Biovale Your Biodiesel Projects In Brazil


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Biovale Your Biodiesel Projects In Brazil

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES PRODUCTIVE CHAIN R&D R&D Technological development Planting 60.000 hectares Planting 60.000 hectares of highly yielding oleaginous of jatropha curcas on first of jatropha curcas on first (jatropha curcas) for phase in the North of M.Gerais phase in the North of M.Gerais biodiesel production and and along piping systems. and along piping systems. environment protection expelling systems expelling systems Transesterification Transesterification by-products utilization by-products agriculture industry research
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES agriculture research by-prodcuts industry The R&D project of Biovale envisages achieving cost-effective, environmental friendly alternatives to ensure higher plant productivity in marginal lands, unproductive lands, reclaimed lands and wastelands created by the industry. The use of a beneficial group of micro-organisms, known as mycorrhizal fungi, which form an association with the roots of higher plants Thrust areas: Documentation, preservation and characterization of mycorrhizal germplasm Development of ROC (Root Organ Culture) of different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their in vitro mass inoculum production Bio-diesel Utilization and reclamation of industry created wastelands
  4. 4. the mycorrhized Jatropha benefits Jatropha, the energy plant has been well identified towards offering clean fuel for achieving energy security. Jatropha seeds inoculated with in vitro- raised mycorrhiza exhibits early fruition and flowering from the 7th month onwards as against a year with conventional clonal plantations and two years from seed raised plantations. The mycorrhized Jatropha also exhibited 20%–30% higher yields as compared to non-mycorrhizal plantations. Proved to be well adaptable in diverse wastelands (marginal lands, fly ash dykes, chlor alkali sludge-loaded wastelands, distillery effluent loaded wastelands, solar drying lagoons, nutritionally stressed soils, effluent generated from soft drink producers and several other cooperate plantations, etc.).
  5. 5. the challenge Although the facts and figures of potential role of mycorrhizal association in enhanced nutritional and water needs of plants in laboratories, the major bottleneck for its widespread application to reach the end-users is its bulk production to cater the huge requirement. A known fact that culturing mycorrhizal fungi in laboratory conditions like other microbes was not possible due to its strict biotrophic nature of proliferation in the presence of suitable host has been the major reservation of its future contribution in agriculture. The mass inoculum technology envisages to exploit the genetically modified host roots using the Agrobacteriumum rhizogenes carrying Ri T-DNA plasmid. The technology offers the mass production of viable, healthy, genetically pure and high quality fungal propagules, without any pathogenic contamination under in vitro environment.
  6. 6. New Technologies, New Gains Biofuel production has become substantially more efficient over the last 25 years as Brazil and the United States have scaled up their industries. Such incremental gains are likely to continue for years to come. However, the greatest potential for biofuels lies in the development of new technologies that will significantly expand the range of biomass feedstock, increase conversion efficiencies, and lower production costs.
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES DESCRIÇÃO SUMÁRIA agriculture research by-products industry Usage of jatropha residues after oil expelling for production of animal feed stock and mushrooms. - To assess the compost of the residue and evaluate the potential of the usage of appriate fungus in the elimination of toxicity of the residues for further utilization as animal feed stock and production of edible mushrooms. - The bioconversion would convert the residue, currently considered toxic and used only as biofertilizer, in products of highly added value. Usage of glycerin for production of various industrial products as pharmaceutical and food stuff.
  8. 8. adding value to the chain Increasing added value of the residue J. curcas and glycerin after bio- diesel production The seed kernels are rich in crude protein, CP (31–34.5%) and lipid (55–58%). The neutral detergent fibre contents of extracted J. curcas meals were between 3.9% and 4.5 % of dry matter (DM). The gross energy of kernels ranged from 31.1 to 31.6 MJ/kg DM. The contents of starch and total soluble sugars were below 6 %. The levels of essential amino acids, except lysine, were higher than that of the FAO/WHO reference protein for a five year old child in all the meal samples on a dry matter basis. At least, 30 to 50 % is residue after oil extraction and 10 % is glycerin. The ordinary use of this residue is as soil organic fertilizer after composting as it possesses a compound known as phorbol, which is toxic to animals. Thus, the R&D aims at studying not only the composting process of J. curcas residues but also to evaluate the detoxification potential of white rot fungi for mushroom and animal meal production. Another problematic residue from bio-diesel industry is glycerin, which the research envisages to transform it in propionic acid and 1,3-propanodiol, using a specific group of bacteria. Propionic acid and 1,3-propanodiol that are important products to be added to animal meal for enhance milk and meet production of ruminant.
