coalition does not endorse or advocate aparticular broadband technology but promotes the idea that consumers will benefit fromintermodal competition between cable modems, wireline broadband (xDSL/fiber), satellite, fixedand mobile wireless, and other delivery options.483.2.17 IEEEThe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE is an international non-profit,professional organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity. It has the mostmembers of any technical professional organization in the world, with more than 360,000 membersin around 175 countries. IEEE is a leading developer of industrial standards in a broad range ofdisciplines, including telecommunications. IEEE Operations Center 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 Phone: (732) 981.0060 URL: www.ieee.org3.2.18 IETFInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperatingclosely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of theTCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. It is an open, all-volunteer standards organization, with noformal membership or membership requirements.The IETF is an organized activity of the Internet Society (ISOC). ISOC is a not-for-profitorganization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, andpolicy. ISOC is supported by more than 90 organizational members and 26,000 individualmembers.The IETF secretariat is hosted by NeuStar, Inc. (NANPA).48 The coalition does not have a physical address or an Internet presentation of its own. Page 32 of 54
  • IETF c/o NeuStar, Inc. 46000 Center Oak Plaza, Sterling, VA 20166 Phone: (571) 434.3500 URL: www.ietf.org3.2.19 IIAThe Internet Innovation Alliance (IIA) is an association of nonprofit groups, business associations,consumer advocates, think tanks, corporations and technology leaders who are committed toenabling Internet-based innovations by identifying and generating consumer support for wisepublic policy decisions.IIA will work with thought leaders, business analysts, industry leaders and like-minded coalitionsto improve consumer and policy maker understanding of the importance of Internet-basedinnovation (especially IPTV) and the policy climate needed for its growth. Internet Innovation Alliance PO Box 19231, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (866) 970.8647 URL: www.internetinnovation.org3.2.20 ITIFThe Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) is a non-profit, non-partisan publicpolicy think tank committed to articulating and advancing a pro-productivity, pro-innovation andpro-technology public policy agenda internationally, in Washington and the states. ITIF publishespolicy reports, holds forums and policy debates, advises elected officials and their staff, and is anactive resource for the media. ITIF addressees a variety of areas, and is also active intelecommunications having broadband policy on top of their list. Information Technology and Innovation Foundation 1250 I Street NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 Phone: (202) 449.1351 URL: www.itif.org3.2.21 ITTAThe Independent Telephone and Telecommunications Alliance (ITTA) acts as the voice formidsize telecommunications companies. Members currently operate in 43 states. ITTA companies Page 33 of 54
  • are integrated providers offering a broad range of services to their customers including local, longdistance, Internet, cable television, broadband, cellular/PCS, CLEC, and data services.ITTA works with the FCC to speak out for midsize telecommunication companies such asCenturyTel, Commonwealth Telephone Company, Comporium Communications, ConsolidatedCommunications, and many others. ITTA 975 F Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, DC 20004 Phone: (202) 552.5846 URL: www.itta.us3.2.22 ITUThe International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations’ agency for informationand communication technologies. ITUs role spans 3 core sectors: radiocommunication,standardization and development. ITU also organizes Telco events such as the World Summit onthe Information Society. ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and its membership includes 191Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates.Recently, the ITU has begun the process of considering WiMAX services and capabilities fordiscussion of the IMT-2000 technology family under the proposed name “IP-OFDMA.” ITU Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland URL: www.itu.int3.2.23 NATOAThe National Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors (NATOA) is a nationalassociation that represents the communications needs and interests of local governments, and thosewho advise local governments.NATOA filed comments calling for a national broadband deployment policy and supporting arevision to the FCCs current definition of "high-speed" access. The National Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite 495, Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: (703) 519.8035 URL: www.natoa.org Page 34 of 54
