Religions In Quran


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Religions In Quran

  2. 2. TRACING THE RELIGIONS OF THE PROPHETS IN THE HOLY QURÁN Thesis for the Ph.D. Degree in Arabic Submitted by: JUHI ASLAM Guide: Co-Guide: DR. M. HASSAN KHAN DR. AYISHA KAMAL Professor and Head Professor Arabic Department Arabic Department BARKATULLAH UNIVERSITY BHOPAL 2008 2
  4. 4. SUB-CONTENTS (ONLY CHAPTER VI-PROOF ON PROPHETS) PART I ….......................................... (1) ADAM 204 (2) SHEES 251 (3) IDRIS 252 (4) NUH 267 PART II.............................................. (5) LUQMQN 300 (6) HUD 304 (7) SALIH 316 (8) IBRAHIM 323 (9) LUT 361 (10) ISMA’EEL 369 (11) SHUAIB 387 PART III............................................ (12) ISAAC 400 (13) YA’QUB 404 (14) ASBAAT 407 (15) YUSUF 412 (16) MUSA 420 (17) HAROON 445 (18) KHIZR 450 (19) YUSHA 452 (20 HIZQUEEL 454 (21) AYYUB 455 (22) ZUL KIFL 460 (23) ASJMOIL 461 (24) DAWUD 466 (25) SULAIMAN 472 (26) ILYAS 491 (27) ALYASA 492 (28) ARMIYA 494 (29) YUNUS AS 496 (30) ZOROASTER 499 (31) ZUL QARNAIN 504 (32) UZAIR 517 (33) ZAKARIAH 519 (34) YAHYA 528 (35) ISA 539 (36) MUHAMMAD 560 4
  7. 7. PREFACE In the name of Allah (Subhanuhu wa Taála), the Beneficent, the Merciful; Peace and Salutations upon our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) And on his family and all his Companions, and all those who follow their path in righteousness. (Ameen) Allah (SWT), the Almighty God of all of us has sent us with a purpose and a mission so that we may reap benefit through this life, through whatever good we learn, and at the same time impart it to people with our whole might Allah has granted us with. O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. [66:6] Allah sent the last Paighambar Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) as the role model who taught us how to live our life to the full, but within the confined dimensions of “halal” (that is, all that is permitted or allowed by Allah for those who wish to submit to the laws of Allah). O Muhammad, ask them: "Who has forbidden you to wear decent clothes or to eat the good food which Allah has provided for His devotees?" Say: "My Rabb has forbidden all indecencies whether open or secret, sin and rebellion against justice, committing shirk with Allah for which He has granted no sanction, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge. [7:32_33] Allah wants us all to follow One Religion without being divided into Sects/ Religions, and that one Religion is Islam- the Religion of all the Prophets of Allah, who gave the same message- “Worship Allah and eschew evil”. Turn ye back in repentance to Him and fear Him: establish regular prayers and be not ye among those who join gods with Allah. [30:31] Our common enemy is devil/Satan who wants us to be misguided and remain divided, that he may prove himself right. Think, should Allah allow the Shaitan to prevail, it shall be corruption all over the world. No one would do justice to another because of the power of satanic forces. So Allah has asked Muslims (those who surrender to God’s Laws) to fight Satan and his forces, because he disobeyed God, and then at the same time persisted on what he said is right. He refused to repent and feel sorry on his mistakes. So Allah said he will remain in hell till eternity. When Allah has given him respite or freedom to do what he wants to until the Last Day, is because Allah is so Just that he never punishes anyone in 7
  8. 8. the wrong, unless the person himself believes in his heart and feels that he has committed a mistake. Was not this in Allah’s power to punish devil on the very instant he refused to obey Allah? And on them did Satan prove true his idea and they followed him all but a Party that believed. But he had no authority over them except that We might test the man who believes in the Hereafter from him who is in doubt concerning it: and thy Lord doth watch over all things. [34:20_21] Allah has told us to show people the truth, after that if they refuse to follow it, they become culprits of their own, and Punishment becomes liable upon them. Has not the story reached you (O people!) of those who (went) before you? of the people of Noah and `Ad and Thamud? And of those who (came) after them? None knows them but Allah. To them came apostles with Clear (Signs); but they put their hands up to their mouths and said: "We do deny (the mission) on which ye have been sent and we are really in suspicious (disquieting) doubt as to that to which ye invite us." [14:9] People ask me why I chose this as a topic of research for Ph.D., when I could have opted for things that are better of, that could earn me more money, especially in a country like India, where there is no scope for Arabic language to develop or grow in the near future, where “Religion” is such a sensitive topic to be discussed about, why I wasted so many of my precious years of youth into getting in this messy business, where I put my life at stake, even by speaking a single word of truth, why? Ah, but we are secular nation, we have got the freedom to speak out. Then let us see how magnanimous the nation of Gandhi is? The purpose here is not to open the Pandora’s Box of stirring controversies. Important is to see how necessary it is to speak out the truth, when you know, what the truth is. And this exactly is my problem. Earth spews out magma, because it does not have a tongue to speak our language. It shakes, but no one understands what causes that, whose orders it takes, but people too readily rush to worship it as god, without following what it says. Surprising isn’t it? The Prophet (SAW) said to his companions, while passing through Mada’in Salih, that banked the ruins of Thamuds, an ancient community that was destroyed in the past, that not to pass it, except when you can cry. That is not to pass it for fun and picnic, but pass it when you could contemplate for what reason they perished? And this is the reason why I opted for this topic. These stories in the Qur’an have got a great deal of bearing upon me. When ever I read the translation of Holy Qur’an I feel, it is very necessary for us to make people aware, why Allah repeatedly speaks about the destroyed nations. Prior to taking this theme “Tracing the Religions of the Prophets in the Holy Qur’an”, I had taken for dissertation in my M.A. Arabic, the topic: “The Peoples Destroyed in the Holy Qur’an”. Before this I wrote articles in newspapers, and did a 8
  9. 9. great deal of reading. And I thought too much, why this, why that, why people follow so many religions, why am I a Muslim? What would have I be, had I got birth into a family who committed idolatry? Would I still be a Muslim then, because people follow what their parents follow? Then one day I seriously decided to study the reality of my own religion, whether that what I follow is right or not, until today when I am so determined and convinced about its truth, Alhamdulillah by Allah’s grace, that I want to share this truth with the whole world, no matter what. I am a reverted Muslim. I am not a Muslim because I am born to a Muslim family, but because I have studied it so hard to reach the truth. There is no god but He...There is no god but He the Exalted in Power the Wise. The Religion before Allah is Islam… So if they dispute with thee (O Muhammad) say: "I have submitted my whole self to Allah and so have those who follow me." And say to the people of the Book and to those who are unlearned: "Do ye (also) submit yourselves?" If they do they are in right guidance but if they turn back thy duty is to convey the Message; and in Allah's sight are (all) His servants. As to those, who deny the Signs of Allah and in defiance of right slay the Prophets and slay those who teach just dealing with mankind announce to them a grievous penalty. They are those whose works will bear no fruit in this world and in the Hereafter nor will they have anyone to help. [Qur’an 3:21_22] The stories of the Prophets leave a grave impact on our hearts and minds. They were our true leaders, who challenged the world inspite of all odds to fulfil their duty toward God who sent them to establish ‘mezan’-the balance of justice, so that we may differentiate the right and wrong. May Allah join us to the company of the righteous. Ameen. "Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us then our sins and save us from the agony of the fire." [Qur’an 3:16] "Our Lord! let not our hearts deviate now after Thou hast guided us, but grant us mercy from Thine own Presence; for Thou art the Grantor of bounties without measure. "Our Lord! Thou art He that will gather mankind together against a day about which there is no doubt: for Allah never fails in His promise." [Qur’an 3:8_9] (aameen) 9
