Solid waste


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Solid waste

  2. 2. 2 DEFINITIONS • The European Union defines waste as an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard. • Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 defines waste as: any substance or object which the producer or the person in possession of it, discards or intends or is required to discard but with exception of anything excluded from the scope of the Waste Directive.
  3. 3. 3 TYPES OF WASTES A. Generation and Characteristics Municipal Solid Waste Industrial Solid Waste Agricultural Waste and Residues Hazardous Waste Nuclear Waste
  4. 4. 4 Municipal solid waste • Generated from households, offices, hotels & institutions. • It comprises of food waste, paper, plastic, rags, metal and glass, construction debris, electric light bulbs, batteries, automotive parts and discarded medicines and chemicals.
  5. 5. 5 Industrial Solid Waste • Industrial solid waste encompasses a wide range of materials of varying environmental toxicity. • Typically this range would include paper, packaging materials, waste from food processing, oils, solvents, resins, paints and sludges, glass, ceramics, stones, metals, plastics, rubber, leather, wood, cloth, straw, abrasives, etc.
  6. 6. 6 Agricultural Waste and Residues • Expanding agricultural production has naturally resulted in increased quantities of livestock waste, agricultural crop residues and agro-industrial by-products.
  7. 7. 7 Hazardous Waste • A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. There are four factors that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous: • flammability • reactivity • corrosivity • toxicity
  8. 8. 8 Nuclear Waste • Nuclear waste is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear reactors & nuclear research projects. • Nuclear waste is divided into low, medium, and high-level waste by the amount of radioactivity the waste produces.
  9. 9. 9 B. Environmental Impacts of Waste • Nature's price- effect of chemicals and hazardous waste on soil and water conditions. • Animals- effect of chemicals on wildlife and food cycles. • Heath- waste accumulation breeds bacteria and is a good breeding area for vectors e.g. mosquitoes. • Eye sore to man - destruction of the beauty and tranquility of the earth. • Economy- the long term effects of waste on the environment are hard to see so it is much easier to ignore our waste now and leave the future generation to literally pay the price.
  10. 10. 10 Waste processing and control (a) Collection and Transfer • door-to-door collection • indirect collection - containers, communal bins placed near markets, in residential areas and other appropriate locations. Municipal Solid Waste/ Industrial Solid Waste
  11. 11. 11 (b) Material Recovery, Reuse and Recycling Recycling involves processing used waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.
  12. 12. 12 (c) Disposal Methods for MSW/ISW Open Dumping Land filling Incineration
  13. 13. 13 Open Dumping • Most widespread method of solid waste disposal • Uncontrolled disposal of waste without measures to control leachate, dust, odor, landfill gas or vermin. • Open burning of waste is practiced at dumpsites. • Waste is dumped along the shoreline and into the sea. Drawbacks : • scarcity of available land. • build-up of landfill gas (predominantly methane), which can led to outbreaks of fire and adverse health effects on workers and adjacent residents.
  14. 14. 14 Landfilling • disposal of waste materials by burial • Its impacts includes, - fatal accidents - infrastructure damage - pollution of local environment - Off gassing of landfill gas (Methane) - harboring of disease vectors
  15. 15. 15 Incineration • Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. • Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. • Incinerators reduce the mass of the original waste by 80–85 % and the volume by 95-96 %.
  16. 16. 16 Bio-Medical Waste • ‘Bio-medical waste’ means any solid and/or liquid waste including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals.
  17. 17. 17 Environmental Concern • Spread of infection and disease. • Spread of infection through contact/injury among medical/non-medical personnel and sweepers/rag pickers • Spread of infection through unauthorized recycling of disposable items • Reaction due to use of discarded medicines • Toxic emissions from defective/inefficient incinerators. • Indiscriminate disposal of incinerator ash / residues.
  18. 18. 18 E-Waste • Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap. • Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants.
  19. 19. 19 Responsibilities of the Citizen • Recycling. Donating electronics for reuse extends the lives of valuable products and keeps them out of the waste management system for a longer time. • Reuse after repair. • E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This should be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations. • While buying electronic products opt for those that: – are made with fewer toxic constituents – use recycled content – are energy efficient – are designed for easy upgrading or disassembly – utilize minimal packaging – offer leasing or take back options – have been certified by regulatory authorities. Customers should opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic items to the latest versions rather than buying new equipments.
  20. 20. 20 Waste hierarchy • The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance. • The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
  21. 21. 21 Re-thinking Waste • Reduce - to buy less and use less. • Incorporates common sense ideas like turning off the lights, and taking shorter showers, low-flow toilets, and programmable thermostats. • Use Car pool & public transport
  22. 22. 22 • Generate energy - capturing useful material for waste to energy programs. Includes Methane Collection, Gasification and Digestion, and the term Recover. • Incinerate - high temperature destruction of material. Differs from Gasification in that oxygen is used; differs from burning in that high temperatures consume material efficiently and emissions are controlled.
