Sessi 7   sistem informasi manajemen
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Sessi 7 sistem informasi manajemen

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Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7...

Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7
Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi
Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi
Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)
Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP

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Sessi 7   sistem informasi manajemen Sessi 7 sistem informasi manajemen Presentation Transcript

  • Sistem Informasi Manajemen Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7 Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama) Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP 111/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Topik Pembahasan• Konsep, Trend dan Issue• Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi• Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi• Strategi Sistem Informasi• Aplikasi Sistem Informasi• Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi 211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Konsep, Trend dan Issue 311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Mengapa Perlu Mempelajari SI?• Getting the right information to the right people at the right time at the right cost;• Key to effective business processes;• Business process change;• The way organisations compete;• Creation of new services, markets;• Learning, Knowledge. E-commerce, E-Health, E-Government… Why? How? Is it efficient? Effective? What are the risks? What are the skills? 411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam OrganisasiPerubahan dalam teknologi informasi :• Tersedianya jaringan info global, untuk menyalurkan berbagai format info (multimedia)• Tersedianya berbagai perangkat keras dan lunak untuk mengolah, menyimpan dan mengirim info.• Tersedianya berbagai perangkat untuk melakukan transformasi media yang digunakan 511/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Orientasi Informasi IT Practices • IT for operational support • IT for business process support • IT for inovation support • IT for management support Information management practices • Sensing information • Collecting information Information orientation • Organizing information • Processing information • Maintaining information Information behaviour and values • Information integrity • Information formality • Information control • Information sharing • Information transparency • Information proactiveness 611/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • SI, CBIS, dan TI Information Systems (IS) • involve more than just computers • an successful application of an IS requiring an understanding of the business and its environment that is supported by the IS • in learning about IS, not sufficient just to learn about computers Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS) • an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks • may include hardware, software, database, network, procedures, or people Information Technology (IT) • include the hardware, databases, software, networks, and other information devices (in narrow definition) • usually interchangeably with information systems • a collection of several information systems, users, and management for an entire organization (in broad sense) 711/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Isu di dalam SI Large variety of organisation and individual information processing needs Fast evolving information technologies - languages operating systems and the like Legacy investments Costs and resource management Complexity ? Where is the complexity coming from ? Maintenance, Support and Training - Leveraging systems Design and Analysis related issues 811/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi 911/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -1 Information System Management IS Role in the enterprise Review IS/IT roles, don’t focus on particular issues only Relationship with Users’ awareness of the role of computers determine effectiveness other department of relationship Computer Management Managing the IS Department is managed as co-ordinated department set of resources which are planned to meet expected future requirements Managing the Operations, programming, IS/IT activities data collection, etc. 1011/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi - 2• Delivery – Internal focus – Improving the ability to deliver and support systems and technology – Not necessarily providing users with what they need• Re-orientation – Establishing good relationship with the main business functions, – Supporting business demands through provision of variety of services – Provide valued service to all business functional management• Re-organisation – Need for redesign integration of IS investment with business strategy and across business functions. – Best way of satisfying each of differing business needs through coalition of responsibilities for managing information and systems Hirschheim Model (1988) 1111/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Model-2 SI Dalam OrganisasiModel Anthony (1965) Planning Systems Sales forecasting, operating plans, capacity planing, profit/earnings forecast, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modelling Control Systems Sales analysis, budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/analysis, WIP control, requirement planning, supplier analysis, etc. Operational Order entry/processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading Systems invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing, etc. Hirarki