  10. 10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In this work of mine I am greatly indebted, first and foremost to my revered Guides, Dr. Hassan Khan and Dr. Ayisha Kamal who have supported and praised me throughout my period of research. They have been very cooperative and caring, because it took a long time for me to complete my thesis, and I went abroad a number of times, that interrupted our discussion sequence. They are gem of a people who work very hard to keep our Arabic Department intact. I know them since I was their student in MA Arabic. They have got great faith and hope in me and my work. May Allah grant them high position in this life and the life to come. (Aameen) Hassan Sir at that time was only a Professor under the HOD Mrs. Arifa Simeen who used to boss him all the time. But soon his hard working quality paid him, and now it is he who bosses everyone. When Arifa Madam got retired from the office, and our Hassan Sir, became the Head of the Department. Alhamdulillah he is very dedicated toward his work. Ayisha Madam is a great lady too, and was a Reader when I was doing my MA. She does all the Office work so smoothly and assists the HOD Sir very well. She has been an angel to me. Apart from them I oblige greatly my husband Suhel, who has been all these times a boosting factor for me to work more and harder in what I see right. Supporting and allowing me spare time for my studies, hadn’t been possible without his support. I am really proud of him for his encouraging and helpful qualities. I love him every moment of his caring for me and my works. We should love those who love us for the sake of Allah, and he is definitely the first in that list. Our son Faraaz with whom we’ve got lots of hopes for future is very patient, intelligent and sharp. May Allah love them both, guide them and make them succeed in all spheres of this life and the life to come. (Aameen) It is said that the first institution for a child to learn is her own mother. Our Prophet SAW said that a child is what his parents make him. So I too am indeed what my parents have made me in this life. Both of them (M. Aslam and Waseem) are successful business people by Allah’s grace, and their position in society has been a plus factor for me to speak out of my self with confidence. They gave me the best School in Bhopal to study and expand viz. St. Joseph’s Convent Senior Secondary School (Idgah). They gave me all the liberties within confined quarters and at the same time also protected me and treated me more dearly than my two loving brothers (Taj Bhai and Suhail). May Allah help and protect them all as they have protected me all the time, and grant them high position in all worlds. (Aameen) 10
  11. 11. Not only these, I greatly honour my loving family of in laws- father and mother (Hafiz Ali and Farhat), who have always treated me by Allah’s grace, as the best ‘Bahu’, (which I hardly think I am, or am I?); I have got my most successful and brothrly ‘Jeths’ (Shahid Bhai in Jeddah and Zubair Bhai in UK) and their matchless wives (Sarah Bhabi and Salma Bhabi), who are very mod and at same time very religious too. I love these more for supporting and caring for me than my ‘Devars’ (Nasir Bhai here in Bhopal and Tarab in the US) who are a bit formal with me in expressing their feelings. Their wives (Almas and Yumna) are my related sisters, and I love them all for standing beside me in times of need; Never to be forgotten my real sister-like ‘nands’ (Saba and Sanam), the former sharing my religious views like my own clone, is a gift to me from Allah. She is my biggest support and inspiration believing the same way as I do, and she is incomparably smarter than I am. May Allah make us all enter Jannah together in the company of the righteous. (Aameen) As the Qur’an is not a Book to play with and draw interpretations to one’s whims and fancies it has to be studied with caution in the prescribed ways defined in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet SAW. It is said that if we hold fast to these two things, we shall never go astray by Allah’s grace. He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book: in it are verses basic or fundamental (of established meaning); they are the foundation of the Book: others are allegorical. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is allegorical seeking discord… Those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in the Book; the whole of it is from our Lord"; and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding… [Qur’an 2:7] Say: "Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us then our sins and save us from the agony of the fire." (Aameen) [Qur’an 3: 16] I have tried my level best to base my study on evidences (daleels) from the authentic sources of traditions (Sahih Hadiths) of Rasul Allah SAW and Qur’anic Exegesis (Tafsirs) from the periods of Khulafa e Rashideen who followed Islam in its right spirit. In spite of that if errors persist I ask Allah’s forgiveness, and request the intelligentsia to point out the errors, because I haven’t had any formal Islamic education from any Madaris, whatsoever because there is scarcity of institutions having combinations of secular and Islamic studies together. The Madaris are too old fashioned and they lack the staff and calibre to match research levels as we had in the earlier days of Golden eras of Islam, like the Cordoba in Spain destroyed by the Crusades who followed to suppress Islamic light in jealousy. In the days of Muslim rule there used to be attached to every Masjid a library, and also a separate women section to study religion without any hurdles. Islam is not a backward religion, as its enemies have tried to prove it is. The Prophet SAW never imposed any restrictions upon women to grow. In fact he urged women to compete with men in righteousness. The Muslims we see today who seem to be following religion are known backwards, because some misguided Muslims thought that 11
  12. 12. Islam is only about ‘Purdah’. Education is fardh al kifayah upon every individual of the Muslim Ummah, be it a man or a woman. Only then Muslims can succeed. The Saudi Libraries like King Fahd in Riyadh are very grand and advance, but there, one ought to be fluent in Arabic to gather data for research. Alhamdulillah but I acquired the valuable Ibn Kathir Tafsir from Jarir Bookstore, a treasure for English Islamic Books. Then there is never to forget Darussalam Publications, a name never to be missed. I have researched tirelessly on the Internet and made use of information available with Muslim Scientists, Doctors, Researchers and Qur’anic Interpreters like Harun Yahya, Dr. Zakir Naik, Dr. Ahmed Deedat (late), Dr. Israr Ahmed, Dr. Farhat Hashmi, Maulana Maududi, etc Saudi radio Programmes have immensely helped that air Islamic programmes in English. Then there were enlightening programmes on Saudi TV Channels such as Iqra. Not only these Discovery and History channels have been greatly helpful in collecting scientific and historical information. Converts and non Converts who have studied Qur’an in depth without any malice toward it, like Maurice Bucaille has been of great help as well. May Allah help and guide all of us to the truth! (Aameen.) The style of writing adopted is the italics indicate the words quoted by the referred writer, whereas, the non italic words which are straight, like here are my own words. 12
  13. 13. (SUMMARISED) “TRACING THE RELIGIONS OF THE PROPHETS IN THE HOLY QURAN” The entitled topic “Tracing the Religions of the Prophets in the Holy Qur’an” is a comparative study of all Religions, what they say, where they came from, and what is similar in them that match with the true spirit of Islam. We have made an effort in explaining that Islam is not a new Religion that came at the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, out of nowhere. In fact it is the Religion of all the Prophets, since the first man Adam (AS) was sent on earth with Eve (Bibi Hawwa) to live a temporary life. Our eternal life will be in the Heavenly Paradise that is much more superior to the best and most advanced nations of the world. Here we are only for a short time to be tested, whether we deserve to be there or not. It is said that the first ten generations after Adam, were on One Religion; they were not divided into sects. They all worshipped One God and knew that this One God is the God of all. This does not mean that they did not require Prophets as guide The Prophets Shees AS and Idris AS, of who we know, had come during this time to tell people how to deal with each other. What efforts lead them to Jannah, and what events lead them to hell. Not that the Satan was quiet all these times, in fact within the life of Adam we can see the Satan influencing one of the two sons of Adam- Habil (Abel) and Qabil (Cain). One murdered another because of jealousy- the first human murder on earth. So Allah sent a raven to show him how to bury the dead in ground. Nuh AS, the tenth in generation after Adam was the first Rasul or Messenger, A Prophet of a greater degree because he was sent with the mission to subdue idolatry that had sprouted just before his times; He stopped people from wrong doing for more than 950 years, after which when people persisted in shirk, associating other things to God Almighty, Allah sent a great deluge or Flood that destroyed the idolatrous and saved the believers. According to Qur’anic terminology the believers of all times since Adam are known as Muslims. It has been a trend since then that whenever an evil people came, Allah chose to inspire a Prophet to be sent to these people to show them the right way. Gradually 13