  • 3.2.24 NECAThe National Exchange Carrier Association (NECA) administers the FCCs "access charge" plan.Access charges are the fees long distance companies pay to access the local phone network tocomplete calls. These charges help ensure that telephone service remains available and affordablein all parts of the country. About 1,400 local telephone companies participate in NECA’s accesscharge revenue pools. Membership is defined by FCC rules and has three divisions, or subsets:Bell Operating Companies (Subset 1), Other telephone companies with annual revenues of $40million or more (Subset 2), and All remaining Telcos (Subset 3). NECA also publishes reportssuch as “Trends 2006 - Making Progress in Broadband”. NECA Headquarters 80 South Jefferson Road, Whippany, NJ 07981 Phone: (800) 228.8597 URL: www.neca.org3.2.25 NEW AMERICA FOUNDATIONThe New America Foundation is a nonprofit public policy institute that was established throughthe collaborative work of a diverse and intergenerational group of public intellectuals, civic leadersand business executives.The purpose of New America Foundation is to bring promising new voices and new ideas to thefore of the U.S.’ public discourse. Relying on a venture capital approach, the Foundation invests inindividuals and policy solutions that transcend the conventional political spectrum. Through itsfellowships and issue-specific programs, the Foundation sponsors a wide range of research,writing, conferences and public outreach on the most important global and domestic issues.The Foundation has a Wireless Future program, and filed comments to the FCC to maximizecompetition for wireless broadband services. They also support net neutrality in wirelessbroadband. New America Foundation 1630 Connecticut Avenue NW, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 986.2700 URL: www.newamerica.net3.2.26 NCTAThe National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA), formerly the National CableTelevision Association, is the principal trade association of the cable television industry in theUnited States. Founded in 1952, NCTAs primary mission is to provide its members with a strong Page 35 of 54
  • national presence by providing a single, unified voice on issues affecting the cable andtelecommunications industry.NCTA represents cable operators serving more than 90 percent of the nation’s cable televisionhouseholds and more than 200 cable program networks, as well as equipment suppliers andproviders of other services to the cable industry. The cable industry is the nation’s largestbroadband provider of high speed Internet access after investing $100 billion over ten years tobuild a two-way interactive network with fiber optic technology. Cable companies also offerdigital telephone service to millions of American consumers.NCTA also hosts the industrys annual trade show, which serves as a national showcase for thecable industrys services, including television programming, interactive television services, high-speed Internet access, and competitive local telephone service. National Cable & Telecommunications Association 25 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20001 Phone: (202) 222.2300 URL: www.NCTA.com3.2.27 NTCAThe National Telecommunications Cooperative Association (NTCA) is a non-profit associationrepresenting more than 560 small and rural telephone cooperatives and commercial companies.NTCA is a full-service association, offering a wide array of member services, including agovernment affairs program; legal and industry representation; educational services; and nationaland regional meetings.NTCA supports the plan to place a temporary cap on universal service support provided tocompetitive eligible telecommunications carriers (CETCs) and address the dated “IdenticalSupport Rule” giving CETCs the same level of support that incumbent local exchange carriers(ILECs) receive, instead of providing support based on their own costs. NTCA 4121 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22203 Phone: (703) 351.2000 URL: www.ntca.org3.2.28 NSTLNational Software Testing Laboratories, or NSTL, is an American company, established in 1983,which tests computer hardware and software. The company provides certification (such as WHQLand Microsoft Windows Mobile certification), quality assurance, and benchmarking services. Page 36 of 54
