• It refers to a sender’s purposely
manipulating information so it will be
seen more favorably by the receiver.
• The major determinant of filtering is the
number of levels in an organization's
• The more vertical levels the more the
filtering , especially in cases of status
• Factors such as fear of conveying bad
news and the desire to please one’s boss
often lead’s the employees to tell the
superiors what they want to hear.
• For example: when a manager tells his
boss what he feels his boss wants to hear,
he is a filtering information.
• Selective perception is the
personal filtering of what we see
and hear so as to suit our own
• Much of this process is
psychological and often
unconscious. Have you ever been
accused of only hearing what you
want to hear. In fact, that is quite
• We simply are bombarded with
too much stimuli every day to
pay equal attention to everything
so we pick and choose according
to our own needs.
• One of the major problems faced
today in the organizations is the
availability of huge amount of data
which the receiver is unable to handle.
• Receiver should receive only that
amount of facts and figures at a time
that he/she can absorb.
• Major points should be highlighted
leaving out all the irrelevant ones.
• This kind of reducing can reduce the
problem of information overload to a
• This relates in anxiety, stress, delay in
decision making, no job satisfaction
• How the receiver feels at the time of the
receipt of a communication influences how
she or he interprets it.
• The same message one receives when you
are sad, angry etc. is different when
compared to happiness.
• Extreme emotions such as depression is
going to hamper the effective
• In such, instances we are more prone to
disregard our rational, objective thinking
processes and substitute with emotional
• For example: negative emotions
• Even when you are communicating in the
same language, words mean different things
to different people.
• Age and context are two biggest factors that
influence a language a person uses.
• The point is although you and I probably
speak a common’s language our usage of
language is far from uniform.
• Sender’s tend to assume that the words and
terms they use the mean the same to the
receiver as well.
• for example: Communication problems in
the workplace can cost your company
productivity and money. Without efficient
communication, your company is unable to
exchange information essential to daily
operations and create a communication
network to carry new product data.
Lots of people are scared of speaking in front of a
group, but this is a serious problem because it affects a
whole category of communication processes.
• People who suffer from this experience undue
tension and anxiety in oral, written communication
• For example: oral apprehensions may find it
extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or
may become extremely anxious when they have to
use the telephone.
• For example: Formal situations rather than informal
ones are tend to be more restrictive with more rigid
behavior rules and communication apprehension
increases therein because of the narrower confines.
Similarly, communication apprehension can result
when a person is in a subordinate position because
the person with the higher status defines the
boundaries of acceptable behavior.
• Men and women communicate for different
reasons with different styles.
• Women have a tendency to offer advice. To
men, this leads to accusations that they
"think they know everything.“
• To a man, this is a threatening behavior. He
will see the solution to the problem as
something that he should be able to deliver.
Any attempt by the woman to do this is a
challenge to his competency as man.
• Conversely, men are inclined to go into
solution mode. This very often
oversimplifies a problem and ignores some
of the more-sensitive issues involved.
• The woman accuses the man of "ignoring
how she feels," and a barrier arises
LACK OF INTEREST
• Sometimes, there are some things that we are just not
interested in. Of all the subjects that students learn to
complete their degree, they cannot love all.
• There will be the ONE or TWO subject that we have to suffer
to stay awake for. A lack of interest in what someone has to
say will definitely lead to a breakdown in communication.
• This happens from both the sender’s and the receiver’s side.
• Problems from the sender’s side: lack of planning, vagueness
about the topic, objectives, choice of wrong language, wrong
choice of the channel etc.
• Problems from the receiver’s side: poor listener, lack of
interest, different perception of the reality, mistrust, in
attention, semantic difficulties etc.