  14. 14. people grew and scattered throughout the world, to all peoples Allah sent a Prophet, speaking their language, so that they may be guided. The Message of all Prophets was the same: “Worship Allah alone” and “Obey Allah’s Orders”, only such will succeed; the others will be punished here on earth as well as in the Hereafter, when they don’t listen. To this many disbelievers question that (nauzubillah) why then Allah was unable to inspire these evil people on right track then? The answer to this is, if Allah had made humans like angels, obeying in whatever Allah commanded, there wouldn’t be any need of the Prophets. Angels do not require Prophets because they are created in such a manner that there is no possibility of them choosing evil for them. Whereas in humans, Allah has given the capability and power or freedom to choose what they will, that is why the worldly life is a test. And so Allah sends a Prophet chosen from men who tilted towards good (and were Muslims at heart). The disbelievers became so because they themselves chose to take that route. Allah had not predestined evil for them. Muhammad SAW had actually come to unite all divided sects known by the names differently termed as Religions-such as Sabians, Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Majus and Polytheists that may be from any region, whatever language they speak, whatever nation they belong to, be they Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, Sindhis, Shudras or untouchables, they have got the right to worship Allah and follow Islam, if they voluntarily accept it so. Because the castes and creeds only force people to follow that what Allah now doesn’t Will. It divides us and keeps us aloof from each other. So the laws that Muhammad SAW gave through Qur’an and Sunnah is the final Code of belief that should be followed as it abrogates the puritan codes of laws that prevailed in ancient times. Muhammad’s Shariah abrogates all Shariahs that originated before or after him. Allah has said so, and this is the truth. If we don’t accept it as right we shall face the consequences with Allah’s rage and punishment. And this is so necessary to be conveyed. If we do not inform, Allah will hold us responsible for the sins committed by the polytheists and People of the Book. This whole work is an attempt to prove the authenticity of Qur’an and what message Rasul Allah SAW was sent with. There is no compulsion in religion, and the wrong picture of Islam that is propagated by the enemies of Islam is farce. This whole Thesis has been divided into Six Chapters, on the basis of the Synopsis submitted earlier: Chapter I “Al Qur’an: God and His Ultimate Word” consists of the definition of God Almighty known as Allah by Muslims, followed by the definition of Qur’an, and the matter contained in Qur’an- the scientific Ayahs and prophecies of Muhammad SAW that have been proved right. 14
  15. 15. Chapter II “The Prophets, Revelation and Adam’s Creation in Heaven” consists of the definition of a Prophet (Nabi and Rasul), how God communicates with Prophets. Who are the Angels, Jinns and Devils; How Adam was created, and what lessons we get from these stories. Chapter III “Islam and its Hypothesis” contains the Qur’anic definition of Islam and its Hypothesis, i.e., what is the belief compounded in Qur’an regarding Prophets, why they came, and why laws have changed from time to time; why Muhammad SAW is regarded as the last Prophet of God, and why and how Islam should be accepted. Chapter IV “Prophets Books and Religions in Qur’an” explains different characteristics of all Prophets and the different degrees of Prophethood, depending upon the Message or the Book the Prophets received. This chapter is most important regarding our thesis because it consists of the genealogy of Prophets from Adam to Muhammad SAW, based on Biblical and Islamic studies. It also contains the names of possible kings who ruled those eras; the present conflict between Arabs and Israelis, from where has it emerged; the People of the Book and the Books they were given originally, what they said, and why the Word of Al Qur’an abrogates the presently available Scriptures, that people think are original words of God. This Chapter also consists of the Books named in Qur’an and Hadiths, and also the ‘Sects’ that have emerged by different names of the followers of One God. Chapter V “Oneness of God, World Religions and their Sacred Writings” consists of the definition of Monotheism and the existing world religions what they say regarding Monotheism, if any. Can they be counted in the true religions of God? Can their founders be treated as Prophet of Allah? Chapter VI “Phenomenological, Anthropological, Archaeological Proofs on Prophets” contains the names of Prophets mentioned in Qur’an by name or referred, and the evidential data we could collect, left by the Ummahs of previous Prophets of God. It is divided into three parts I, II and III. DATE SIGNATURE OF THE GUIDE SIGNATURE OF THE CO GUIDE 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER I: AL-QUR’AN: GOD AND HIS ULTIMATE WORD 1.1 Who is Allah and where He came from? 1.2 What is Qur’an and why we take it as a Book to refer back- 1.3 Scientific Miracles in Qur’an that have stood the Test of Time- (1.3.1) The Heavens and the Earth: (a) Raised Heavens without support (b) The Big Bang © The Orbits (d) The Protected Skies (e) Creation Similarity-Qur’an and Bible? (f) No Set Sequence (g) Chaos then Order (h) Plurality of the Worlds (i) Periods Confusion (1.3.2) Earthly Miracles: (a) Mountains (b) Where Iron came from? © The Seas (d) The Water Cycle (1.3.3) Plant Kingdom: (a) Fertilization of Plants (b) Germination © Existence of Opposite Pairs (1.3.4) Animal Kingdom: (a) Animal Communities (b) Source of Honey © Source of Milk (1.3.5) Human Beings: (a) Respiration at Higher Altitudes (b) Specificity of the finger tips © Presence of Sensory Nerves (d) Sensory Nerves and Intestine 1.4 Why Qur’an becomes a Living Miracle for the Whole Universe- 1.5 Prophecies in the Qur’an that have proved true 1.6 Prophecies in the Hadiths that have proved true 1.6 Conclusion 16
  17. 17. AL-QUR’AN: GOD AND HIS ULTIMATE WORD (1.1) WHO IS ALLAH AND WHERE HE CAME FROM? In simple or plain words of late Maulana Imran Sahab spoken some years back in the Tablighi Ijtema held at Taj ul Masajid, Bhopal were that when we reach a place where we find a hut, we immediately tend to think that someone constructed it. If it has no constructor then, where it came from? So in a way whatever exists and what we perceive with our senses has to have a One who created it or gave us the resources to create that matter. This Super Being is Allah. He Himself expresses His presence through the Ayahs (Signs) which help us to believe in Him. Allah is the Almighty God- the Supreme One Who has no partners: neither a consort nor a son or a daughter. The best definitions we can give regarding Him are His own words in the following most concise Surah (Chapter) of His Last Book “al- Qur’an” revealed for the whole aalameen (worlds) of humans and Jinns upon our last Prophet Muhammad SAW: Say: He is Allah the One and Only; Allah the Eternal Absolute; He begetteth not nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. [Qur’an 112:1_4] He is, was and always will be. He has 99 Names mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. As this verse says: Allah has the Most Beautiful Names; So call Him by them, and keep away from those who blaspheme His Names—they shall assuredly be punished for their misdeeds. [Qur’an 7:80] “While other Names are attributes, “Allah” is the proper name of God. Verily your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of authority) regulating and governing all things…To Him will be your return.. [Qur’an 10: 3_4] He Is the Compassionate (Ar-Rahman), the Merciful (Ar-Raheem), the Protector (al-Muhaymin), the Creator (al-Khaliq), the Shaper (al-Musawwir), the Forgiving (al-Ghaffar), the All-Giving (al- Wahhab), the All-Provider (al-Razzaq), the All-Knowing (al-Alim), the Seizer (al-Qabiz), the Abaser (al-Khafid), the Exalter (al-Rafi), the All-Hearing (al-Sami), the All-Seeing (al-Basir), the Judge (al Hakam), the Just (al-Adl), the Guardian (al Hafiz), the Sustainer (al Muqit), the Reckoner (al Hasib), the One Who Answers All (al-Mujib), the Resurrector (al-Ba’ith), the 17