  • NSTL is the only company officially authorized to conduct testing for all of the major mobilecertification programs and most major operators. NSTL for instance is the authorized test facilityfor QUALCOMMs TRUE BREW application testing program. NSTL-Global Headquarters 670 Sentry Parkway, Blue Bell, PA 19422 USA Phone: (610) 832.8400 URL: www.nstl.com3.2.29 OPASTCOThe Organization for the Promotion and Advancement of Small Telecommunications Companies(OPASTCO) is a national trade association representing more than 525 small, independentlyowned local exchange carriers (LECs) and their affiliate telecommunications companies.Primarily serving rural areas of the United States and Canada, these commercial telephonecompanies and cooperatives range in size from fewer than 100 to as many as 100,000 access linesand collectively serve more than 2.5 million customers.One of their today’s concerns is the prohibition against exclusive contracts for programming sothat the video market opens for small rural carriers. OPASTCO 21 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 659.5990 URL: www.opastco.org3.2.30 PUBLIC KNOWLEDGEPublic Knowledge is a group of lawyers, technologists, lobbyists, academics, volunteers andactivists dedicated to fortifying and defending a vibrant information commons. Public Knowledgeworks with a wide spectrum of other organizations. Current hot topics include net neutrality, andthe spectrum reform, and the organization is part of the Public Interest Spectrum Coalition (PISC). Public Knowledge 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 650, Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 518.0020 URL: www.publicknowledge.org Page 37 of 54
  • 3.2.31 RICAThe Rural Independent Competitive Alliance’s mission is to represent and foster the success ofsmall, rural local exchange carriers who provide competitive communications services. RICAoften works together with RTG and OPASTCO. RICA Alliance CHR Solutions 2711 LBJ Freeway, Ste. 560, Dallas, Texas 75234 Phone: (972) 484.2323 URL: www.ricalliance.org3.2.32 RTGRural Telecommunications Group (RTG) is a trade association representing rural wireless carrierswho serve less than 100,000 subscribers. RTG’s members have joined together to speed deliveryof telecommunications technologies to the populations of remote and underserved sections of thecountry. RTG is a strong advocate before the FCC for rural wireless carriers. RTG 10 G Street NE, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20002 Phone: (202) 551.0025 URL: www.ruraltelecomgroup.org3.2.33 TELEPHIATelephia is a large supplier of consumer research to the communications and new media markets.Telephia’s roots are in measuring consumer behavior for the hyper-competitive mobilecommunications market. Telephia has earned a reputation for high-quality syndicated research.Today, Telephia serves clients from across the convergence marketplace: mobile and wired serviceproviders, retailers, content providers, and device manufacturers.Since its founding in 1998, Telephia has become one of the most respected sources of data aboutcell phone use – tracking consumers phone calling, mobile Web surfing, video viewing and justabout everything else. Nielsen has been building mobile tracking products on its own and willprobably buy Telephia within 2007. Corporate Headquarters Telephia, Inc. 101 Green Street, San Francisco, CA 94111 Phone: (415) 395.0500 Page 38 of 54
  • URL: www.telephia.com3.2.34 TIAThe Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is a trade association in the US thatrepresents about 600 telecommunications companies.TIA represents providers of information, communications and entertainment technology productsand services for the global marketplace. The association supports the convergence of newcommunications networks while working for a competitive and innovative market environment.TIA is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntaryindustry standards for a wide variety of telecommunications products. TIAs Standards andTechnology Department is composed of five divisions which sponsor more than 70 standardsformulating groups. The committees and subcommittees sponsored by the five divisions (FiberOptics, User Premises Equipment, Wireless Communications, Communications Research andSatellite Communications) formulate standards to serve the industry and users.Within TIA, more than 1,100 individuals, with representatives from manufacturers, serviceproviders and end-users, including the government, serve on the formulating groups involved instandards setting. To ensure representation for the positions of U.S. telecommunications equipmentproducers in the international arena, TIA also participates in international standards-settingactivities, such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Inter-AmericanTelecommunication Commission (CITEL) and the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC).While better known for its activities in long-haul and wireless applications, TIA also addresses theneeds of communications networks in premises applications. In 1993, TIA founded the FiberOptics LAN Section (FOLS) which provides information on the use of fiber optic technology inlocal area networks (LANs).The TIA co-produces NXTcomm, www.nxtcommshow.com, one of the largest trade shows for thetelecommunications industry. It replaces TIAs GLOBALCOMM (formerly SUPERCOMM) andTelecomNext. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 2500 Wilson Blvd, Suite 300, Arlington, Virginia 22201 Phone: (703) 907.7700 URL: www.tiaonline.org Page 39 of 54
