Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators
Millennium Development Goals, Targets and Indicators<br />The Brainchild of the <br />Millennium Declaration<br />
Millennium Summit<br />September, 2000- gathering of world political leaders for the Millennium Summit at the UN Headquarters, New York. <br />A universal milieu of globalisation, high living standards, fast growth, and new opportunities.<br />Disparities between nations existed in the form of abysmal poverty, conflicts and degraded environment in some countries, while others envisioned renewed prosperity and global cooperation.<br />
Millennium Declaration<br />Addressed a series of collective priorities such as peace and security, poverty reduction, environment, and human rights.<br />Primary motives:<br />Human development, i.e., advancement of humankind;<br />Global social and economic security;<br />But how? <br />
Millennium Development Goals<br />Blueprint for a better future.<br />To achieve measurable improvements in the most critical areas of human development by 2015.<br />Each goal established yardsticks for measuring these results, which were useful not just for developing countries, but also developed nations and multilateral institutions that were making funds available for them.<br />The world’s multi-dimensional, time-bound and quantified targets. <br />
Nature of MDGs<br />Though vital for overall human development, they are primarily about children.<br />Six of the eight goals are directly related to children.<br />Child population is most vulnerable to social and economic lacunas.<br />It was agreed upon, reiterating the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, that Children’s Rights are the most basic of Human Rights.<br />
Why MDGs?<br />Between 1990 and 2002, average overall incomes increased by approx. 21%.<br />No. of people living in extreme poverty declined by 130 million.<br />Child mortality fell from 103 per 1000 live births to 88 per 1000 live births.<br />Life expectancy rose by 2 years to 65 years.<br />An additional 8% of the world population received access to clean water.<br />An additional 15% acquired access to improved sanitation services.<br />
The Need for MDGs<br />Such progress was far from uniform across the world. Or even across the goals.<br />Disparities arose within countries themselves.<br />Sub-Saharan region is the epicenter of crisis. <br />Transition economies in Asia, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa displayed mixed records.<br />
The MDGs<br /> Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty.<br /> Achieve Universal Primary Education. <br /> Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women.<br /> Reduce Child Mortality.<br /> Improve Maternal Health.<br /> Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases.<br /> Ensure Environmental Sustainability.<br />Develop a Global Partnership for Development.<br />
Goal Two: Achieve Universal Primary Education<br />Target unlikely to be met, despite great strides in sub-Saharan region, Southern Asia, and North Africa.<br />Insufficient pace of progress is a hindrance. <br />Though enrollment in Sub-Saharan Africa grew by 18 percentage points, at least one in four children of enrollment age was not attending schooling, as per data of countries, made available in 2008.<br />High dropout rates: a reality check for full enrollment.<br />Lack of teachers and infrastructure.<br />Estimates project the need for double the current number of teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa to realize the goal by 2015. <br />Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.<br />Indicators: <br /><ul><li>Net enrollment ratio in Primary Education (UNESCO).
Proportion of pupils starting Grade 1 who reach Grade 5 (UNESCO).
Literacy rate of 15-24 years old (UNESCO). </li></li></ul><li>Eradicate Extreme Hungerand Poverty<br />The target of halving the proportion of people living in poverty is being met as overall poverty rates fell from 46% in 1990 to 27% in 2005. <br />By 2015, only about 920 million people will be living under the poverty line of less than $1.25 a day, as estimated by the World Bank in 2008. <br />However, most of this admirable progress has happened in Asia. In the Sub-Saharan region, poverty declined slightly from 58% to 51% between 1990 and 2005. <br />The World Bank estimated that an additional 64 million people were pushed into extreme poverty in 2010 due to effects of the economic crisis. <br />The progress regarding the reduction of the proportion of people living in extreme hunger has been unsatisfactory, especially since 2000-2002. In fact, the figures have increased in 2010 (925 million), as compared to 1990 (815 million).<br />Focus must be on the reduction of malnourished children in Southern Asia as this region accounts for half the world’s undernourished children.<br />Targets:<br /><ul><li>Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day.
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.</li></ul>Indicators:<br />1. Proportion of population below $1 (1993 PPP) per day (World Bank) .2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] (World Bank).3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption (World Bank).<br />4. Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (UNICEF-WHO).5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (FAO).<br />
PromoteGender Equalityand EmpowerWomen<br />While gender gaps in access to primary education have narrowed, disparities in gaining university-level education have remained. This is especially the case in developing countries.Only about 72 girls per 100 boys are enrolled in tertiary education in developing regions.<br />Although there has been progress, women are often relegated to vulnerable forms of unpaid employment. Share of women in paid non-agricultural wage employment is 32% in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 20% in Southern Asia, Northern Africa, and Western Asia, as against the global share of 40%.<br />Mainly attributed to quotas and special measures, women have gained in terms of political decision-making capabilities. However, the numbers are still low.<br /> In 2010, 19% of the world’s parliamentarians, 9 out of 151 elected heads of state, and 11 out of 192 heads of government, and 16% of all ministerial posts were women. <br />Targets:<br /><ul><li>Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.</li></ul>Indicators:<br /> Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (UNESCO).<br /> Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old (UNESCO).<br /> Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (ILO) .<br /> Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament (IPU).<br />
ReduceChild Mortality<br />Though child deaths have been falling, the rates are not declining quickly enough to meet the goal.<br />Almost 1/3rd of the 49 LDCs have managed to reduce their under five mortality rate by upto 40% or more over the past two decades. <br />The count in 2008 stood at 10,000 fewer under-five deaths each day, as compared to 1990.<br />However, little progress has been made in Sub-Saharan Africa. Given high fertility rates and slow pace of reducing deaths, although under-five mortality rates have reduced by 22% by 2008 since 1990, figures have increased in actual terms by .4 million. <br />Target:<br />Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.<br />Indicators:<br />Under-five mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO).<br />Infant mortality rate (UNICEF-WHO).<br />Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles (UNICEF-WHO).<br />
ImproveMaternal Health<br />Though maternal health has globally improved, we still fall short of achieving the annual decline in maternal mortality of 5.5% to reach the goal by 2015.<br />As much as 80% of these deaths can be avoided as they are mostly the result of haemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, obstructed labour and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy.<br />Progress on family planning has stalled and funding has not kept pace with demand, leaving adolescent girls most vulnerable to risks of maternal mortality, increasing with each pregnancy.<br />Large disparities in progress exist across countries. HIV is curtailing progress in Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and Oceania where number of skilled workers is low and maternal morality remains high.<br />It is estimated that, if the unmet needs of contraception of about 215 million women could be met, maternal deaths could be cut by almost a third. <br />Targets:<br /><ul><li>Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.</li></ul>Indicators:<br />Maternal mortality ratio (UNICEF-WHO).<br />Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (UNICEF-WHO).<br />
There has been tangible progress in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. New infections fell from a peak of 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. However, new HIV infections are on the rise in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. <br />People living with HIV infects are on the rise as a result of new HIV infections, and the benefits of the antiretroviral therapy.<br />Around 17 million children around the world have lost one or both their parents to HIV/AIDS. 80% of these children are from Sub-Saharan Africa.<br />Knowledge about the virus is low. Only 1/3rd of all young men and 1/5th of women in developing countries are aware of it. Use of condoms must increase manifold.<br />Access to antiretroviral therapy outpaced by HIV infection rates.<br />Half the world is at risk of malaria. Major increase in funding has helped control malaria. Artimesinin-based medication has become more accessible, although accessibility varies sharply among countries. <br />Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, andOther Diseases<br />Targets:<br /><ul><li>Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.</li></ul>Indicators:<br />HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years (UNAIDS-WHO-UNICEF.<br />Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate (UN Population Division) .<br /><ul><li>Condom use at last high-risk sex (UNICEF-WHO).
Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (UNICEF-WHO) .
Contraceptive prevalence rate (UN Population Division).</li></ul>Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years (UNICEF-UNAIDS-WHO).<br />Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria (WHO) Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures (UNICEF-WHO) .<br />Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis (WHO).<br />Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS (internationally recommended TB control strategy) (WHO).<br />
Ensure Environmental Sustainability<br />Targets: <br /><ul><li>Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.</li></ul>Indicators:<br />Proportion of land area covered by forest (FAO).<br />Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area (UNEP-WCMC).<br />Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) (IEA, World Bank).<br />Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (UNFCCC, UNSD) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) (UNEP-Ozone Secretariat).<br />Proportion of population using solid fuels (WHO).<br />Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural (UNICEF-WHO) .<br />Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural (UNICEF-WHO) <br />Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (UN-HABITAT).<br />
Commentary on Goal 7<br />The world will meet or even exceed the drinking water target by 2015 if current trends continue. By that time, an estimated 86 per cent of the population in developing regions will have gained access to improved sources of drinking water, up from 71 per cent in 1990. Four regions — Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Asia and South-Eastern Asia — have already met the target.<br />Even though progress was made primarily in rural areas, those areas still remain at a disadvantage. Globally, eight out of 10 people who are without access to an improved drinking water source live in rural areas.<br />With half the population of developing regions lacking basic sanitation, the 2015 target appears to be out of reach. At the current rate of progress, the world will miss the target of halving the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation, such as toilets or latrines. In 2008, an estimated 2.6 billion people around the world lacked access to improved sanitation. If the trend continues, that number will grow to 2.7 billion by 2015. Wide disparities also exist by region, with sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia continuing to lag behind. Recent data show 69 per cent and 64 per cent of their populations still lack access, respectively. And the gap between rural and urban areas remains huge, especially in Southern Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania.<br />The world has missed the 2010 target to slow the decline in biodiversity. Nearly 17,000 species of plants and animals are currently at risk of extinction, and the number of species threatened by extinction is growing by the day. Despite increased investment, the main causes of biodiversity loss — high rates of consumption, habitat loss, invasive species, pollution and climate change — are not being sufficiently addressed. Biodiversity is vitally important; billions of people rely directly on diverse species for their livelihoods and often survival.<br />Less loss of forest area<br />Deforestation rates have slowed, but remain fastest in some of the world’s most biologically diverse regions. Tree-planting programmes, combined with the natural expansion of forests in some regions, have added more than 7 million hectares of new forest annually. As a result, the net loss of forest area over the period 2000-2010 was reduced to 5.2 million hectares per year, down from 8.3 million hectares per year in 1990-2000. South America and Africa continue to show the largest net losses of forests.<br />Great strives to improve lives of slum dwellers<br />The target of improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers has already been achieved twice-over. In the last ten years, more than 200 million slum dwellers have gained access to improved water, sanitation or durable and less crowded housing, greatly enhancing their prospects of escaping poverty, disease and illiteracy.<br />More urban poor<br />These improvements, however, are failing to keep pace with the growing ranks of the urban poor. Even though the share of the urban population living in slums has declined from 39 per cent to 33 per cent over the last ten years, the absolute number of slum dwellers in the developing world is growing and will continue to increase in the near future. The number of urban residents living in slum conditions in the developing world is now estimated at some 828 million, compared to 657 million in 1990 and 767 million in 2000.The target set in the year 2000 was set too low, based on too small an estimated number of people living in sub-standard conditions. For governments to set meaningful country-specific goals, make serious commitments and be held accountable for continued progress, the target will require redefinition, such as, “Halve the proportion of slum dwellers by 2020.<br />
Develop a Global Partnership for Development <br />Targets:<br />Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system (includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction?both nationally and internationally).<br />Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (includes tariff- and quota-free access for Least Developed Countries? exports, enhanced program of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries [HIPCs] and cancellation of official bilateral debt, and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction).<br />Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states (through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly provisions).<br />Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.<br />Targets for LDCs, Africa, landlocked and small island developing countries- <br />In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.<br />In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.<br />In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.<br />
Indicators for Goal 8<br />Official development assistance (ODA)1. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors' gross national income (GNI)(OECD)2. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) (OECD)3. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied (OECD)4. ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their GNIs (OECD)5. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs (OECD)<br />Market access6. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty (UNCTAD, WTO, WB)7. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries (UNCTAD, WTO, WB)8. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP (OECD)9. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity (OECD, WTO) Debt sustainability10. Total number of countries that have reached their Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) (IMF - World Bank) 11. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative (IMF-World Bank)12. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services (IMF-World Bank).<br />INDICATORS FOR SECOND SET OF TARGETS (LDCs, AFRICA, etc…)<br />Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and total (ILO) .<br />Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis (WHO).<br />47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population (ITU).<br />48. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population (ITU).<br />
Commentary on Goal 8<br />Official Development Assistance (ODA) rose despite financial crisis, but short of expectations. Increase has been as slight as 0.7% in 2009, at $120 billion, as against 2008.<br />For most donor countries, ODA remains well below the UN prescribed 0.7% of gross national income.<br />Only five countries have reached or exceeded this UN target: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.<br />Developed country imports- excluding arms and oil- jumped to 80% in 2008 from 54% a decade earlier.<br />Debt burdens have been eased for developing countries. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative has provided debt relief to several. <br />There has been a marked increase in access to information technology. Globally, an estimated 4.6 billion people had access to mobile phones by the end of 2009. Mobile penetration passed 50% mark in developing countries and has reached more than 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa.<br />Globally, 1 out of every 6 people are online. However, in Southern Asia, Oceania, and Sub-Saharan Africa, a mere 6% of the total population have internet access. <br />