  18. 18. Witness (al-Shahid), the All Strong (al-Qawiyy), the Originator (al-Mubdi), the Giver of Life (al- Muhiyy), the Life Taker (al Mumit), the Eternal (al-Qayyum), the One (al-Wahid), the Prevailing (al-Muqtadir), the First (al-Awwal), the Last (al-Akhir), the Evident (al-Zahir), the Hidden (al- Batin), the Lord of the Kingdom (Maliku’l Mulk), the Gatherer (al-Jami), the Self Sufficient (al- Ghani), the Light (al-Nur), the Guide (al-Hadi), the Everlasting (al-Baqi), the Inheritor (al- Waris), etc. 1 What is best known about the pre-Islamic religion of pagan Arabia centers largely on traditions relating to the Kaaba and its environs. It was said to have been built by Adam, destroyed in the flood of Noah, and rebuilt by Abraham and his son Ishmael. The place became a centre of worship for the early Arab tribes, who brought the images of their tutelary gods and installed them around the temple. The chief deity of the shrine was Allah, and even before the advent of Islam the Kaaba was known as the House of Allah. The name Allah itself is cognate with the names of God in several Semitic pantheons: The Babylonian and Assyrian ILU, The Canaanite EL, The Hebrew ELOHIM, The Aramaean ALAHA, The Nabataean ELH or ALH, The Central Arabia ILAH A shadowy ineffable deity, Allah was not represented by any image, nor did he enjoy popular cult adoration, as did the lesser gods and goddesses. To distinguish Him from the other gods, he was given the title of Allah Taala, ‘God Most High’. He was revered mainly by those pre-Islamic Arabs who tended to monotheism, and even the Arab Jews and Christians of those days referred to God as ‘Allah’. His name frequently formed part of the personal name of pre-Islamic Arabs. For example, Muhammad’s own pagan father was Abdulla, ‘servant of Allah’, and the name ‘Abdellas’ found among Arab Christians- including at least one bishop- in the Greek version of ‘Abdulla’. Allah was worshipped in the Kaaba sanctuary which was his chief shrine, and the Kaaba was known as the House of Allah (Baitullah). In pre-Islamic poetry Allah is spoke of as the ‘Lord of the Kaaba’.2 18
  19. 19. (1.2) WHAT IS QUR’AN AND WHY WE TAKE IT AS A BOOK OF REFER BACK? Qur’an is the Last Heavenly Book revealed upon Muhammad SAW, the Last Prophet of God, sent by Allah in the 7th century A.D. To the Jews and the Christians, it was not a new phenomenon, as they were already having Books like Torah, Injil, Zabur in their possession. But to the Quraish, the Arab tribe to which the Prophet Muhammad SAW belonged to, to them it was something strange, because for years and years they were devoid of any Prophet or any heavenly Book of God. The Arabs then, were similar to what Hindus are today. They worshipped thousands of deities assuming each and every deity, helping them to attain a particular objective. But when Allah inspired Muhammad SAW with this most awaited Word of His, everything changed- from north to south, and from east to west. Not only the Arabs, but also the Jews and the Christians, and the Sabians and the Magians, all submitted themselves to the worship of one Allah, purifying them from the darkness of jahilliyah. Now, Qur’an became the Book of Faith for those who believed and wanted to attain the closeness with Allah. Those traditions which were sanctioned by Allah SWT continued to exist, whereas others that required reformation were changed for the most refined form of religion that will exist until Qayamah (Last Day) or the Dooms Day. And this Quran is not such as could ever be invented in despite of Allah; but it is a confirmation of that which was before it and an exposition of that which is decreed for mankind-- Therein is no doubt--from the Lord of the Worlds. [Qur’an 10:37] The Prophet and Messenger of God, Muhammad--may peace and blessings be upon him, his family and his companions, was the last of this long line of prophets and Islam is the last religion until the Day of Judgement. It is the final expression of the Abrahamic tradition. One should in fact properly speak of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition, for Islam shares with the other Abrahamic religions their sacred history, the basic ethical teachings contained in the Ten Commandments and above all, belief in the One God. And it renews and repeats the true beliefs of Jews and Christians whose scriptures are mentioned as divinely revealed books in Islam's own sacred book, the Quran. 3 The Unlettered Ummi [SAW, Allah keep him] was purposely chosen by Allah to be a Teacher of mankind because from him no one could expect to receive the treasures of knowledge and guidance with utmost precision, flawless, incomparable genius that it would turn into a miracle. When coming face to face with its verses those who heard it, had got no other choice but to surrender to the Will of the Almighty. Say: ‘Believe in it or do not believe’, behold, those who are already endowed with knowledge, fall down upon their faces in prostration as soon as this (divine writ) is conveyed unto them. [17:107] 19
  20. 20. Until Allah keeps this Book on earth, people have a chance to read understand and follow it because it is a Book which calls upon all humanity and jinns to turn to it and believe in it. It is the WORD of God who has revealed it for our benefit. Once the doors of repentance are shut, this Qur’an will be taken up from this earth because following it, people shall see the Evident Signs of Qayamah (Doom) such that everyone seeing them will have no other choice, but to accept Islam and believe in God and His Truth. But alas to no avail. Qur’an is the blessing from the Unseen (al ghaib) God Who wants us to recognise Him and follow Him. Alif. Lam. Mim. This is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil); Who believe in the Unseen, and establish worship, and spend of that We have bestowed upon them; And who believe in that which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and are certain of the Hereafter. These depend on guidance from their Lord. These are the successful. [Qur’an 2:1_5] The Prophet SAW stated that among the Prophets he was given a revelation, meaning, he was especially entrusted with the miraculous Qur’an that challenged mankind to produce something similar to it 4 If you are in doubt as to whether the revelations which We have sent to Our servant (Muhammad) are from Us or not, then produce one Surah like this; and call your witnesses besides Allah to assist you, if you are right in your claim; But if you are unable to do so, and you can never do so, then fear the Hell fire, whose fuel is men and stones which is prepared for the unbelievers. [Qur’an 2:23_24 (F. Malik tr.)] To be precise, The Quran is a record of the exact words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) during the twenty-three-year period of his prophetic mission. It was revealed in the Arabic language, memorized by Muhammad (SAW). He dictated this to his Companions, which was written down by scribes, who cross-checked it during his lifetime. Under the direction of the Prophet, the verses and chapters were organized in the order known to Muslims to this day. Not one word of its 114 chapters, Suras, has been changed over the centuries, so that the Quran is in every detail the unique and miraculous text which was revealed to Muhammad (SAW) fourteen centuries ago. There is only one text of the Quran accepted by all schools of Islamic thought and there are no variants. 5 20
  21. 21. (1.3) SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES IN QUR’AN THAT HAVE STOOD THE TEST OF TIME: Allah produces the Signs of His Genius so that we may fear Him and believe in Him and thus surrender to the Lord of the Worlds. Verily in the alternation of the Night and the Day and in all that Allah hath created in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who fear Him; Those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us but are pleased and satisfied with the life of the present and those who heed not Our Signs: Their abode is the Fire because of the (evil) they earned. [Qur’an 10: 6_8] (1.3.1) The Heavens and the Earth: “The Qur’an has many miraculous evidences proving that it is a revelation from God. Of course the Qur’an is not the Book of science, however, the number of scientific truths, which are explained in a very profound and concise manner have only been uncovered by the technology of the 20th century that were stated in the Qur’an 1400 years ago. (a) Raised Heavens without support: In the seventh century, when the Qur’an was revealed, Arab society had many superstitious beliefs where scientific issues were concerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations. They supposed for example that the mountains supported the sky above, which God clarified: God is He Who raised up the heavens without any support..(Surah ar-Ra’d, 2) (b) The Big Bang: The origin of the universe is described in the Qur’an as: And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily it is We Who are constantly expanding it. (Surah Adh-Dhariyat, 47) The word ‘heaven’ as stated in the verse is used in various places in the Qur’an with the meaning of space and universe. This information given in the Qur’an is in full agreement with the findings of the contemporary science. This event known as the Big Bang produced the entire universe about 15 billion years ago, creating it from nothingness, as a result of explosion from a single point. He is the Originator of the Heavens and the Earth. (Surah An’am, 101) 21