perencanaan, pengendalian, dan sistem operasional, 1211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Perbedaan DP dan MIS TPS/DP MIS Objectives Efficient transaction Effective problem resolution & decision making support Information Internal & external Internal & external transaction + sources transaction research data Information time Recent history, current & Historical data, current & future frame near future Process Algorithmic (very Sometimes need human predefined) intervention (esp. for decision making) Users Operators Professionals & middle managers Technology Mainframe/mini computers Local processing linked to information resources 1311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Strategic Information Systems Wiseman Model (1985) Use (objective) Automatic basic Satisfy Affect business processes information needs strategy Function (efficiency) (effectiveness) (competitiveness) Transaction and DATA exception PROCESSING processing STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Information MANAGEMENT enquiry and INFORMATION analysis SYSTEMS 1411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Trend evolusi SI/TI Galliers & Somogyl, (1987) DP MIS SIS Aspects Computers’ Distributed process’ ‘networks’ fragmented interconnected integrated Nature of the technology (hardware limitation software limitation people/vison limitation) Remote from users Regulated by Available and Nature of operations controlled by DP management supportive services to users Technical issues Support business Relate to Issues in systems (programming/ users’needs business development project managemen) information management strategy Reducing costs Supporting the Enabling the business Reason for using (especially business (manager) - business driven technology administrative) – - user driven technology driven Regimented/ Accommodating/ Flexibility/ Characteristic of systems operational control strategic (internal) (external) 1511/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi 1611/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Lingkungan Informasi Paper records Paper records Private Management records information External Operational information database Official Personal information database records Unrecorded Lingkup memungkinkan Total lingkungan Lingkungan yang untuk informasi yang dapat informasi internal terotomatisasi dikelola 1711/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Nilai Informasi Bagi Bisnis High STRATEGIC HIGH POTENTIAL Value of information Critical to business Potential value to to and of greatest business may be high, future potential value but not confirmed strategy Essential for core Needed for supporting process and value enhaced Business, but little by horizontal integration strategic value Low KEY OPERATIONAL SUPPORT High Low Value of information to current strategy 1811/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Pertanyaan Kunci Dalam Membangun dan Mengelola SI• People involved…• Many technologies….• How do we decide what to build..? – for one person..for a dept..for the entire organization…• How much is it going to cost..?• How long is it going to take….?• How do we consider all the systems we have so far..?• How do we maintain and upgrade…? 1911/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Hubungan Aplikasi SI dan Tingkatan Manajemen Pengolahan Informasi Keuangan & Akunting Perencanaan Strategis Manajemen Puncak Pemasaran Personalia Produksi Pengendalian Manajemen Logistik Pengendalian Operasional Pengolahan Transaksi Sistem Manajemen Data base Data base 2011/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Pemakai dan Penggunaan SI Pemakai Pengunaan Petugas Administrasi Mengerjakan transaksi, mengolah data, dan menjawab pertanyaan Mendapatkan data operasi. Membantu perencanaan, penjadualan, Manajer Tingkat Bawah mengetahui situasiyag tak terkendali, dan mengambil keputusan Informasi untuk analisis. Membantu dalam analisis, perencanaan Staf Ahli dan pelaporan. Laporan tetap, Permintaan informasi khusus, Analisa khusus, Manajemen Laporan khusus, membantu dalam mengenali persoalan dan peluang. Membantu dalam analisis pengambilan keputusan. 2111/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Segitiga Pengambilan Keputusan Sistem Informasi Manajemen SIM perencanaan SIM: sistem manusia/mesin yang terpadu, Strategis & untuk menyajikan informsasi guna mendukung pengambilan kptsan fungsi operasi, manajemen, dan pengambilan keputusan dalam sebuah organisasi. Informasi manajemen Untuk perencanaan taktis Menggunakan hardware & software komputer, Dan pengambilan keputusan prosedur, model manajemen dan keputusan, data base. Informasi manajemen untuk Perencanaan operasional, pengambilan Keputusan dan pengendalian Pengolahan transaksi Pemberian informasi (tanggapan atas pertanyaan) 2211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Tiga Tahapan Dalam Penggunaan Sistem Informasi • Productivity: a measure of the output achieved divided by the input requirement, something like (Output/Input) x 100% • Competitive Advantage: a significant and (ideally) long- term benefit that enables company to perform better than its competitors • Quality: the ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations 2311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Manajemen 2411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Type Sistem Informasi KIND OF SYSTEM GROUPS SERVED STRATEGIC LEVEL SENIOR MANAGERS MANAGEMENT LEVEL MIDDLE MANAGERS KNOWLEDGE LEVEL KNOWLEDGE & DATA WORKERSOPERATIONAL OPERATIONALLEVEL MANAGERS SALES & MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING HUMAN 25 11/18/2008MARKETING PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG RESOURCES