  9. 9. cultivating challenges The great challenge is to warrant the plantation in large scale, complying with the minimum requirements set forth in the Brazilian regulations and international standards. Organizing a broad productive chain, aiming at securing the competitiveness of the small production and consequential access to tax, financial and fiscal incentives to make the project economically viable. The dimensions of the domestic market, imposed by laws, turns imperative the articulation of the various stakeholders in Brazil and abroad. The main path for the economic feasibility and large scale production is the finding of cheaper and more yielding oil raw-materials/oleaginous and a higher productivity per planted area. Critical point is the need to make compatible the productive gains in all stages of the productive chain, considering that the industrial costs and gains are relatively small (about 15 to 20%). Therefore, emphasis should be given on the agronomic research securing uniform and high yielding oil feed-stock and adding value to the by-products as proposed by the BioVale Project.
  10. 10. OBJECTIVES DESCRIÇÃO SUMÁRIA agriculture research by-procucts industry Setting up 30.000 hectares of jatropha curcas plantation in 35 municipalities in the poorest regions of Minas Gerais State (North and Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys. Production of 44.000 tons yearly of raw vegetable oil to supply biodiesel plants in the vicinity (PETROBRAS, Montes Claro city) Production of 44.000 tons yearly of raw vegetable oil along piping systems to Rio de Janeiro to export recuperation of wasted and reclaimed lands with mycorrhized jatropha plantation
  11. 11. Jatropha curcas: the feedstock Perennial crops of Jatropha Curcas will be used to protect lands that are vulnerable to erosion and to restore lands degraded by grazing. The yields of currently used biofuel feedstock vary widely. Jatropha seeds have proven advantageous in several spheres.
  12. 12. Jatropha curcas: the feedstock Jatropha is identified under the physical-chemical platform of biomass energy conversion route. It is a drought-resistant perennial, living up to 50 years and growing on marginal soils (HENNING, 1996). The remote rural communities of the Brazilian semi-arid in drought regions will be able to address their energy needs using the Jatropha resource. The Jatropha Curcas was especially selected because the plant is not an invasive species (GÜBITZ ET AL., 1999) and permits the growth of other plants in its vicinity, so it does not negatively affect the ecosystem. The results of the researches developed by EPAMIG, the State Agriculture R&D entity, in the 80´and the preliminary current ( 2004/2006) results attest the potentiality of the jatropha curcas cultivation in the semi-arid region
  13. 13. physico-chemical properties Comparison of the Physico-chemical Properties of Diesel and Jatropha Oil with the exception of their solidifying points, flash points and percentage of sulphur, Jatropha oil is very comparable to diesel oil. The minute amount of sulphur present in the biofuel is environmentally preferable to that of diesel as sulphur dioxide emissions from the biofuel are very low. Biodiesel has a higher cetane rating than diesel, which improves engine performance. Parameter Diesel Jatropha Energy Content (MJ/kg) 42.6-45.0 39.6-41.8 Specific weight (15/400C) 0.84-0.85 0.91-0.92 Solidifying point (0C) -14.0 2.0 Flash point (0C) 80 110-240 Cetane value 47.8 51.0 Sulphur (%) 1.0-1.2 0.13 Source:Schrimpff, 2002).