  23. 23. 23 Waste Treatment Technologies Composting Anaerobic digestion Gasification Waste autoclave
  24. 24. 24 Composting • treating solid waste in which organic material is broken down by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to a point where it can be safely stored, handled and applied to the environment. • essential part of reducing household wastes, garden wastes. • can be done inexpensively by every household and produce a product -- finished compost or humus -- that can benefit the environment as a natural fertilizer for gardening and farming.
  25. 25. 25 Anaerobic digestion • Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy. • Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate which is also produced can be used as fertilizer.
  26. 26. 26 Gasification • Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials, such as coal, petroleum, biofuel, or biomass, into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the raw material, such as house waste, or compost at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The resulting gas mixture is called synthesis gas or Syn-gas and is itself a fuel. Gasification is a method for extracting energy from many different types of organic materials.
  27. 27. 27 Waste autoclave • solid waste treatment that utilizes heat, steam and pressure of an industrial autoclave in the processing of waste. • waste autoclaves process waste in batches. Saturated steam is pumped into the autoclave at temperatures around 160°C. The pressure in the vessel is maintained at 5 bar gauge for a period of up to 45 minutes to allow the process to fully 'cook' the waste. • The autoclave process gives a very high pathogen and virus kill rate.
  28. 28. 28 Various WM NGO’s • TOXICSLINK - 9/5 (2nd Floor), Second Street, Padmanabha Nagar, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 T: 91-44- 42607642 E:, • SIPCOT Area Community Environmental Monitor Cuddalore District Consumer Protection Organization 72/7, Nethaji Road, Manjakuppam, Cuddalore – 607001 Tel: 04142 23097 • Independent Consultant* - Raghavan Dr. Sekar - Tree plantation awareness, water harvesting, waste water recycle, waste management, eco-sanitation - Chennai • Independent Consultant* - Subash, Mr. - Municipal Solid waste Management, Vermi composting, Grey Water Recycling, Tree Plantation, Kitchen Garden and Organic farming – Chennai • * Source - wikipedia
  29. 29. 29 • EXNORA GREEN CROSS - 1/15, Kesavapillai street, Ist cross, Sainathapuram, Vellore 632001, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India Phone : 0416-2263500 / 0416-2264500 (Off) email :, • Eco Friendly Environment Conservation Trust - 17/181-A/1-A, Sivanadi Road, Kodaikanal – 624101 Tamil Nadu Tel : 91-4542-243129, 91-4542-245129 Email : • Green World Trust -29, Vijayalaxmi Nagar, Nagamangalam, Trichy - 620012 Tamil Nadu Tel : 91-431-2906253 Email : and Contact Person : B.Jayapal Purpose : Solid waste MGT
  30. 30. 30 Available Management Courses • Annamalai University – Distance Education – PG Diploma in Waste Management, Environmental Management – 1 year – Fees : INR 40000/- • BSI Management Systems India Pvt. Ltd. Plot No. 1987, H-Block 5th Street, 2th Main Road, Anna Nagar Chennai 600040 India Telephone: +91 (0)44 2616 0694 Courses in ISO 14001 – Env.Mgmt Systems • Short-term Course – Tamil Nadu Agricultural University – Waste Management. • Post Graduate - M.V.Sc. - MADRAS VETERINARY COLLEGE - Environmental hygiene and Waste Management.
  31. 31. 31 Books & Magazine • Municipal solid waste management / N.N. Bandela, D.G. Tare • Integrated solid waste management model / Rudy S. Prawiradinata • The practical guide to waste management law [electronic resource] / R.G.P. Hawkins, H.S. Shaw • Electronic waste management / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison • Waste management for the food industries / authored by Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis • Nuclear waste management : accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program / Paul W. Wang, editor, Tiffany Zachry, editor ; sponsored by the ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology • Municipal solid waste management : strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions / Christian Ludwig, Stefanie Hellweg, Samuel Stucki, editors • Handbook of solid waste management and waste minimization technologies / Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff • Environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison • Economics of solid waste management / by Mabel Ho Swee Ing • Ho, Mabel Swee Ing. • The economics of residential solid waste management / Thomas C. Kinnaman, Don Fullerton • Solid waste management : technology assessment / / by the General Electric Company • Handbook on hospital solid waste management / [by] Frank L. Cross, Jr. and George Noble
  32. 32. 32 • Let’s Talk Trash: The Kids’ Book About Recycling - David, Fassler & Kelly McQueen • Fifty Simple Things Kids Can Do to Recycle by Earthworks Group Staff Publisher: Earth Works • Where Does Garbage Go? by Isaac Asimov Publisher: Gareth Stevens, Inc. • Dear Garbage Man by Gene Zion. New York: Harper Collins, 1988 (paperback) • Let's Compost by Nancy Hansen.