  • Type Sistem Informasi• Executive Support • Batch vs Online Systems Processing• Management Information • Sistem Informasi Systems Fungsional• Decision Support • Distributed Systems vs Systems Client/Server Systems• Knowledge Work • Enterprise Resources Systems Planning System• Office Automation • Dukungan Pengambilan Systems Keputusan• Transaction Processing • Sistem Dukungan Systems Inteligen 2611/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Subsistem dari Sistem Informasi• SI (dapat) terdiri atas Subsistem: – Penjualan dan pemasukan • Subsistem dibagi atas pesanan subsistem, sebagai contoh Personalia dan Payroll: – Produksi – Penyiapan data masukan – Sediaan barang catatan personalia – Personalia dan payroll – Penyesuaian daftar gaji – Pembelian – Penyiapan data masukan daftar gaji – Perencanaan – Daftar gaji harian – Kecerdasan lingkungan – Daftar gaji bulanan – Laporan dafatar gaji untuk manajemen – Audit personalia dan dafatar gaji 2711/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Data base• Kumpulan data terdiri dari • Contoh – File – Data base Pegawai – Record – File: Pegawai – Field – Record: Sukamto – Karakter – Field: Nama, Alamat, NIP – Character: a, b,c 1,2, dll. 2811/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Type Sistem Informasi 2911/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Batch vs Realtime Processing• Batch – Pengolahan data secara tidak seketika – Entry data dikumpulkan dalam satu file secara serial – Ada perbedaan waktu yangcukup signifikan antara entry dan eksekusi data• Real Time Processing – Entry dan eksekusi data dilakukan seketika 3011/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) • Dimulai pada zaman “Data Processing” • OPERATIONAL LEVEL • INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS • PROCESSING: UPDATING • OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS • USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE11/18/2008 TPS TPS PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG 31
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) 3211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems • Distributed System – Entry dan pengolahan data secara tersebar, – Masing – masing komputer memiliki fasilitas jaringan dengan fasilitas yang sama • Client/Server – Sedikitnya satu komputer berfungsi sebagai server, sementara komputer lain yang terhubung menjadi client, – Server menyediakan NOS, – Aplikasi dapat ditempatkan di Server atau masing – masing nodes – Nodes memilii kemampuan pengolahan lokal 3311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Management Information Systems -1 • MANAGEMENT LEVEL • INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA • PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS • OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS • USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING 3411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Management Information Systems -2 • STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS • REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED • PAST & PRESENT DATA • INTERNAL ORIENTATION • LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS* 3511/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • TPS Data For MIS Applications TPS MIS Order Processing SALES DATA System ORDER FILE UNIT PRODUCT Materials Resource COST MIS REPORTS Planning System PRODUCT CHANGE PRODUCTION MASTER FILE DATA General Ledger EXPENSE MANAGERS System DATA ACCOUNTING FILES MIS FILES 3611/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Dalam Fungsi Pemasaran Sistem Deskripsi Level Organisasi Order Processing Entry, proses, dan track order Operasional Identifikasi pelanggan dan pasar menggunakan data Analisa Pasar Knowledge demografi, pasar, perilaku konsumen, dan trend Menentukan harga produk dan Analisa Harga Manajemen layanan Ramalan dan Tren Penyiapan ramalan penjualan Stratejik Penjualan 5 tahun 3711/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Pendekatan Tradisional 3811/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Enterprise System 3911/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi 4011/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Isu Di Dalam Pengelolaan TI • Acquisition: pengadaan/penyediaan TI – need (kebutuhan), – resources (sumber-daya), – time-frame (jangka waktu), dan – design of IS (rancangan sistem informasi). • Organization: prosedur pengelolaan, • Motivation: sumberdaya manusia, serta • Relationship: hubungan antara bagian Sistem Informasi dengan bagian-bagian lain di dalam organisasi 4111/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Acquisition (pengadaan TI) Need (kebutuhan) dari: • Size of the organization: besar kecilnya organisasi/perusahaan yang memerlukan TI. • Structure of the organization: struktur dari perusahaan. • Nature of operational: sifat dari operasional perusahaan, misalnya organisasi pemerintah, bisnis, dll. • Type of informationn needed (jenis informasi yang diperlukan),misalnya informasi mengenai keuangan, kepegawaian, dll. 4211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Strategi Sistem Informasi 4311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • The Role of Information Technology Add Value customers and markets Wisdom Knowledge Business Minimize Risks Value of Reduce Costs market, financial, legal, Information Information transactions and processes operational risks Technology Data Facts Create New Realities intelligence (social, political, technological, etc.) Gather Organize Select Synthesize Distribute 4411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • The Balanced of Resources has Changed Materials Machines Money Four Ms Plus Men Information 4511/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Strategic Systems• Connection to supplier & customer• Effective use of information in the value adding process• Enable to deliver new product/service• Provide executive with strategic information 4611/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Business, IS & IT Relationship Business Strategy External & External & Internal Internal • Business decisions Where is the business Factors • Objectives and direction going & why? Factors • Change Economy Direction for Supports Society business business Politics Law IS Strategy Ecology What is required? Technology • Business based Culture • Demand orientation • Application focused Stakeholders Needs & Infrastructure & service priorities IT Strategy • Activity Based How can it be • Supply oriented realized? 