• The European Union defines waste as an object the holder
discards, intends to discard or is required to discard.
• Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 defines waste
as: any substance or object which the producer or the person in
possession of it, discards or intends or is required to discard
but with exception of anything excluded from the scope of the
TYPES OF WASTES
A. Generation and Characteristics
Municipal Solid Waste
Industrial Solid Waste
Agricultural Waste and Residues
Municipal solid waste
• Generated from households, offices, hotels & institutions.
• It comprises of food waste, paper, plastic, rags, metal and
glass, construction debris, electric light bulbs, batteries,
automotive parts and discarded medicines and chemicals.
Industrial Solid Waste
• Industrial solid waste encompasses a wide range of materials
of varying environmental toxicity.
• Typically this range would include paper, packaging materials,
waste from food processing, oils, solvents, resins, paints and
sludges, glass, ceramics, stones, metals, plastics, rubber,
leather, wood, cloth, straw, abrasives, etc.
Agricultural Waste and Residues
• Expanding agricultural production has naturally resulted in
increased quantities of livestock waste, agricultural crop
residues and agro-industrial by-products.
• A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential
threats to public health or the environment. There are four
factors that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous:
• Nuclear waste is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear
reactors & nuclear research projects.
• Nuclear waste is divided into low, medium, and high-level
waste by the amount of radioactivity the waste produces.
B. Environmental Impacts of Waste
• Nature's price- effect of chemicals and hazardous waste on soil
and water conditions.
• Animals- effect of chemicals on wildlife and food cycles.
• Heath- waste accumulation breeds bacteria and is a good
breeding area for vectors e.g. mosquitoes.
• Eye sore to man - destruction of the beauty and tranquility of
• Economy- the long term effects of waste on the environment
are hard to see so it is much easier to ignore our waste now
and leave the future generation to literally pay the price.
Waste processing and control
(a) Collection and Transfer
• door-to-door collection
• indirect collection - containers, communal bins placed near
markets, in residential areas and other appropriate locations.
Municipal Solid Waste/ Industrial Solid Waste
(b) Material Recovery, Reuse and Recycling
Recycling involves processing used waste materials into new
products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials,
reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy
usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water
pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for
"conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas
emissions as compared to virgin production.
(c) Disposal Methods for MSW/ISW
• Most widespread
method of solid waste
• Uncontrolled disposal of
waste without measures
to control leachate, dust,
odor, landfill gas or
• Open burning of waste
is practiced at
• Waste is dumped along
the shoreline and into
• scarcity of available land.
• build-up of landfill gas
which can led to outbreaks
of fire and adverse health
effects on workers and
• disposal of waste materials by burial
• Its impacts includes,
- fatal accidents
- infrastructure damage
- pollution of local environment
- Off gassing of landfill gas (Methane)
- harboring of disease vectors
• Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the
combustion of organic substances contained in waste
• Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash,
flue gas, and heat.
• Incinerators reduce the mass of the original waste by 80–85 %
and the volume by 95-96 %.
• ‘Bio-medical waste’ means any
solid and/or liquid waste
including its container and any
intermediate product, which is
generated during the diagnosis,
treatment or immunization of
human beings or animals.
• Spread of infection and disease.
• Spread of infection through contact/injury among
medical/non-medical personnel and sweepers/rag pickers
• Spread of infection through unauthorized recycling of
• Reaction due to use of discarded medicines
• Toxic emissions from defective/inefficient incinerators.
• Indiscriminate disposal of incinerator ash / residues.
• Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap.
• Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants
such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame
Responsibilities of the Citizen
• Recycling. Donating electronics for reuse extends the lives of valuable products
and keeps them out of the waste management system for a longer time.
• Reuse after repair.
• E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This
should be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations.
• While buying electronic products opt for those that:
– are made with fewer toxic constituents
– use recycled content
– are energy efficient
– are designed for easy upgrading or disassembly
– utilize minimal packaging
– offer leasing or take back options
– have been certified by regulatory authorities. Customers should
opt for upgrading their computers or other electronic items to the
latest versions rather than buying new equipments.
• The waste hierarchy refers
to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse
and recycle, which classify
strategies according to their
desirability. The 3Rs are
meant to be a hierarchy, in
order of importance.
• The aim of the waste
hierarchy is to extract the
maximum practical benefits
from products and to
generate the minimum
amount of waste.
• Reduce - to buy less and use less.
• Incorporates common sense ideas like turning off the lights,
and taking shorter showers, low-flow toilets, and
• Use Car pool & public transport
• Generate energy - capturing useful material for waste to
energy programs. Includes Methane Collection, Gasification
and Digestion, and the term Recover.
• Incinerate - high temperature destruction of material. Differs
from Gasification in that oxygen is used; differs from burning
in that high temperatures consume material efficiently and
emissions are controlled.
• treating solid waste in which
organic material is broken down
by microorganisms in the
presence of oxygen to a point
where it can be safely stored,
handled and applied to the
• essential part of reducing
household wastes, garden wastes.
• can be done inexpensively by
every household and produce a
product -- finished compost or
humus -- that can benefit the
environment as a natural fertilizer
for gardening and farming.
• Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which
microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the
absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to
manage waste and/or to release energy.
• Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a renewable energy
source because the process produces a methane and carbon
dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production, helping to
replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate which is also
produced can be used as fertilizer.
• Gasification is a process that
converts carbonaceous materials,
such as coal, petroleum, biofuel,
or biomass, into carbon monoxide
and hydrogen by reacting the raw
material, such as house waste, or
compost at high temperatures
with a controlled amount of
oxygen and/or steam. The
resulting gas mixture is called
synthesis gas or Syn-gas and is
itself a fuel. Gasification is a
method for extracting energy
from many different types of
• solid waste treatment that utilizes heat, steam and pressure of
an industrial autoclave in the processing of waste.
• waste autoclaves process waste in batches. Saturated steam is
pumped into the autoclave at temperatures around 160°C. The
pressure in the vessel is maintained at 5 bar gauge for a period
of up to 45 minutes to allow the process to fully 'cook' the
• The autoclave process gives a very high pathogen and virus
Various WM NGO’s
• TOXICSLINK - http://www.toxicslink.org
9/5 (2nd Floor), Second Street, Padmanabha Nagar, Adyar, Chennai 600 020
T: 91-44- 42607642 E: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
• SIPCOT Area Community Environmental Monitor http://www.sipcotcuddalore.com
Cuddalore District Consumer Protection Organization
72/7, Nethaji Road, Manjakuppam, Cuddalore – 607001 Tel: 04142 23097
• Independent Consultant* - Raghavan Dr. Sekar - Tree plantation awareness, water
harvesting, waste water recycle, waste management, eco-sanitation - Chennai
• Independent Consultant* - Subash, Mr. - Municipal Solid waste Management, Vermi
composting, Grey Water Recycling, Tree Plantation, Kitchen Garden and Organic farming –
• * Source - wikipedia
• EXNORA GREEN CROSS - http://www.exnoragreencross-vellore.org
1/15, Kesavapillai street, Ist cross, Sainathapuram, Vellore 632001, Vellore District, Tamil
Nadu, India Phone : 0416-2263500 / 0416-2264500 (Off)
email : email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
• Eco Friendly Environment Conservation Trust - http://efectkodaigreen.tripod.com
17/181-A/1-A, Sivanadi Road, Kodaikanal – 624101 Tamil Nadu
Tel : 91-4542-243129, 91-4542-245129 Email : email@example.com
• Green World Trust -29, Vijayalaxmi Nagar, Nagamangalam, Trichy - 620012
Tamil Nadu Tel : 91-431-2906253 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
Contact Person : B.Jayapal Purpose : Solid waste MGT
Available Management Courses
• Annamalai University – Distance Education – PG Diploma in Waste
Management, Environmental Management – 1 year – Fees : INR
• BSI Management Systems India Pvt. Ltd.
Plot No. 1987, H-Block
5th Street, 2th Main Road, Anna Nagar Chennai 600040 India Telephone:
+91 (0)44 2616 0694
Courses in ISO 14001 – Env.Mgmt Systems
• Short-term Course – Tamil Nadu Agricultural University – Waste
• Post Graduate - M.V.Sc. - MADRAS VETERINARY COLLEGE -
Environmental hygiene and Waste Management.
Books & Magazine
• Municipal solid waste management / N.N. Bandela, D.G. Tare
• Integrated solid waste management model / Rudy S. Prawiradinata
• The practical guide to waste management law [electronic resource] / R.G.P. Hawkins, H.S.
• Electronic waste management / editors, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison
• Waste management for the food industries / authored by Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis
• Nuclear waste management : accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science
Program / Paul W. Wang, editor, Tiffany Zachry, editor ; sponsored by the ACS Division of
Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
• Municipal solid waste management : strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions /
Christian Ludwig, Stefanie Hellweg, Samuel Stucki, editors
• Handbook of solid waste management and waste minimization technologies / Nicholas P.
• Environmental and health impact of solid waste management activities / editors, R.E. Hester
and R.M. Harrison
• Economics of solid waste management / by Mabel Ho Swee Ing
• Ho, Mabel Swee Ing.
• The economics of residential solid waste management / Thomas C. Kinnaman, Don Fullerton
• Solid waste management : technology assessment / / by the General Electric Company
• Handbook on hospital solid waste management / [by] Frank L. Cross, Jr. and George Noble
• Let’s Talk Trash: The Kids’ Book About Recycling - David, Fassler &
• Fifty Simple Things Kids Can Do to Recycle
by Earthworks Group Staff
Publisher: Earth Works
• Where Does Garbage Go?
by Isaac Asimov
Publisher: Gareth Stevens, Inc.
• Dear Garbage Man
by Gene Zion.
New York: Harper Collins, 1988 (paperback)
• Let's Compost
by Nancy Hansen.