  33. 33. 33 WM Journals • Compost Science and Utilization A quarterly peer-reviewed journal focusing on management techniques to improve compost process control and product quality, with special emphasis on utilization of composted materials. Must reading for professionals seriously involved in the composting process — project managers, planners, researchers, consultants, municipal officials, and libraries. • Waste Management World 'Waste Management World”, ISWA’s official newsmagazine is published by ISWA and PennWell, UK, 6 times a year. One issue a year will incorporate the International Directory of Solid Waste Management with a listing of ISWA Members as well as a classified listing of waste management companies.
  34. 34. 34 • MSW Management MSW Management is written for professionals working in the solid waste management industry. Our readers are those who plan, site, build, engineer, maintain, monitor and operate private or public-sector solid waste landfills, solid waste and recycling collection and disposal systems, composting operations, yard waste processing operations, incinerators, and all other operations and facilities that are used to manage our solid wastes. MSW Management was established in 1991 and is published 7 times each year, reaching about 25,000 subscribers with each issue. • Waste Management & Research Waste Management Research satisfies the growing demand for essential information that can be practically applied by those who are responsible for the management of solid waste. The journal publishes results from a broad cross section of researchers and practitioners in the field, from academic institutions, governments and the private sector.
  35. 35. 35 • Waste Management International Journal of Integrated Waste Management, Science and Technology Waste Management is an international journal devoted to the presentation and discussion of information on the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and ultimate residual disposition of solid wastes, both in industrialized and in economically developing countries. The journal addresses various types of solid wastes including municipal (e.g., residential, institutional, commercial, light industrial), agricultural, and special (e.g., C and D, health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge). • Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management is an official publication of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts. The aim of the journal is to reflect the role of the Society, which is to develop solutions and prescriptions for material cycles. The focus of the journal is twofold: research in technical, political, and environmental problems of material cycles and waste management, and information that contributes to the development of an interdisciplinary science of material cycles and waste management.
  36. 36. 36 • International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM) The objectives of IJEWM are to establish an effective channel of communication between policy-makers, government agencies, academics and research institutions, and professionals working in the field, and to provide a forum for them to disseminate information. The international dimension is emphasized in order to overcome cultural and national barriers and to meet the needs of accelerating technological change and changes in the global economy. It will serve as a vehicle for the documentation and dissemination of what government bodies, research agencies, international bodies, universities, aid agencies, industries, and environmental scientists and professionals are doing in the areas of environmental and waste management. • The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management It is an international peer-reviewed journal covering landfill, recycling, waste-to- energy, waste reduction, waste policy, waste economics, composting, waste transfer, waste collection, municipal waste, industrial waste, residual waste and other MSW - municipal solid waste management and technology subjects.
  37. 37. 37 Enterprises and waste management solution providers • ENVIRO SOLUTIONS & SERVICES - undertakes Design, Engineering, Manufacturing, Installation of Water/Waste Water Treatment plants and Air Pollution Control Systems. We offer environmental consulting services (EIA/EMP) • 0/2, Fifth Cross Extension, Bharathi Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu - 641 006, India •, • Telephone:+(91)-(422)-2512575 Mobile:+(91)-9843030427 • ENVIRO CARE INDIA PVT LTD - engaged in offering valuable consultancy in the field of Environmental Management. Committed to serve clients with operation and maintenance services of water treatment plants, effluent treatment plants and sewage treatment plants along with environmental laboratory analysis, waste disposal land filling, maintenance of treatment plant, pollution control system analysis, air pollution monitoring system, process stack monitoring system, treat ability studies. • Mr. S. T. Moorthy No. 22, Ist Cross Street,, West CIT Nagar, Near Nanthi Statue, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 035, •, • Telephone:+(91)-(44)-42867084/ +(91)-(452)-4355103 Mobile:+(91)-9994896263/ 9003923702
  38. 38. 38 • TATIA GLOBAL VENNTURE LIMITED – provides solutions in Biomass, Energy Auditing, Solar Products, Solid Waste Management,Wind Energy products. • Ms. Suseela Devi • 3rd Floor Aroshree Towers, 19 Rutland Gate, Nungambakkam, Chennai- 600 006 • Telephone: +(91)-(44)-64585921 • VNS Enviro Biotechq Pvt. Ltd - envisions a safer ecological environment which has led to the development and integration of cost effective, highly efficient and secured solutions rendering the Earth Clean and Green and Water on this Planet Pure & Safe. • Plot No. 69-B, Subiksha Flats, Daniel Street, Puzhuthivakkam Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 091, India •, • Telephone:+(91)-(44)-65392874 Mobile:+(91)-9940189452