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Leadership

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  • 1. LEADERSHIP A Social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational objectives. The ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals.
  • 2. Transactional Leaders  Contingent Reward – exchange of rewards for effort.  Management by Exception(active) – watches and searches for deviations from the rule, takes corrective action.  Management by Exception (passive) – intervenes only if standards are not met.  Laissez-faire – abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
  • 3. Transformational Leaders  Charisma – provides vision and sense of mission  Inspiration – communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.  Intellectual Stimulation – promotes intelligence, rationality and creative problem solving.  Individualized consideration – gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises.
  • 4. Leadership Theories Trait Theory - Leaders are born not made. A leader trait is a personality characteristic that differentiates a leader from followers.  Ambition and Energy  Drive to Lead  Honesty and Integrity  Self Confidence  Intelligence  Job Relevant knowledge  High Self motivators.
  • 5. Behaviour Theories Ohio-State Studies : There are two independent dimensions of Leader behaviour.  Initiating Structure – Organizing and defining what group members should be doing.  Consideration – creating mutual respect and trust with followers.
  • 6. Behaviour Theories Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (5 quadrants) 1.Country Club Management – thoughtful attention to needs of people leading to a comfortable, friendly organization. 2. Impoverished Management – leader fails to provide necessary structure. Shows little consideration for employee needs and wants
  • 7. Behaviour Theories Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (5 quadrants) 3. Organization man management – adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get the work done. Employee morale is maintained at satisfactory level. 4. Authority-obedience – primary importance is placed on structuring employee tasks while leader demonstrates little consideration for employees.
  • 8. Behaviour Theories Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (5 quadrants) 5. Team – Management – the leader provides a lot of guidance on how work is to be done. Also demonstrates high consideration for people.
  • 9. Contingency approaches to Leadership Fielder’s Contingency Model- emphasises the situational aspects of specific leadership styles. Analysis of the situation facing the leader would determine the most appropriate style of leadership. Situational favourability consists of : 1. Leader –member relations 2. Degree of task structure 3. The leaders position power
  • 10. Recommendations of Fielders Contingency Model 1. In either highly favourable or highly unfavourable situations, a task-oriented , tough natured leader is most effective. 2. In moderately favourable/ unfourable situations, people oriented, lenient leader is most effective.
  • 11. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory  The maturity level of subordinates should determine the leadership style.  Maturity of followers refers to the task specific combination of Employee competence (ability) and Motivation to perform (willingness).
  • 12. Situational Leadership Recommendations 1. Low Ability, Low Willingness 2. Low Ability, High Willingness 3. High Ability, Low Willingness 4. High Ability, High Willingness Telling High Direction, Low Support Selling/ Coaching High Direction, High Support Participating/ Supporting Low Direction, High Support Delegating Low Direction, Low Support
  • 13. Leader – Member Exchange Theory A leader develops a unique one-to-one relationship with each each of the persons reporting to them, favouring some over the others. This creates an in-group and an out-group. Members in the in-group show higher commitment, job satisfaction and job performance than out-group.This relationship becomes stronger when tasks are complex. This influences career outcomes such as promotability, salary level and bonus.
  • 14. Path-Goal Theory Leader behaviour is acceptable when it provides a ‘path’ to achieve followers ‘goals’. A leader should : 1. Reduce roadblocks that interfere with goal accomplishment 2. Provide the guidance and support needed by employees 3. Tie meaningful rewards to goal accomplishment.
  • 15. Leadership Styles 1. Directive – tells subordinates what is expected of them and specifies how tasks can be achieved most effectively. 2. Supportive- concerned with subordinates needs. 3. Participative – consults and uses suggestions of followers. 4. Achievement-oriented leader – gives challenging tasks to subordinates and expects them to show their best performance.
  • 16. Leadership Styles However, there are two contingency variables that affect the behaviour – outcome relationship.  Environmental factors – culture in the organization, formal authority system.  Personal characteristics of the subordinates – locus of control, experience etc.
  • 17. Managerial Implications  There is no one fixed set of universal leadership traits.  People who are ambitious, have high energy, desire to lead, self confidence, intelligent and having relevant job knowledge, are honest, trustworthy and flexible are more likely to succeed as leaders.
  • 18. Managerial Implications  For effective leadership, the relevant situational variables are task structure of the job, level of situational stress, level of group support, leader’s intelligence and experience.  Follower characteristics such as personality, ability, experience and motivation affects leadership.

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