  14. 14. OBJECTIVES agriculture research By-products industry Installation of des-centralized plants for oil expelling and usage of by products by means of mechanical extraction. Commercialization of raw vegetal oil for biodiesel plants and investments in transesterification industries Collection and conversion of recycled oil into biodiesel in cosmopolitan cities in Brazil
  16. 16. incentives The model was designed to grant total or partial federal taxes exemptions (CIDE, PIS/PASEP and COFINS) applying to fuels for biodiesel producers that support family farming, in order to allow for compliance with the basic guiding principles of the Brazilian Biodiesel Program. The objective is the promotion of social inclusion and reduction of regional inequalities through the generation of jobs and income in the poorest sectors of Brazilian agriculture. The model is based on the following assumption: Federal taxation on biodiesel should never exceed those on fossil diesel. However, biodiesel producers that acquire raw material from family farmers, anywhere in Brazil, are eligible to reduction of up to 68% in federal taxes. If these purchases are made from family-based producers of palm oil in the North Region, or of castor oil in the Northeast and in the Semi-Arid Region, the reduction may reach 100%. If the raw material and the regions are the same, but if producers are not family farmers, the maximum reduction is of 31%. In order to qualify for these tax benefits, biodiesel producers have to hold a certificate: the Social Fuel Label. The Social Fuel Label is a certificate issued to biodiesel producers that purchase raw materials from family farmers within minimum limits that vary according to the region, and which meet the additional requirements mentioned below. As provided by Normative Instructions MDA 01 and 02, of 2005, the Social Fuel Label is issued by the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA) to biodiesel producers authorized by the Brazilian legislation to produce and sell this new fuel provided that they meet the following requirements: a) To purchase minimum percentages of raw materials from family farmers, 10% from regions North and Mid-West; 30% from the South and Southeast and 50% from the Northeast and the Semi-Arid Region; and b) To enter into contracts with family farmers establishing deadlines and conditions of delivery of the raw material and the respective prices, and to provide them with technical assistance.
  17. 17. credit lines There are funding lines with reduced financial charges and longer grace and amortisation periods for the entire biodiesel value chain, encompassing investments in equipment and industrial plants and loans for the planting of raw material for the production of biodiesel. These loans are granted by official banks with funds from the National Bank of Economic and Social Development (BNDES), from the National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming (Pronaf) and from other sources. Given the economic attractiveness of the production of biodiesel, other credit institutions are funding or planning to fund links of the biodiesel value chain, such as Banco do Brasil, with the BB-Biodiesel line of credit, and other official banks and national and foreign private banks The federal incentive resources and financing funds to technological development is another important instrument within the PNPB. These incentives include the selection of raw materials according to the different regional soil and climate characteristics, one of the most important aspects, due to the diversity of oleaginous plants and to the fact that they represent about 75% of biodiesel production costs. Another important component is the development and/or improvement of more efficient industrial production processes and tests in engines and components with different proportions of biodiesel for supporting the use of biodiesel-diesel mixes in percentages above 5% in the near future. New uses and applications for the co-products of the production of biodiesel (particularly animal-feed products and glycerine) also receive technological development support.
  18. 18. legal requirements Basic requirements to produce biodiesel in Brazil: To obtain authorization from ANP (compliance with Resolution 41/2004) for a full list of requirements. to obtain registration with the Federal Inland Revenue Secretariat (SRF) of the Ministry of Finance, pursuant to Law 11.116/2005, and Normative Instruction SRF 516/2005. Companies willing to receive the tax benefits associated to social inclusion and to regional development (generation of jobs and income for family farmers, particularly in the most poor regions of the Country), must additionally obtain the Social Fuel Label.
  19. 19. Brazilian legal framework Law 11.097, 2005: defines biodiesel as a new fuel in the Brazilian energy matrix, establishes a mandatory mix of 2% starting from January, 2005 and of 5% in January, 2013, all over the national territory. I grants ANP (National Oil Agency) the competence to regulate and supervise the production and commercialization of biofuels. Law 11.116, 2005: defines the federal tax model applicable to biodiesel (exemption or reduction of CIDE, PIS/PASEP and COFINS, according to region, type of producer and oleaginous raw material). Normative Instructions SRF 516, 2005, and 628, 2006, which establish, respectively, conditions for the registration of biodiesel producers and importers and a special regime for the calculation and payment of federal taxes PIS/PASEP and COFINS. Executive Order 5.448, 2005: establishes at 2% the percentage of the mix of biodiesel and authorizes higher percentages for use in generators, train engines, boats and captive vehicle fleets. Normative Instructions MDA 01, 2005 (establishes criteria and procedures for granting the use of the Social Fuel Label) and MDA # 02, 2005 (establishes criteria and procedures for including projects of biodiesel production in the mechanism of the Social Fuel Stamp). ANP Resolutions: Resolution 41, 2004, which deals with biodiesel producers, and Resolution 42, 2004, which deals with the commercialization and inspection of biodiesel. Resolution BNDES 1.135/2004: Creates the Program of Financial Support for Investments in Biodiesel, which provides financing for all stages of the productive chain (the program funds up to 90% of projects having the Social Fuel Label and up to 80% for convencional projects).
  20. 20. Managers: Gilberto Ciro – Mobile 55-31-87927042 Elisio Baraçal – Mobile 55-31-9662-1147