  22. 22. Until the dawn of the 20th century, the only view prevailing in the world of science was that, the universe has a constant nature, and it has existed since infinite time. The research, observations and calculations carried out by means of modern technology, however revealed that the universe infact, had a beginning and that it constantly expands. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian physicist Alexander Freeman, and the Belgian Cosmologist George Leomatra theoretically calculated that universe is in constant motion, and that it is expanding. This fact was also proved by observational data in 1929, when while observing the sky with his telescope, Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer discovered that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. (c) The Orbits: While referring to the sun and the moon in the Qur’an, it is emphasized that each moves in a certain orbit: It is We Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along each in an orbit. (Surah Ambiya, 33) It is mentioned in another verse too that the sun is not static, but it moves in a certain orbit: And the Sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, All-Knowing. (Surah Yaseen, 38) These facts communicated in Qur’an have been discovered by astronomical observations of our age. According to the calculations of experts on astonomy, the sun is travelling at the enormous speed of 720,000 Kms an hour in the direction of the star Vega, in a particular orbit called the Solar Ipex. This means that the sun travels at a roughly 17,280,000 Km/day. Along with the sun, all planets nd satellites along with the gravitational pull of the sun, also travel the same distance. In addition all the stars and the planets have also the same planned motion. That the entire universe is full of paths and orbits is mentioned in this verse of the Qur’an: By the sky, full of paths and orbits! (Surah adh-Dhariyat, 7) There are about 200 billion galaxies in the universe consisting about 200 billion stars in each. Most of these stars have planets, and most of these planets have satellites. All of these bodies move in a concise orbit of its own. For millions of years, each of it is swimming along in its own orbit in perfect harmony and order over the others. The orbits of the universe do not always belong to the celestial bodies, the galaxies also travel at the enormous speed computed in the planned orbits. During these movements none of these celestial bodies come across each other or collide withone another. Surely, when the Qur’an was revealed, we possessed no telescopes to make observations, as we did today with advanced modern knowledge of physics and astronomy. Therefore at that 22
  23. 23. time it was not possible to determine scientifically as declared in the Qur’an because it is the word of God. (d) Protected Skies: We made the Sky, a preserved and protected roof, yet, they still turn away from Our Signs. (Surah al Ambiya, 32) This attribute of the sky has been proved true, by scientific research done in the 20th century. The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial function in the continuity of life. While destroying many meteors, big and small coming, it prevents them from falling to earth, as they approach toward earth to harm living things.“ 6 (Except of course, when God Himself Wills.) (e) Creation similarity-Qur’an and Bible? “For many European commentators, the description of the creation, in the Qur’an is very similar to the one in the Bible. The obvious resemblances between the two texts are well known; among them the fact that, at first glance, the number given to the successive stages of the Creation is identical: the six days in the Bible correspond to the six days in the Qur’an. Your Lord is God Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. (Qur’an 7:54) The Sacerdotal version of the Bible (on the other hand) written by priests and scribes, who were the spiritual successors of Ezekiel, the prophet of exile to Babylon writing in the sixth century BC, says: Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host (sic) of them. And on the seventh day, God finished His work, which He had done. So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all His work, which He had done in creation. (Bible Chapter 2 verses 1_2) The way, the Bible interprets it, the word ‘day’, means the interval of time between two successive sunrises or sunsets for an inhabitant of the earth. Whereas in the Qur’an, the word translated as ‘days’, comes from ‘ayyam’- the plural of ‘yaum’ or ‘day’. The plural ayyam can mean, not just ‘days’, but also ‘long length of time’, an indefinite period of time (but always long). The meaning ‘period of time’ that the word contains is to be found elsewhere in the Qur’an: …in a period of time (yaum) whereof the measure is a thousand years of your reckoning. (Qur’an: sura32, verse 5) …in a period of time (yaum) whereof the measure is 50,000 years. (Qur’an: sura 70, verse 4) The fact that the word ‘yaum’ could mean a period of time that was quite different from the period that we mean by the word ‘day’ struck very early commentators, who, of course, did not have the knowledge we possess today concerning the length of the stages in the formation of the Universe. 23
  24. 24. In the Sixteenth century AD, for example, Abu al Su’ud who could not have had any idea of the day as defined astronomically in terms of the Earth’s rotation, thought that for the Creation a division must be considered that was not into days as we usually understand the word, but into ‘events’ (in Arabic nauba). Yusuf Ali (1934), in his commentary on each of the verses that deals with the stages in the Creation, insists on the importance of taking the word, elsewhere interpreted as ‘days’, to mean in reality ‘very long Periods, or Ages, or Aeons’.” 7 At the same time Qur’an also corrects the Judeo Christian dogma of the “Day of Rest” in a verse saying: We created the Heavens, the Earth, and what is between them in six periods, and NO WEARINESS TOUCHED US. (sura 50 verse 38) (f) No set Sequence: A point to be kept in mind is that, the Qur’an does not lay down a sequence for the creation of the heavens and the earth. “The number of verses in which the Earth is mentioned first is quite small, e.g. sura 2 verse 29, and sura 20, verse 4, where the reference is made to ‘Him Who created the Earth and the high Heavens’. The number of verses where the Heavens are mentioned before the Earth is, on the other hand, much larger: sura 7, verse 54; sura 10 verse 3; sura 11, verse 7; sura 25 verse59; sura 32 verse 4; sura 50 verse 38; sura 57 verse 4; sura 79 verse 27 to 33; sura 91 verses 5 to 10. (g) Chaos then Order: The Qur’an presents in two verses a brief synthesis of the phenomena that constituted the basic process of the formation of the Universe. Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together, then We clove them asunder, and We got every living thing out of water. Will they then not believe? (sura 21, verse 30) The statement of the existence of the gaseous mass with fine particles, for this is how the word ‘smoke’ (dukan in Arabic) is to be interpreted. Smoke is generally made up of a gaseous substratum, plus, in more or less stable suspension, fine particles that may belong to solid and even liquid states of matter at high or low temperature. The reference to a separation process (fatq) of a primary single mass whose elements were initially fused together (ratq). It must be noted that in Arabic ‘fatq’ is the action of breaking, diffusing, separating, and that ‘ratq’ is the action of fusing or binding together elements to make a homogeneous whole. (h) Plurality of the worlds: 24