  • 3.2.35 UMTS FORUMThe UMTS Forum promotes 3G mobile systems and services by offering guidance togovernmental and financial communities, providing marketing input to technical standardizationbodies and advising on spectrum requirements for both present and future 3G systems.The UMTS Forum represents a customer base of more than 850 million end users in 195 countriesand represents over 70% of todays digital wireless market. UMTS Forum Secretariat Russell Square House, 10-12 Russell Sq., London WC1B 5EE, U.K. Phone: +44-20-7331-2020 URL: www.umts-forum.org3.2.36 PIRGU.S. Public Interest Research Group (PIRG) is an advocacy non-profit organization in the UnitedStates and Canada, composed of self-governing affiliates at the state and province level.The PIRGs across the U.S. have trained student and citizen activists around the country to seeksocial change in the areas of environmental protection, consumer protection, and political reform.One of the first major accomplishments achieved by the PIRGS was the 1980s passage of several"bottle bills," familiar to U.S. citizens because they provide for deposits on beverage containersthat can be refunded to purchasers if they are turned in for recycling. Recently, the State PIRGshave helped push through legislation on banking/loan industry reform, as well as health care andpharmaceutical industry reform.PIRG has a strong standpoint Pro: Internet freedom and media reform. Headquarters 44 Winter Street, 4th Floor, Boston, MA 02108 Phone: (617) 747.4370 URL: www.uspirg.org3.2.37 USTELECOMUnited States Telecom Association (USTelecom) focuses on three broad categories ofmembership: Carrier, Suppliers and International. Carrier members, the core of the association,consist of facilities-based telecommunication companies. Supplier Members are companies whoprovide services, hardware, software, or technology for the telecom industry. The internationaltelecom member segment is an area USTA still aims to grow. Page 40 of 54
  • USTelecom takes the standpoint against regulating the Internet and pro removing regulatoryburdens for consumer choice, innovation and investment. USTelecom 607 14th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005 Phone: (202) 326.7300 URL: www.ustelecom.org3.2.38 UTCThe United Telecom Council doing business as Utilities Telecom Council (UTC) is a global tradeassociation dedicated to creating a favorable business, regulatory, and technological environmentfor companies that own, manage, or provide critical telecommunications systems in support oftheir core business. They are especially representing the North American Utilities Telecoms,UTelcos, and as such involved in the “The Next Generation Utility” initiative to help reforming theaging utility infrastructure. United Telecom Council 5th Floor, 1901 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006 Phone: (202) 872.0030 URL: www.utc.org3.2.39 VAAThe Video Access Alliance (VAA) is a not-for-profit organization designed to serve as anadvocacy and advisory group for independent, emerging and minority networks, videoprogrammers, entertainers and other industry participants focused on policies that encourage rapidand ubiquitous deployment and utilization of new and innovative video distribution platforms.The VAA reaffirms its support for the recent FCC policy change that will speed up the processcompanies go through to enter the video services market. The VAA feels this proceduraladjustment will directly lead to more opportunities for aspiring content providers. Video Access Alliance PO Box 14917, Tallahassee, Florida 32317 Phone: (800) 539.1470 URL: www.videoaccessalliance.org Page 41 of 54
  • 3.2.40 WiMAX FORUMThe WiMAX Forum is an industry-led, not-for-profit organization formed to certify and promotethe compatibility and interoperability of broadband wireless products based upon the harmonizedIEEE 802.16/ETSI HiperMAN standard. A WiMAX Forum goal is to accelerate the introductionof these systems into the marketplace. The WiMAX Forum has organized a number of workinggroups, for instance the regulatory working group or the global roaming working group or theapplication working group. The working groups address critical areas of focus in bringingWiMAX Forum Certified products to the marketplace. WiMAX Forum 15220 NW Greenbrier Pkwy, Suite 310, Beaverton, OR 97006 Phone: (503) 924.2922 URL: www.wimaxforum.org3.2.41 WiSOAWiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance (WiSOA) is the first global organization composedexclusively of owners of WiMAX spectrum. Basically, WiSOA is a supporting alliance of theWiMAX Forum. WiSOA engages in the regulation, commercialization, and deployment ofWiMAX in the 2300 ~ 2400 MHz, 2500 ~ 2690 MHz and the 3400 ~ 3600 MHz frequency bands.The key objective of the WiSOA is to accelerate the acceptance and deployment of interoperableWiMAX networks through a coordinated global effort. Founded in 2006, they signed the firstinternational WiMAX roaming agreement in March 2007. WiSOA has only a handful of membersworldwide. The only U.S. company member in the WiSOA is NextWave Wireless Inc. WiSOA Ltd 95 Aldwych, London WC2B 4JF, U.K. URL: www.wisoa.net3.3 WIRELESS MARKET LEADERS3.3.1 ALLTEL Revenues 2006: $8.12 billion Subscribers 2006: > 10 million Employees 2006: 14,899 URL: www.alltel.com Page 42 of 54
