The mixture various gases like o2,co2,watervap-Our,nitrogen, etc is called air.It comprises of atmosphere-The multilayered gaseous envelope surroundingThe planet earth is called atmosphere.
Air :Air is a mixture of different gases.Atmosphere : The blanket of air which covers the earth . 1% 21% 78%
Atmosphere controls the temperature of planet.It generally makes the temperature constant.Different layers of atmosphere-1. Troposphere-10-20km2. Stratosphere-20-50km3. Mesosphere-50-100km4. Ionosphere-100-200km5. Exosphere –200-50km
Presence of various toxic gases in theatmosphere like carbon dioxide,carbon, mono oxiode, xides ofsulphur, nitrogen, fluoride,lead,nickel,arsenic,cadmium, etccauses Air Pollution.
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION-1. Heavy metals.2. Photochemical smog.3. Smokes.4. Ionizing radiation.5. Automobile exhaust.6. Biocides elements.7. Radioactive elements8 Industrial waste
Water- The most unusual natural compound found on earthand which fulfills almost various demands of different livingthings.About three fourth of the earth surface that is75 are covered with water.Now day’s water is also being polluted by human beings.
When water becomes unfit for drinking and other use then water issaid to be polluted.CAUSES OF WATER PLLLUTION1. Dumping of wastes from the industries into the water bodies.2. Washing near water bodies.3. Spraying chemical in water field.4.conducting various radioactive tests in water.5.dumping of cabbages and household wastes in to the waterbodies.
SOURES OF WATER-1.River.2.Pond.3.spring.4.well5.rainwases
Soil is the portion of the earth surface consisting of disintegratedrock and decaying organic material. It provides the support formany plants and animals
HOW SOIL IS FORMED?Soil is formed from the rock by under going the following two process-1.Weathering2.PaedogenesisOver long periods of time, thousand and millions of year, the rock at osurface of the earth are broken down by various physical, chemical abiological process. The end product of thisBreaking down in the fine particle of soilComposition of soil- 1.Gravel. 2.Sand particle. 3.Clay particle.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL1.Sandy soil.2.Clayey soil.3.Lomy soil.4.Residual soil.5.Black soil.6.Red soil.7.Laterite soil.8.Transported soil.9.Alluvial soil.10.Desert soil.11.Mountainous soil.SOIL EROSION- The process of removal of superficial fertile toplayer of soil by various agencies or forces is called soil erosion
FORMATION OF RAIN-Rain is formed by evaporation and condensationOf water through water cycle in which distribution of water takesplace.Rain is a very important things because it carries out all theagriculture processes in the plants.
FORMATION OF RAIN-Rain is formed by evaporation and condensationOf water through water cycle in which distribution of water takesplace.Rain is a very important things because it carries out all theagriculture processes in the plants.So, we should conserve rain by contracting dams, pools etc.
Water is a compound and includes two vital elements hydrogen andoxygen. It forms a veryImportant components of the environment and survival of all livingorganism depends on it. Ocean is the biggest store house of water which on evaporationfrom clouds and which after condensation down as rain or snow.After rain it passes through puddles, ponds and rivers and getcollect again in the ocean.
The circulation of water in this manner is known asHYDROLIC CYCLE or WATER CYCLE. This cycle isdrivenBy solar power and also per performed throughliving organisms such as absorption andtranspiration of water by plants and drinking byAnimal. The formation of soil, too, depends on water.
Nitrogen is another important chemical on earth and present in allthe living organism in the form of protein, amino acids and nucleicacids.Further process going on in this cycle they are-First nitrogen has to be converted into nitrates for the use of plants.This can be done either by industrial nitrogen fixation like by somenitrogen fixation bacteria such as azotobactor which convert theatmospheric nitrogen into nitrates which are soluble in water thisprocess is called nitrogen fixation.
After an animal excretes urea or uric acid or after an animalOr plants dies, certain bacteria carry out ammonification : theyproduce ammonia ions, or still other bacteria can change it tonitrate[NO3-] by nitrification. Plants take in some of the nitratesproduced in this way.The process of ammonia formation is called ammonification. Somemicroorganisms (nitrosomonas converted ammonia into nitrates)This process is called nitrification. Finally there are some(decomposer, e.g.…, pseudomonas) Which reduce nitrates back tonitrogen or to ammonia or to some other oxides. This process iscalled denitrification. Free nitrogen returns to atmospheric pooland oxides are taken up by plants.