  25. 25. This concept of the separation of a whole into several parts is noted in other passages of the Book with reference to multiple worlds as: Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds (aalameen).(sura fatiha verse 1). The term ‘worlds’ reappears dozens of times in the Qur’an. The Heavens are referred to as multiple as well, because of their symbolic numeric quality: 7. This number is used 24 times throughout the Qur’an for various numerical quantities. It often carries the meaning of ‘many’ although we do not know exactly why this meaning of the figure was used. The Greeks and the Romans also seem to have used the number to mean plurality. In the Qur’an twhe number 7 refers to the heavens themselves (samawat). God is the One: Who created seven heavens, and of the earth (ard)- a similar number. The Command descends among them so that you know that God has power over all things, and comprehends all things in His Knowledge. (sura 65 verse 12) There are therefore many Heavens and Earths, and it comes as no surprise to the reader of the Qur’an to find that earths such as our own may be found in the Universe, a fact that has not yet been verified by man in our time. (i) Periods confusion? One of the largest passages of the Qur’an, which deals with the Creation, describes the latter, by juxtaposing an account of earthly events and one of celestial events: Say: ‘Do you disbelieve Him Who created the earth in two periods? Do you ascribe equals to Him? He is the Lord of the worlds. He set in the earth mountains standing firm. He blessed it. He measured therein its sustenance in four periods, in due proportion, in accordance with the needs of those who ask for sustenance. Moreover (God) turned to the Heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: ‘Come willingly or unwillingly’, They said: ‘We come in willing obedience’. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two periods, and He assigned to each heaven its mandate by revelation. And We adorned the lower heaven with luminaries, and provided it a guard. Such is the decree of the Almighty, the Full of knowledge. (sura 41 verses 9_12) Critics have seen in this passage a contradiction with the statement of the six periods of Creation. By adding the two periods of the formation of the Earth to the four periods of the spreading of its sustenance to the inhabitants, plus the two periods of the formation of the Heavens, we arrive at eight periods. This would then be in contradiction with the six periods mentioned above. In fact, however, this text, which leads man to reflect on Divine Omnipotence, beginning with the Earth and ending with the Heavens, provides two sections that are expressed by the Arabic word ‘tumma’, translated by ‘moreover’, but which also means ‘furthermore’ or ‘then’. It may be a simple reference to events juxtaposed without any intention of bringing in the notion of the 25
  26. 26. one following the other. However, this may be, the periods of the Creation of the Heavens may just as easily coincide with the two periods of the Earth’s Creation. There does not appear to be any contradiction between the passage quoted here and the concept of the formation of the world in six stages that is to be found in other texts.” 8 (1.3.2) Earthly Miracles: (a) Mountains: “The Qur’an draws ttention to the very important geological function of Mountains. We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so that it would not move under them. (Surah al-Ambiya, 31) In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows: ‘Where Continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper into the mantle’. According to the modern geological findings, Mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions of massive plates cooling the earth’s crust. When the plates collide, the stronger one slides under the other. The one on top forms heights and mounds of the mountain. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground, and makes a deep extension downward. That means that the Mountains have a portion stretched downward as large visible portions above the earth. Have We not made the Earth as a bed, and the Mountains its pegs? (Surah 78 an-Naba, 6_7) Mountains, in other words clinge the plates in the earth’s crust by extending above and beneath, the earth’s surface, at the conjunction points of these plates. In this way they fix the earth’s crust, prevent them from drifting over the magna stratum or among these plates. Briefly, we may liken Mountains to nails that keeps two pieces together. This fixing function of the mountains in scientific literature is known by the term ‘Isostacy’. It is defined as: ‘General equilibrium in the earth’s crust maintained by a yielding flow of rock material beneath the surface under gravitational stress’. (Websters New 20th century Dictionary, New York, p.975). (b) Where Iron came from? Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Qur’an: We have sent down [‘anzalna’ from naazil] iron in which there lies the great force, and which has set many uses for the mankind. (Surah 57 al-Hadid, 25) The word ‘sent down’ particularly used in the verse could be thought to have a metaphorical meaning explaining that iron is given for the service of the people. But, when we take into consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, ‘physically sent down from the sky’, we understand that this verse reveals a very significant scientific miracle. 26
  27. 27. This is because the modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the metal iron has come down to our earth from giant stars in the space. The heavy metal is produced in the nucleus of big stars. Our solar system, however does not have a suitable atmosphere to produce iron on its own. Iron can only be produced in much bigger stars than the sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds certain limit in the star, the star can no longer bear it, and it eventually explodes, in what is called a Nova or a super Nova. As a result of this explosionmeteors containing iron are scattered around the universe, and they move from the void into the orbit with the gravitational force of the celestial body. All this shows that the metal iron, did not form on the earth, but was carried from the exploding stars in space via meteor, they were sent down to earth, exactly the same way as stated in the verse of the holy Qur’an. (c) The Seas: Qur’an says: He has let loose the two Seas, converging together with a barrier between them- -that do not break through. (Surah 55 ar-Rahman, 19_20) This property of the Seas that they converge together, yet do not mingle has been very recently discovered by oceanographers. Because of a physical force called the ‘surface tension’, the waters of neighbouring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in the density of the seae, surface tension prevents the seas from mingling with one another, just as if there was a thin wall was between them.” 9 “It is He Who has let free [‘maraja’-let free or let loose cattle for grazing] the two bodies [‘bahrain’-two seas/rivers] of flowing water: one palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter; yet has He made a barrier between them a partition that is forbidden to be passed. (Surah 25 al-Furqan, 53) (1) The great salt Ocean, and (2) the bodies of sweet water fed by rain, whether they are rivers lakes, or underground springs, their source in rain makes them one, and their drainage whether above ground or under ground, eventually to the ocean, also makes them one. They are free to mingle, and in a sense, they do mingle, for there is a regular water cycle. Yet, in spite of all this, the laws of gravitation are like a barrier or partition set by Allah, by which the two bodies of water, as a whole, are always kept apart and distinct. In the case of the rivers carrying large quantities of water carrying to the sea, like the Mississippi, or the Yangtse-Kiang, the river water with its silt remains distinct from sea water for a long distance out at sea. But the wonderful sign is that, the two bodies of water, though they pass through each other, remain distinct bodies, with their distinct functions. (d) The Water Cycle: 27