47 • Technology focused11/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • IT Roles in Business Process Reengineering SIMPLIFY INTEGRATEELIMINATE AUTOMATE 4811/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • MIT Theory of IT Evolution & Revolution HIGH Business Scope Redefinition Business Scope Redefinition Degree of Business Business Network Redesign Business Network Redesign Transformation Business Process Redesign Business Process Redesign Revolutionary Integration Evolutionary Integration Localized Exploitation Localized Exploitation LOW LOW HIGH Range of Potential Benefits 4911/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Internal Evolution of Information Technology FUNCTIONAL USE MANAGEMENT FOCUS 5 REMAIN IN BUSINESS Reaching the ORGANIZATIONAL 5 People Systems, Home Consumer EFFECTIVENESS Computers 4 5 Restructuring of the Industry Enhancing Executive 4 Restructuring of the MAKE MONEY Decision Making Organization 3 Growth and Increase in 4 Mega Decisions 3 Market Share 3 Marketing, Distribution, Customer Service Enhancing Products and Services Above the Line Below the Line 2 Leveraging Investment SAVE MONEY OPERATIONAL CONTROL 1 2 Financial, Manufacturing, 2 Asset Management Services Reducing Costs 1 Process Management 1 Administrative 5011/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Nature of IT Center Cost Profit Center Center I/T Investment Service Center Center 5111/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • IT Benefits Measurement Better Information Staff Reduction TANGIBLE HIGH Improved Security Lower Assets Lower Risk More Sales Market Reaction Faster Information LOW Access to New Staff Positive Staff Reaction LOW HIGH MEASURABLE 5211/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • IT and Business Alignment Vision Mission Value Objectives Critical Success Factors Key Performance Indicators Business Strategy I/T Strategy Business Process and Tactical Procedures DAY-TO-DAY OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES 5311/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Boeing Strategic Architecture Business Process What business Architecture processes should be used? drives What Information Standards information is Architecture needed to Product Groups accomplish prescribes those processes? Information Services How are the Information System processes and Architecture information related? identifies How is the Data Architecture data managed? Feedback support by Which hardware, Delivery System Architecture software, and Hardware, Software, Communications network are required? 5411/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Information System Strategic Planning ANALYSIS PROCESS INPUT BLUE PRINT & P K A INTERNAL R R THREE DOMAINS O T Corporate History Information System W N Requirements Business Plan T E TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION INFRASTRUCTURE Information Technology Existing Information R E STRUCTURE Supply Technology COMPANY S Information Management Constraints and Opportunities ASSETS N COMPANY Strategy Strength and Weakness GEOGRAPHICAL FINANCIAL TOPOLOGY VISION RESOURCES MISSION Approach and Methodology CSFs STRATEGIC PLANNING KPIs BUSINESS STRATEGY List of Scenarios EXTERNAL PROCESS CULTURE Risk Management PROCEDURES Industry Trend PEOPLE POLICIES Cost/Benefit Analysis Information Technology STANDARD Technical Design Development VALUE LEGAL Project Management S Competitor Analysis ASPECT H S Priorities Level and Schedule Benchmarking A R R Implementation Plan Best Practice E E D H L O Human Resource Skills and Competencies Requirements Macro Environment Change Management Ideology, Political Agenda, Economic Environment, Social and Culture, International Relationship, National Defense, Religion, Behaviors, 5511/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • New Type of Corporation KNOWLEDGE COMPANY Demand-Chain •Market Strategy •Customer Management Components •Product Design •Value Network Management •Marketing •E-Catalogues •E-Forms •E-Bulleting Boards Application •ERP •WWW •Chat Rooms Enablers •Email •EDI •Financial EDI •E-Collaboration •Electronic Funds •Value-Added Networks •Wide Area Networks Technology •Internet •E-Marketplaces Vehicles •Extranet •Intranet •Web TV •Private Network •Procure •Transportation •Inbound Logistics •Distribute Supply-Chain •Manufacturing •Delivery Components •Customer 5611/18/2008 PHYSICAL COMPANY PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG
  • Success Indicators 1. New Business (products/services) 2. New Market (customers) 3. New Revenue (business model) 4. New Company (business transformation) 5. New Image (business community) 6. New Wealth (paradigm shift) Etc. Key Points: • From “nothing” to “existing” • From “existing” to “creating” • From “creating” to “improving” • From “improving” to “growing” • From “growing” to “performing” 5711/18/2008 PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG