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  2. 2. FILTERING • It refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. • The major determinant of filtering is the number of levels in an organization's structure. • The more vertical levels the more the filtering , especially in cases of status differences. • Factors such as fear of conveying bad news and the desire to please one’s boss often lead’s the employees to tell the superiors what they want to hear. • For example: when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear, he is a filtering information.
  3. 3. Selective perception • Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as to suit our own needs. • Much of this process is psychological and often unconscious. Have you ever been accused of only hearing what you want to hear. In fact, that is quite true. • We simply are bombarded with too much stimuli every day to pay equal attention to everything so we pick and choose according to our own needs.
  4. 4. Information overload • One of the major problems faced today in the organizations is the availability of huge amount of data which the receiver is unable to handle. • Receiver should receive only that amount of facts and figures at a time that he/she can absorb. • Major points should be highlighted leaving out all the irrelevant ones. • This kind of reducing can reduce the problem of information overload to a great extent. • This relates in anxiety, stress, delay in decision making, no job satisfaction etc.
  5. 5. EMOTIONS • How the receiver feels at the time of the receipt of a communication influences how she or he interprets it. • The same message one receives when you are sad, angry etc. is different when compared to happiness. • Extreme emotions such as depression is going to hamper the effective communication. • In such, instances we are more prone to disregard our rational, objective thinking processes and substitute with emotional judgments. • For example: negative emotions
  6. 6. LANGUAGE • Even when you are communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people. • Age and context are two biggest factors that influence a language a person uses. • The point is although you and I probably speak a common’s language our usage of language is far from uniform. • Sender’s tend to assume that the words and terms they use the mean the same to the receiver as well. • for example: Communication problems in the workplace can cost your company productivity and money. Without efficient communication, your company is unable to exchange information essential to daily operations and create a communication network to carry new product data.
  7. 7. COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION Lots of people are scared of speaking in front of a group, but this is a serious problem because it affects a whole category of communication processes. • People who suffer from this experience undue tension and anxiety in oral, written communication or both. • For example: oral apprehensions may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or may become extremely anxious when they have to use the telephone. • For example: Formal situations rather than informal ones are tend to be more restrictive with more rigid behavior rules and communication apprehension increases therein because of the narrower confines. Similarly, communication apprehension can result when a person is in a subordinate position because the person with the higher status defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior.
  8. 8. GENDER DIFFERENCES • Men and women communicate for different reasons with different styles. • Women have a tendency to offer advice. To men, this leads to accusations that they "think they know everything.“ • To a man, this is a threatening behavior. He will see the solution to the problem as something that he should be able to deliver. Any attempt by the woman to do this is a challenge to his competency as man. • Conversely, men are inclined to go into solution mode. This very often oversimplifies a problem and ignores some of the more-sensitive issues involved. • The woman accuses the man of "ignoring how she feels," and a barrier arises
  9. 9. LACK OF INTEREST • Sometimes, there are some things that we are just not interested in. Of all the subjects that students learn to complete their degree, they cannot love all. • There will be the ONE or TWO subject that we have to suffer to stay awake for. A lack of interest in what someone has to say will definitely lead to a breakdown in communication. • This happens from both the sender’s and the receiver’s side. • Problems from the sender’s side: lack of planning, vagueness about the topic, objectives, choice of wrong language, wrong choice of the channel etc. • Problems from the receiver’s side: poor listener, lack of interest, different perception of the reality, mistrust, in attention, semantic difficulties etc.
  10. 10. THANK YOU