  • Alltel (NYSE: AT) is a telecommunications company with headquarters in Little Rock, Arkansas.Alltel provides wireless services to residential and business customers in 35 states. States notserved by Alltel include: Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont,Washington, and Washington, D.C. It is the largest super regional provider in the U.S.On May 20, 2007, Alltel agreed to be bought out by TPG Capital, L.P. and Goldman Sachs for$27.5 billion.On March 1, 2007 Alltel announced that they were the first U.S. carrier to offer AskMeNow acrossall handsets. The partnership provides customers, including those with smart phones, immediateaccess to the AskMeNow question-answer service.3.3.2 AT&T MOBILITY Revenues 2006: $37.5 billion Subscribers: 61 million Employees 2006: 70,300 URL: www.wireless.att.comFormerly a joint venture between SBC Communications and BellSouth, Cingular Wireless soonacquired the old AT&T Wireless; SBC later acquired the original AT&T and rebranded as "thenew AT&T". Cingular became wholly-owned by the new AT&T in December 2006 as a result ofAT&Ts acquisition of BellSouth.Until all regulatory filings are approved, the "Cingular" brand will continue to be used in storesignage and media advertisements during a dual-branded transition, expected to last into 2008.Wireless from AT&T, formerly Cingular Wireless, is wholly owned by AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T)now that the merger between its former parent companies, AT&T Inc. (formerly SBC) andBellSouth (NYSE: BLS) has closed. AT&T (Mobility) is the largest wireless company in theUnited States.Trivia: The T stock-trading symbol of AT&T stands for "telephone".3.3.3 DOBSON Revenues 2006: $1.23 billion Subscribers 2006: 1.7 million Employees 2006: 3,000 URL: www.CellOneUSA.com Page 43 of 54
  • Dobson Cellular Systems, Inc., is a wireless telecommunications provider in several regions of theUnited States, including Alaska, Arizona, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota,Missouri, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia andWisconsin.Dobson Cellular Systems is a wholly owned subsidiary of Dobson Communications Corporationbased in Oklahoma City. It is the provider of Cellular One-branded services in the United States.As of February 14, 2007, Dobson Cellular System had 1.7 million subscribers, making it the thirdlargest GSM operator in the U.S. and the ninth largest overall. Dobson operates under the brandname of Cellular One, and provides service on a TDMA and GSM network. The companypurchased the rights to the Cellular One name from Alltel in December 2005.On June 29th 2007 AT&T announced that it will acquire Dobson Communications Corporation forapproximately $2.8 billion in cash pending FCC approval.3.3.4 LEAP WIRELESS Revenues 2006: $2.26 billion Subscribers 2006: 2.23 million Employees 2006: 2.034 URL: www.leapwireless.comLeap Wireless International Inc. (NASDAQ: LEAP) is a public telecommunications company thatprovides customers with affordable wireless services through its subsidiaries, Cricket and JumpMobile.Leap was founded in 1998 and is headquartered in San Diego, California. It was built on thepremise of unlimited services with no contracts and no credit checks, providing access to wirelessservices to customers who couldn’t otherwise afford it.As of December 31, 2006, it offered services in 22 states and has recently purchased spectrum atthe AWS auction giving Leap coverage of an estimated 110 million potential customers.3.3.5 SPRINT NEXTEL Revenues 2006: $43.60 billion Subscribers 2006: 53.1 million Employees 2006: 79,900 URL: www.sprint.comSprint Nextel Corporation (NYSE: S) is one of the largest telecommunications companies in theworld. With nearly 55 million subscribers, Sprint Nextel operates the third largest wireless Page 44 of 54
  • telecommunications network in the United States (based on total wireless customers), behindVerizon Wireless and AT&T. Sprint is a global Tier 1 Internet carrier, and, as such, makes up aportion of the Internet backbone. In the United States, the company also operates the largestwireless broadband network and is the third largest long distance provider.The company was created in 2005 by the $35 billion purchase of Nextel Communications bySprint Corporation. In 2006, the company spun-off its local landline telephone business, naming itEmbarq and also completed the $6.5 billion acquisition of Nextel Partners, one of its largestaffiliates, which primarily provides Nextel wireless services to more rural markets.Sprint Nextel has its executive headquarters in Reston, Virginia and maintains an operational andengineering headquarters in Overland Park, Kansas (where the largest number of Sprint Nextelemployees are based). Both internally and externally, Sprint is an acceptable short name for thecompany.On November 2, 2005 Sprint Nextel and a coalition of US-based cable television