• Compost Science and
A quarterly peer-reviewed journal
focusing on management
techniques to improve compost
process control and product
quality, with special emphasis on
utilization of composted
materials. Must reading for
professionals seriously involved
in the composting process —
project managers, planners,
municipal officials, and libraries.
• Waste Management World
'Waste Management World”,
ISWA’s official newsmagazine is
published by ISWA and
PennWell, UK, 6 times a year.
One issue a year will incorporate
the International Directory of
Solid Waste Management with a
listing of ISWA Members as well
as a classified listing of waste
• MSW Management
MSW Management is written for professionals
working in the solid waste management
industry. Our readers are those who plan,
site, build, engineer, maintain, monitor and
operate private or public-sector solid waste
landfills, solid waste and recycling
collection and disposal systems,
composting operations, yard waste
processing operations, incinerators, and all
other operations and facilities that are used
to manage our solid wastes. MSW
Management was established in 1991 and
is published 7 times each year, reaching
about 25,000 subscribers with each issue.
• Waste Management &
Waste Management Research satisfies the
growing demand for essential information
that can be practically applied by those
who are responsible for the management of
solid waste. The journal publishes results
from a broad cross section of researchers
and practitioners in the field, from
academic institutions, governments and the
• Waste Management
International Journal of Integrated
Waste Management, Science and
Waste Management is an international journal
devoted to the presentation and discussion
of information on the generation,
prevention, characterization, monitoring,
treatment, handling, reuse and ultimate
residual disposition of solid wastes, both
in industrialized and in economically
developing countries. The journal
addresses various types of solid wastes
including municipal (e.g., residential,
institutional, commercial, light industrial),
agricultural, and special (e.g., C and D,
health care, household hazardous wastes,
• Journal of Material Cycles and
The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste
Management is an official publication of
the Japan Society of Waste Management
Experts. The aim of the journal is to reflect
the role of the Society, which is to develop
solutions and prescriptions for material
cycles. The focus of the journal is twofold:
research in technical, political, and
environmental problems of material cycles
and waste management, and information
that contributes to the development of an
interdisciplinary science of material cycles
and waste management.
• International Journal of
Environment and Waste
The objectives of IJEWM are to establish an
effective channel of communication
between policy-makers, government
agencies, academics and research
institutions, and professionals working in
the field, and to provide a forum for them
to disseminate information. The
international dimension is emphasized in
order to overcome cultural and national
barriers and to meet the needs of
accelerating technological change and
changes in the global economy. It will
serve as a vehicle for the documentation
and dissemination of what government
bodies, research agencies, international
bodies, universities, aid agencies,
industries, and environmental scientists
and professionals are doing in the areas of
environmental and waste management.
• The Journal of Solid Waste
Technology and Management
It is an international peer-reviewed journal
covering landfill, recycling, waste-to-
energy, waste reduction, waste policy,
waste economics, composting, waste
transfer, waste collection, municipal waste,
industrial waste, residual waste and other
MSW - municipal solid waste management
and technology subjects.
Enterprises and waste management
• ENVIRO SOLUTIONS & SERVICES - undertakes Design, Engineering, Manufacturing,
Installation of Water/Waste Water Treatment plants and Air Pollution Control Systems. We
offer environmental consulting services (EIA/EMP)
• 0/2, Fifth Cross Extension, Bharathi Nagar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu - 641 006, India
• Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
• Telephone:+(91)-(422)-2512575 Mobile:+(91)-9843030427
• ENVIRO CARE INDIA PVT LTD - engaged in offering valuable consultancy in the field of
Environmental Management. Committed to serve clients with operation and maintenance
services of water treatment plants, effluent treatment plants and sewage treatment plants along
with environmental laboratory analysis, waste disposal land filling, maintenance of treatment
plant, pollution control system analysis, air pollution monitoring system, process stack
monitoring system, treat ability studies.
• Mr. S. T. Moorthy
No. 22, Ist Cross Street,, West CIT Nagar, Near Nanthi Statue, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600
• Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
• Telephone:+(91)-(44)-42867084/ +(91)-(452)-4355103 Mobile:+(91)-9994896263/
• TATIA GLOBAL VENNTURE LIMITED – provides solutions in Biomass, Energy
Auditing, Solar Products, Solid Waste Management,Wind Energy products.
• Ms. Suseela Devi
• 3rd Floor Aroshree Towers, 19 Rutland Gate, Nungambakkam, Chennai- 600 006
• Telephone: +(91)-(44)-64585921
• VNS Enviro Biotechq Pvt. Ltd - envisions a safer ecological environment which has led
to the development and integration of cost effective, highly efficient and secured solutions
rendering the Earth Clean and Green and Water on this Planet Pure & Safe.
• Plot No. 69-B, Subiksha Flats, Daniel Street, Puzhuthivakkam
Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 091, India
• Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
• Telephone:+(91)-(44)-65392874 Mobile:+(91)-9940189452