  28. 28. And He it is Who sends the Winds as heralds of glad tidings going before His Mercy and We send down purifying water from the sky; That with it We may give life to a dead land and slake the thirst of things We have created cattle and men in great numbers; And We have distributed the (water) amongst them in order that they may celebrate (Our) praises but most men are averse (to aught) but (rank) ingratitude. [Qur’an 25:48_50] The winds are heralds of joy, ushering in rain, which is one form of Allah’s Mercy. Heat sets up currents in the atmosphere, besides sucking up moisture from the seas, and distributing it by means of winds over wide surfaces of the earth. Rain water (in pure air) is not only pure water distilled in air and sky, but it is the best purifying and sanitating agent on the largest scale known to us. The whole cycle of water-sea, clouds, rain/hail/snow, rivers, and sea again-is a remarkable illustrationof the processes of nature with Allah’s providence available to us. The salts of the sea sanitate and purify all the filth that pours into it. 10 “If however, we consider the various concepts, the ancients had on this subject, it becomes clear that the data in Qur’an do not embody the mythical concepts current at the time of the Revelation. In the seventh century BC Thales of Miletus held the theory, whereby the waters of the oceans, under the effect of the winds, were thrust towards the interior of the continents; so the water fell upon the earth and penetrated into the soil. Plato shared these views, and thought that the return of the waters to the oceans was via a great abyss-the ‘Tartarus’. This theory had many supporters until the 18th century, one of them was Descartes. Aristotle imagined that the water vapour from the soil condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed springs. He was followed by Seneca (1st century AD) and many others until 1877, among them O Volger…The first clear formulation of the water cycle must be attributed to Bernard Palissy in 1580: he claimed that underground water came from rainwater infiltrating into the soil. This theory was confirmed by E. Mariotte and P. Perrault in the 17th century. In Qur’an, there is no trace of the mistaken ideas that were current at the time of Muhammad.” 11 (SAW) (1.3.3) Plant Kingdom (a) Fertilization of plants: “It is We Who send the fertilizing winds, then We send down water from the sky.. (Surah Hijr 15:22) Wind is one of the most effective means of spreading pollens, thereby causing fertilization in plants. This again is one of the recent discoveries in botany.” 12 “We send down from the sky blessed water, whereby We caused to grow gardens, grains for harvest, tall palm trees with their spathes, piled one above the other—sustenance for our servants. Therewith We give (new) life to the dead land, so will be the emergence from the tombs). [Sura 50 al-Qaf, verses 9_11] 28
  29. 29. It is mentioned that in one second about 16,000,000 tons of water evaporates from the earth. This figure is equal to 513 trillion tons of water in one year. This measure is equal to the amount of rain that falls in a year. This means that the water continuously travels in a balanced cycle according to a measure. Life on earth depends on this cycle of water. This cycle cannot be produced artificially”. 13 (b) Germination: “It is Allah Who causeth the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout… [Sura 6 An’am, 95] Botanists will notice that the seed grain includes the cereals such as wheat, barley, rice, millet, etc, which are monocotyledons, as well as the pulses such as beans, peas, grams, etc, and other seeds which are dicotyledons. These two represent the most important classes of food grains, while the date palm, a monocotyledon, represents for Arabia both food, fruit, confectionary, thatch, and pillars for houses, shady groves in oasis, and a standard measure of wealth and well being. “Split and Sprout” both ideas are included in the root falaqa. 14 (c) Existence of Opposite pairs: Glory be to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own kind, and other things of which they have no knowledge. (Surah Yaseen 36:36) The Qur’an in this verse states the presence of opposite pairs in all forms of life, including the forms, which were unknown to mankind at the time of Qur’an’s revelation. Recent advancements in science have shown that not only all animals and plants, but also bacteria have an opposite pair or strain. This verse, which clearly states a fact that was unknown to previous generations, and has been recently discovered, could have come only from the All- Knowing Allah. 15 (1.3.4) Animal Kingdom (a) Animal Communities: “There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth nor a being that flies on its wings but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have We omitted from the Book and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end; With Him are the keys of the Unseen the treasures that none knoweth but He. He knoweth whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered) but is (inscribed) in a Record Clear. [Surah An’am 6:38, 59] 29
  30. 30. Animals living on the earth include- thos living in the water as well as the four footed beasts. Life on the wing is separately mentioned. “Tair” which is ordinarily translated as “bird” is anything that flies, including mammals like bats. In our pride we may exclude animals from our purview, but they all live a life, social and individual, like ourselves, and all life is subject to the Plan and the Will of God. In other words they all obey His archetypal Plan, the Book which is mentioned here. They are all answerable in several degrees to His Plan (‘shall be gathered to their Lord in the end’).” 16 “Blachere states that an older commentator, such as Razi, thought that this verse only referred to instinctive actions whereby animals worship God. Sheik Si Boubakeur Hamza, in the commentary to his translation of the Koran, speaks of ‘the instinct which, according to Divine Wisdom, pushes all beings to group together, so that tey demand that the work of each member serve the whole group’. Animal behaviour has been closely investigated in recent decades, with the result that genuine animal communities have been shown to exist. Of course, for a long time now the results of a group or community’s work have been examined and this has led to the acceptance of a community organization. It has only been recently however, that the mechanisms which preside over this kind of organization have been discovered for certain species. The most studied and the best known case is undoubtedly that of the bees, to whose behaviour the name von Frisch is linked. Von Frisch, Lorenz and Tinbergen received the 1973 Nobel Prize for their work in this field.” 17 Once there was a programme on National Geographic, how the group of elephants together bullied off a hunting tiger to save their young one. We can also observe the community tilts clearly in the birds who migrate from one place to another in groups; and the ants who work together for their food supplies; There are two very interesting chapters in the holy Qur’an with the names called An-Nahl for ‘The Bee’ and An- Naml for ‘The Ants’ respectively. (b) Source of Honey: “And your Lord inspired the Bee, saying: ‘Take your habitations in hills, on trees, and in (men’s) habitations. Then eat of all fruits, and follow the way of your Lord made easy (for you)’; There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colours, wherein is healing for men; Verily, in this indeed is a sign for people who think. [Surah Nahl 16: 68_69] It should be pointed out that the Arabic language uses two forms of verbs, one for male and the other for the female gender. The Qur’an in this verse uses the female form of the verb. The Qur’an thus clearly states that the female bee is entrusted with the task of collecting the food and making the honey. It should also be added that the difference between the male and the female bee is so minute that only an expert can discern it. Needless to say Muhammad SAW was not an expert entomologist and could not discern between male and female bee. The popular belief about bees for centuries was that the bees that one typically sees are male bees, and that they go home to answer to a king bee. Recent advancements in entomology have 30