providersannounced a partnership where cable TV customers would be able to bundle their Sprint or Nextelcell phones with their Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cox Communications or Advance/NewhouseCommunications cable bills (“Quadruple Play”). In addition the group of cable companies agreedto their intention to develop products with Sprint Nextel where users would be able to initiateadvanced features like control their Digital Video Recorder (DVRs) by cell phone.In a play to offer broadband directly to the home, Sprint launched a co-branded BroadbandWireless Access Point along with Linksys, a unit of Cisco Systems.Trivia: In letters dated June 29, 2007, Sprint stated to at least 1,000 of its customers that it wasterminating service with them. Subscribers were told that Sprints records indicated they had calledcustomer service "frequently" regarding "billing or general account information". It goes on to saythat Sprint will work to help port subscribers telephone numbers to other carriers before thescheduled July 30, 2007 termination date. In an ironic twist, the customers who have received thisnotice of termination for calling the customer care department too often are advised to call thecustomer care department if they need help.3.3.6 T-MOBILE Revenues 2006 / USA: EUR 13.6 billion49 Subscribers 2006: 25 million Employees 2006 / USA: 29.000 URL: www.t-mobile.comT-Mobile is a group of mobile phone corporate subsidiaries (all under the ownership of DeutscheTelekom) that operate GSM and UMTS networks in Europe and the United States. The "T" standsfor "Telekom". T-Mobile also has financial stakes in mobile operators in Eastern Europe.49 14.6% increase from 2005, approx. $18.36 billion. Page 45 of 54
  • Globally, T-Mobile has 101 million subscribers, making it the worlds sixth largest mobile phoneservice provider by subscribers and the third largest multinational after the United KingdomsVodafone and Spains Telefonica.T-Mobile USA was previously known as VoiceStream Wireless. In May 2001, VoiceStream, alongwith Southern regional carrier Powertel were acquired by Deutsche Telekom for $24 billion, andchanged nationally to the T-Mobile name in September 2002. Headquartered in Factoria, Bellevue,Washington, T-Mobile USA is currently the fourth-largest wireless carrier in the U.S. market with25 million customers as of January 2007.As the smallest national carrier, T-Mobile USA tends to compete on price, and advertises heavilyto the youth market. They also occasionally compete on features; they were the first U.S. carrier tolaunch a ring back tones service nationally (CallerTunes), video messaging and "HiFi Ringers"(ring tones which are clips of an actual song).In the USA alone, T-Mobile operates over 8,200 (as of August 2007) T-Mobile HotSpot locationsfor Internet access – including such locations as airports, airline clubs, Starbucks coffeehouses,Kinkos, Borders Books and Music, Hyatt and Red Roof Inn Hotels.3.3.7 US CELLULAR CORPORATION Revenues 2006: $3.7 billion Subscribers 2006: 5.8 million Employees 2006: 8,100 URL: www.uscellular.comUnited States Cellular Corporation (NYSE: USM) provides wireless telephone services in theUnited States. It owns, operates, and invests in wireless markets. The company also offers a rangeof digital wireless telephones. Its digital services include caller ID; short messaging services; anddata transmission, including camera features, downloading, and wireless modem capabilities. Inaddition, United States Cellular Corporation provides wide-area call delivery, call forwarding,voice mail, call waiting, three-way calling, and no-answer transfer, as well as repair services.The company markets its products and services through various channels including retail sale andservice centers, independent agents, and direct sale, as well as Internet and telesales.As of December 31, 2006, it operated 201 majority-owned wireless licenses and provided wirelessservices to 5.8 million customers, as well as operated approximately 390 retail stores. Thecompany was founded in 1983 and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United States CellularCorporation is a subsidiary of Telephone and Data Systems, Inc. Page 46 of 54
  • 3.3.8 VERIZON WIRELESS Revenues 2006: $38 billion Subscribers: 59.1 million Employees 2006: 66,000 URL: www.verizonwireless.comHeadquartered in Basking Ridge, NJ, Verizon Wireless is the largest U.S. wireless company andlargest wireless data provider, based on revenues. The company is a joint venture of VerizonCommunications (NYSE:VZ) and Vodafone (NYSE and LSE: VOD).Verizon Communications Inc. is headquartered in New York. On February 14, 2005, Verizonagreed to acquire MCI, formerly WorldCom, after SBC Communications agreed to acquire AT&Tjust a few weeks earlier.Media coverage has focused on several ways in which that acquisition, once completed, wouldbenefit Verizon, including economies of scale derived from a potential productivity boost to beachieved via the elimination of thousands of jobs at the