The carbon is an important constituent of organic compoundsfound in all living things beings in the form of carbohydrates, fats,proteins, and nuclei acids. Like the water cycle is linked to energyflow because producers –Including photosynthetic plants of forests and oceans and chemosynthetic bacteria of deep-sea vents- require environmentalenergy (either sunlight or inorganic hydrogen compounds) to trapcarbon into sugars (proteins and fats).The trapped carbon comes from carbon dioxide in surroundingair or water.
As the cycle proceeds, consumers devour the organic carboncompounds that producers manufacture. Then, via respiration, bothconsumers and producers return carbon to the nonlivingenvironment in the form of carbon dioxide. Some carbonaccumulates for many years in wood and is eventually returned tothe atmosphere in fires or through consumption and respiration byfungi, bacteria and other detritibvores. Volcanic eruption alsoreleases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Thus, there is completecycling of carbon in the environment by various living andnonliving beings.
Oxygen is one of the constituents of water and form about21% of the air in the atmosphere. It is required forrespiration for all living organisms.Oxygen cycle runs through the following process-By burning the materials to produce oxygen combining withnitrogen to produce oxides of nitrogen, proteins, etc.These compounds after breaking down releases oxygen inthe atmosphere and maintain forever in the environment.These way oxygen cycle works
Increase in temperature of earth due to increase in concentration ofsome gases like co2, methane, water vapour, dust particles whichcauses melting of the glaciers or ice on the mountains whichincrease water level of water bodies, this increase in water levelcauses, submerging
The oxygen in the atmosphere is the source of ozone co3. Theozone layer protects organismsBy preventing most of the ultraviolet and X-ray from reaching theearth’s surface, otherwise it causes different disease like skincancer, cataract and other skin problems..Today, a global problem revolving our head that is the hole in theozone layer. This hole is in over the Antarctica and this haspassed the threat of damages to inhabitants of earth from short-wave ultraviolet rays.
Uneven heating of air over land and water bodies causes winds.Life on the depends on resources like soil, water, and air, andenergy from the sun. Evaporation of water from water bodies and subsequent condensation give us rain.Pollution of air, water, and soil affect the quality of life and harmthe biodiversity. Rainfall patterns depend on the prevailing wind patterns in an area.Various nutrients are used again and again in a cyclic fashion.This leads to a certain balance between the various components ofthe biosphere. We need to conserve our natural resources and use them in a sustainable manner.
•Life on earth depend on resources like soil, water and air andenergy from the sun.•Uneven heating of air over land and water bodies causeswinds.•Evaporation of water from water bodies and subsequentcondensation give us rain.•Rain fall pattern depend on the prevailing wind pattern in anarea.•Various nutrients are used again and again in a cyclicfashion. This leads to a certain balance between the variouscomponents of the biosphere.•Pollution of air, water and soil affect the quality of life andharm the biodiversity.•We need to conserve our natural resources and use them in asustainable manner.
•THERE ARE THIRTEEN NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR CROPS OF THESESIX ARE REQUIRED IN LARGE QUANTITES AND ARE KNOWN AS MACRONUTRIENTS WHEREIS SEVEN NUTRIENTS ARE REQUIRED IN SMALLQUANTITIES AND ARE KNOWN AS MICRO NUTRIENTS• MANURE AND FERTILIZERS ARE THE MAIN SOURCES OF NUTRIENTSUPPLY TO CROPS .• MIXED FARMING IS A SYSTEM OF FARMING ON A PARTICULAR FARMWHICH INCLUDES CROP PRODUCTION , RAISING OF LIVES STOCK ETC…• MIXED CROPPING IS GROWING OF TWO OR MORE CROPSSIMULTANEOUSLY ON THE SAME PIECE OF LAND• THE GROWING OF DIFFERENT CROPS ON A PIECE OF LAND IN PRE-PLANNED SUCCESSION IS CALLED CROP ROTATION .•GROWING TWO OR MORE CROPS IN DEFINITE ROW PATTERN IS
The condition including all the substances, forces andorganisms under which an organisms lives is called itsEnvironment. All living organisms including plants, animals and micro organisms form Biotic component. All living organisms including plants, animals and micro organisms form Biotic component. It consists of geographical conditions such as the temperature , rain fall , soil , seasons and the climate.