Introduction Electric power industry in India is both a supplier and a consumer of primary energy. The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. The Energy Policy of India is predominantly controlled by the Government of India’s Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal, and Ministry of New Renewable Energy and administered locally by Public Sector Undertakings. . 70% of the energy consumed by India are produced by thermal power plants. 21% by hydroelectric power plants. 4% by nuclear power plants. Lately there has been much investment in the renewable energy sector of the country, with focus on wind and nuclear power. India’s energy demand has been about 3.6% per annum for the past 30 years, making us among the most ‘power-hungry’ nations of the world.
Definition of Energy Definition of Energy as given by the Oxford Dictionary- “Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work.” the ability to put effort and enthusiasm into an activity, work etc. a source of power, such as fuel, used for driving machines, providing heat, etc.
Types of Sources of Energy Renewable Sources of Energy- are mostly non-conventional resources like the sun, water, and tidal waves among others. Non-Renewable Sources of Energy- are traditionally used resources. Fossil fuels like natural gas, oil and petroleum and coal are non-renewable sources of energy.
Electricity Generation in India: Hydel power is the largest renewable source of energy tapped in India
Electricity Consumption This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Year Electricity consumption (billion kWh) 2000 416.346 2001 424.032 2002 509.89 2003 497.2 2004 497.2 2005 510.1 2006 519 2007 587.9 2008 517.2 2009 517.2
Energy Consumption Pattern in India: by Sources of Energy According to the International Energy Agency (IEA): Coal/peat account for nearly 40 percent of India s total energy consumption, This is followed by nearly 27 percent for combustible renewables and waste. Oil accounts for nearly 24 percent of total energy consumption, Natural gas six percent, Hydroelectric power almost 2 percent, Nuclear nearly 1 percent, and other renewables less than 0.5 percent. According to the Indian government, nearly 30 percent of India s total energy needs are met through imports.
Energy Consumption Patterns in India(by Sources of Energy)
Pattern of Electricity Consumption In India: by Utilities Commercial uses of power Industry – Increase in consumption of energy due to establishment of industries like iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizers, etc. Utilization though has come down to 38% in 2007 due to establishment of private power plants. Agriculture-Demand for power for lift irrigation and energisation of pumpsets increased from 4% to 22% in 2007 Transport- In India, due to improvement in roadways infrastructure there has been almost 15% growth in the number of automobiles on the road. Energy Consumption by this sector has boomed. Non commercial uses of power: overall there has been a decline in energy consumption Domestic lighting Cooking Use of domestic mechanical gadgets Railways and Public Lighting
Energy Consumption Pattern in India(by Utilities)
Oil production: India Oil consumption: India878,700 bbl/day (2009 est.) 2.98 million bbl/day (2009 est.)Country Comparison to the world: 24 Country Comparison to the world: 5
Oil Imports: India2.9 million bbl/day (2007 est)Country Comparison to the world: 6
Given the large gap between the production and consumption levels of Oil in India, it is evident that much of our comes in the form of imports.
The pie chart observes the various countries from whom we export our oil.
The Need for A Shift Importance of energy efficiency lies in the fact that it ensures provision of same level of energy using fewer amounts of fossil fuels. Owing to the increasing demand and limited availability of fossil fuels, the importance of efficient use of energy has been realized all over the world. The measures of energy efficiency are useful in multiple ways. Reduced use of fossil fuels is essential in lowering the emission of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. The policies for energy efficiency aim to minimize the use of fossil fuels; thereby prevent the occurrence of adverse climatic change resulting from it. Energy efficiency reduces electricity consumption and helps in saving money.
Energy Efficiency vs. Energy Conservation The two terms, energy efficiency and energy conservation, appear to be similar, though in actual terms they are different, but both of them focus on realizing the importance of energy. Energy efficiency essentially implies making use of latest technology that assures production of same level of output using significantly less amount of energy The concept of energy conservation on the other hand, implies reducing the use of energy.