combined company, and access to the largebase of business customers currently served by MCI. The real benefit to Verizon was theacquisition of long-haul lines. The bulk of Verizons business is concentrated in the eastern UnitedStates. This not only renders the company, effectively, a regional phone company, but also forcesit to pay usage fees to long-haul carriers, such as former MCI, to complete calls for its customerswhenever those calls go outside the Verizon footprint. That need is obviated by the MCIacquisition and was key in the long term market position strategy. By January 6, 2006, MCI wasincorporated into Verizon with the name Verizon Business. With this merger, Verizon alsoacquired the naming rights to the Washington, D.C. home of the Washington Wizards and theWashington Capitals, the Verizon Center (formerly known as the MCI Center).Verizon, with MCI, was the largest telecommunications company in the United States based onsales, profits and assets. After completion of the BellSouth/AT&T merger in 2006, AT&T becamethe largest telecommunications company in the world in terms of assets and profits.Vodafone is the worlds largest mobile telecommunications company, with equity interests in 25countries and partner networks in an additional 36 countries. As of December 2006, Vodafone hadapproximately 198.6 million proportionate customers worldwide.Trivia: The name Verizon is a portmanteau of veritas and horizon. Page 47 of 54
  • 4 APPENDIX D: DOCUMENTS AND SOURCES1-103G Today, http://www.3gtoday.com802.11n wireless LAN tests show unbelievable’ results at state college, by John Cox,NetworkWorld, August 06, 2007AAfter deal with AT&T, Clearwire can reach 223 million people with WiMAX, by Eric Bangeman,Ars Technica, June 04, 2007A fight over what you can do on a cell phone, by Jessica E. Vascellaro, The Wall Street Journal,June 14, 2007Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions With Respect to CommercialMobile Services, FCC, 10th report, September 2005Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions With Respect to CommercialMobile Services, FCC, 11th report, September 2006Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions with Respect to CommercialMobile Services - Status as of June 2006, FCC, January 2007Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions with Respect to Domestic andInternational Satellite Communications Services, FCC, 1st report, March 2007Annual Company Reports and Financial Reports 2006 / 2007: 3COM Corp., Alcatel-Lucent SA,Andrew Corp., AT&T Inc., Broadcom Corp., Cisco Systems, Inc., Deutsche Telekom AG, DobsonCellular Systems, Harris Corporation, Juniper Networks, Inc., Leap Wireless International Inc.,Motorola Inc., Nortel Networks Corp., Sprint Nextel Corp., Tellabs, Inc., Texas Instruments Inc.,United States Cellular Corporation, Verizon Communications Inc., QUALCOMM Inc.An overview of the emerging trends in broadband and networking technologies, TIA’s Technology& Policy Primer, February 2007Assessing Broadband in America: OECD and ITIF Broadband Rankings, by Daniel K. Correa,ITIF, April 2007
  • BBest Cell Service, Consumer Reports Survey, January 2006Boston Globe, http://www.boston.comBrandweek, http://www.brandweek.comBroadband Cable Financial Databook, Kagan Research LLC, 2006Broadband in America: Access, Use and Outlook, by Shawn G. DuBravac, CEA Market Research,July 2007Broadband Technology Needs Assessment and Economic Development Impact Study, City of SaintPaul, Minnesota, May 2006Broadband Wireless Exchanges Magazine, http://www.bbwexchange.comBusiness models for next-generation wireless services, P. Ballon, S. Helmus, R. van de Pas, TNO,2001CCEA Daily Newsletter Consumer Electronics, http://www.ce.orgCharacteristics of Wireless Subscribers and Non-Users, by Phil Cusick and Richard Choe, BearStearns, Equity Research, February 2005CNET News, http//www.cnet.comCNNMoney, http://money.cnn.comComments of the Telecommunications Industry Association In the Matter of Broadband IndustryPractices, before the FCC, June 2007Communications Daily, http://www.warren-news.comCongress releases draft broadband bill, by Anne Broache, CNET News, September 15, 2005CTAM Daily Newsletter Broadband, http://www.ctam.comCTIA Smart Brief, http://www.smartbrief.com Page 49 of 54
  • DDial M for Mobile Advertising, FierceWireless Daily Monitor, Friday Feature, January 11, 2007EExpanding The Global Innovation Horizon, CEO Study 2006, IBM Global Business Services,2006FFCCs Video-Franchise Order Garners Mixed Reception, TelecomWeb Newsbreak, March 6,2007Foreign Ownership Guidelines for FCC Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licenses,Section 310 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, FCC International Bureau,November 2004GGroups respond to new telecommunications bill, Free Press Press Release, September 16, 2005HHigh-Speed Services for Internet Access: Status as of June 30, 2006, FCC Industry Analysis andTechnology Division, Wireline Competition Bureau, January 2007IIP Telephony from A to Z, ShoreTel, 2007JKLLobbying congress: A key way U.S. citizens impact foreign policy, by Audrae Erickson, U.S.Foreign Policy Agenda, March 2000MMaking the most out of Mobility, Network World, Executive Guide, June 2007 Page 50 of 54
  • Microsoft dewires Portland, by Jeremy Reimer, Ars Technica, November 17, 2007Mobile/Cellular Technology Magazine, http://www.mobilecomms-technology.comMore U.S. Households Are Ditching Landline Phones for Wireless, by Li Yuan, Wall StreetJournal, March 31, 2006NNetwork World News, http://www.nww.comNew Orleans to take city-wide Wi-Fi network offline, by Eric Bangeman, Ars Technica, October23, 2006Interim 2008 Budget Report 02/14/07, Networking and Information Technology Research andDevelopment (NITRD) Program, February 2007OOECD Economic Outlook United States, Preliminary Edition, OECD, 2007OPASTCO 2006 Regulatory Affairs, Organization for the Promotion and Advancement of SmallTelecommunications Companies, FCC Filings, December 2006PPC World, http://www.pcworld.comPerspectives: Wireless Data Arpu, by Chetan Sharma Consulting, June 2005Philly goes wild for Wi-Fi, by Sonina Matteo, NetworkWorld, August 6, 2007.Profiting from the Uncertain Business Models of the Anywhere Network, by Philip Marshall,Yankee Group Research Inc., March 2007QRreferenceUSA, U.S. business data baseRewriting the Telecom Act, Congress Primed to Examine Communications Reform, by Josh Long,Virgo Publishing Inc., May 2004 Page 51 of 54
  • SSan Francisco to vote on municipal Wi-Fi network, by Eric Bangeman, Ars Technica, August 05,2007Seamless Roaming On Wireless Networks - with WLAN Roaming, Advanced Data Center andDistributed Solutions, Intel Corp., 2005Skype Wants FCC To Apply Neutrality Law, by Glenn Fleishmann, Voice over IP News, February22, 2007SMS Text Messaging Keeps Strong Edge in Asia Pacific, TeleClick, March 9, 2006Succeeding in the wireless industry: how to think like a sophisticated retailer, IndustryPerspective, by Eric Ranta and Karan Yadav, SAP AG, 2006TTelecommunications Provider Locator, FCC, March 2006TeleClick Telecommunications Industry News, http://www.teleclick.caTelecommunications Reports Daily, http://www.tr.comTelecommunications (Wireless), by Barkha Punjabi, University of Iowa, Henry B. Tippie Schoolof Management, February 2007TelecomWeb, http://www.telecomweb.comTelephia, http://www.telephia.comThe Broadband Fact Book, by Larry Irving and Bruce Mehlman, Internet Innovation Alliance,2007The Coming Tug of War Over the Internet, by Christopher Stern, Washington Post, January 22,2006The Fewest Dropped Calls, by Bruce Mohl, Boston Globe, April 23, 2006The Innovation Paradox in the Telecom Industry, CEO Study 2006, IBM Global BusinessServices, 2006The Mobile Audio Media Study, by Neal Bonner and Wayman Leung, Arbitron and Telephia, 2007 Page 52 of 54
  • The “New Economy” and Information Technology, by Pamela Samuelson, Hal R. Varian,University of California, Berkeley, July 2001The Number of Call Quality Problems Experienced With a Wireless Service has Declined for aSecond Consecutive Year, J.D. Power and Associates Press Release, March 16, 2006The U.S. Local Communications System, Policy Brief #105, by Charles H. Ferguson, BrookingsInstitution, July 2002TIA’s 2006 Telecommunications Market Review and Forecast, TIA, February 2006Trends 2006 - Making Progress in Broadband, NECA Report, 2006Trends in Telephony, FCC report, February 08, 2007UUSTelecom Daily, http://www.dailylead.comUS Wireless Matrix 4Q05, by David Janazzo et al., Merrill Lynch, Equity Research, March 24,2006VVodafone RFP Fuels Femtocells, by Michelle Donegan, Unstrung News Analysis, July 5, 2007WWall Street Journal, http://www.wsj.comWashington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.comWhat Ails the Mobile Games Industry?, Press Release, M:Metrics, May 2, 2006Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.orgWireless411 MagazineWireless Call Quality Study, J.D. Power and Associates, 2006Wireless Carriers Cutting Churn Rates, by Antone Gonsalves, TechWeb News, November 30,2005 Page 53 of 54
  • Wireless Costs Rise, News Release, Econ One Research Inc., January 20, 2005Wireless Costs Down, News Release, Econ One Research Inc., January 17, 2006Wireless Customer Care Study, J.D. Power and Associates, 2006Wireless Customer Satisfaction Study, J.D. Power and Associates, 2006Wireless Data University, by Andrew Seybold et al., Outlook 4Mobility, September, 2006Wireless Substitution: Data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, by Stephen J.Blumberg, Ph.D. & Julian V. Luke, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for DiseaseControl, 2005Wireless/Tower Industry Outlook, Stanford Group Company, June 2007Wireless Week, http://www.wirelessweek.comWolves in Sheeps Clothing: Telecom Industry Front Groups and Astroturf, part I, II, CommonCause, August 2006XYYahoo! Finance, http://finance.yahoo.comYankee Group Reveals Increased Wireless Investments by US Businesses, Business Wire, June 19,2006ZZDNet Newsletter, http://www.zdnet.com Page 54 of 54