  31. 31. shown that female bees fly around, and go home to answer to a queen bee. This information was however already present in the Qur’an for more than fourteen centuries. (c) Source of Milk: Verily in cattle, there is lesson for you. We give you to drink of what is inside your bellies coming from a conjunction between the contents of the intestine and blood, a milk- pure and pleasant for those ho drink it. (Surah Nahl 16:66) The Qur’an here decribes the biological process in mammals, which brings together the contents of the intestine and the blood, at the level of the intestinal wall: which produces milk. This is in perfect harmony with recent discoveries made in the physiology of the digestive system of mammals. 18 (1.3.5) Human Beings (a) Respiration at Higher Altitudes: Those whom Allah wills to guide, He opens their breasts to Islam. Those whom He Wills to leave straying, He makes their breasts closed and constricted as if they have to climb up (to high altitudes) in the skies. (Surah An’am 6:125) We are now able to explain this verse on the basis of our knowledge of air pressure. It is now common knowledge that air pressure at higher altitudes is lower than that at sea level. There are no [very] high montains in the Arabian Peninsula. (b) Specificity of Fingerprints: Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay, we are able to put together in perfect order (even) the very tips of his fingers. (Surah Qayamah 75:3_4) It is now an established fact that each human being has his own unique fingerprint. It is for this reason that countries like Russia maintain the finger print records of all its citizens. It is another miracle of the Qur’an that it stated this fact long before the human mind could ever conceive. (c) Presence of Sensory Nerves in the Skin: Those who reject Our Signs, We shall soon cast them into the fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skin, then they may taste the penalty (of fire). For Allah is exalted in Power, Wise. (Surah Nisa 4:56] This verse states that Allah will replace the skin of the inmates of Hell so that they may taste the penalty of Fire again and again. In other words, this verse explains that the feeling or sensation of pain is localised to the skin. Human anatomists have now shown that sensory receptors of pain are located in the skin. Consequently, partial skin burns are very painful as the receptors in deep skin are still intact. On the other hand, complete skin burns are painless 31
  32. 32. as this destroys the receptors nerves as well. It is an evident miracle of the Qur’an that it describes such minute details of anatomy of skin. (d) Sensory Nerves and Intestine: A Parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised… (Can those in such bliss) be compared to such as shall dwell for ever in the fire (of Hell), who shall be given to drink boiling water, that will cut up their intestine (to pieces). [Surah Muhammad 47:15] Professor Keith Moore in his textbook, ‘The Developing Human’ explains this verse as follows: ‘The punishment of cutting the intestine is also consistent with our knowledge of the sensation present in the intestine. Thermal receptors are not present in the intestine. Thus, it is not boiling water alone that is mentioned in this verse. It is also known that if the intestine is perforated, the contents leak into the highly sensitive peritoneal cavity. The somatic receptors in the peritoneal cavity are then stimulated. This leads to sensation of the severest pain in the human body.’ Needless to say, Prophet Muhammad SAW could have possibly possessed or obtained such specific knowledge of the human body: given the time and place of his existence.” 19 (1.4) WHY QUR’AN BECOMES A LIVING MIRACLE FOR THE WHOLE UNIVERSE: “The people of Quraish knew that Mohammed [SAW] was but an illiterate who neither read nor wrote. He did not sit with teachers in schools, nor mixed with the learned. He was raised within a people who knew no book. They were naked [`arin] when it came to scientific inquiry [al- ulum al-`aqliyyah]. Allah said, Surely this Qurán declares to the children of Israel most of what they differ in. (Surah "The Ant", 27.76). What it revealed was of the secrets of those who opposed it and what they used to plot. Their deceit was revealed to the messenger of God. It included knowledge from the smallest of particles to cosmic facts the Arabs did not know in general and neither did Mohammed (peace be upon him); most important, what it included about the science of Shari`ah and how to deduce laws, the ways to logical argumentation [al- 32
  33. 33. hujaj al-`aqliyyah], the wisdom one derives from the stories of yore, the matters of the hereafter and the best of manners and behavior. It is free of contradiction despite the fact that it is a large book which includes many facts and various arts. "If it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy." (Surah "The Women", 4.82) It is a living miracle for it is read everywhere in uniformity, and God has promised to protect it. It is an established argument that, in contrast to other prophets whose miracles disappeared with them, the Qur'an is Mohammed's eternal miracle. Those who read it are not tired of it. Those who hear it are not bothered by it. And those who rehearse it fall in love with it. It includes both proof and proven. Those who understand the meaning know how to derive proof and how to find religious dictum at the same time when they consider both the way it is read and the way it is understood. It is conciseness of words [balaghah] which proves its miraculous character. It is with meaning that one finds God's order and His warning. Learning it by heart [hifdh] has been made easy. The fear that comes to the heart when hearing it and the humbleness that surrounds those reading it are beyond description. 20 (1.5) PROPHECIES IN THE QUR’AN THAT HAVE PROVED TRUE: “There are many predictions both in the Qurán and the authenticated sayings of the Prophet Muhammed [SAW] that have been fulfilled. 1. The Qurán says "Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, secure, heads shaved, hair curt short, and without fear" (48:28). This passage was revealed after the Prophet had been stopped by the Quraish from making 'Umrah (the Minor Pilgrimage) and a treaty was made between the Muslims and pagans at Hudaybia, six years after the Prophet's emigration from Mecca. From this position of weakness, in merely two years the verse was fulfilled, Mecca was captured, and the Muslims performed the pilgrimage, shaving their heads, and some cutting their hair. 33
  34. 34. 2. The Qurán says: "Allah has promised to those of you who believe, and do good deeds, that He will surely grant them in the land inheritance of power as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion which He has chosen for them. And that He will change their state after fear to one of security and peace. They will worship Me alone and not associate aught with Me." (24:55) And also: "Say to those who deny faith, soon you will be vanquished." (3:12) and "When comes the help of Allah and Victory, and you see the people enter Allah's religion in multitudes . . ." (110:1-2) The first verse was revealed at a time of the Muslim's weakness, promising the righteous victory, and the second predicting the peoples entering into Islam in crowds, and so it came to pass, after the capture of Mecca, and in the time of the Caliphs Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali, who were from the most pious companions of the Prophet, were established by Allah in the land, defeating the Persian and Roman empires, so that Islam was established from Spain to parts of China in a mere twenty years. This, in part, fulfills another prophecy of the Qurán: "It is He who has sent the Messenger with guidance, and the religion of truth, to make it triumphant over all religions." (9:32) Christianity, Judaism, paganism have never regained any lasting dominance, physically and intellectually since the coming of Islam. The secular philosophies of communism and capitalism are in the process of being dealt death blows. At the present rate of growth Islam will over take Christianity by 2025 in terms of numbers. See also Qurán 48:18-21 and 1:13, which promise victory and the taking of booty - which were also fulfilled. 3. The Qurán says: "The Roman Empire has been defeated in a land close by; but they, even after this defeat, will gain victory in a few years. Allah's is the command, in the past and in the future. On that day shall the believers rejoice, with the help of Allah, He helps whom He wills. And He is the mighty and the most Merciful. It is the promise of Allah. Allah never departs from His promise: but most men understand not. They crave for the outer things of life, but of the hereafter they are heedless." (30:1-7) The Eastern Roman (i.e. Byzantine) Empire suffered a massive defeat at the hands of the Persians who captured Jerusalem in 614, and after that Egypt and Syria fell, and Constantinople was laid siege to - (" a land close by "). The pagan Arabs delighted in this, as it seemed to signal to them the success of idolatry over the followers of revelation. When this verse was revealed it seemed impossible that Rome would recover. The word, translated " a few ", is bid'a, which actually means from three to nine years. Ubayy, a pagan Arab, wagered Abu Bakr one hundred camels that this would never occur. By the year 623, Heraclius, the Byzantine Roman Emperor, took to the field and vanquished the Persians in a series of battles, culminating in the battle of Niveveh in 627. Ubayy had been killed, so his relatives paid the dept. At this same time the Muslims had been victorious over the pagan Quraish and were rejoicing, as the Qur'an foretold. 4. In part of a long narration found in the two authoritative books of Hadith, the Prophet was sitting in a garden. 'Uthmaan ibn Afan walked in and the Prophet asked Abu Musa 'Ashari (the narrator) to inform him of the good news of paradise, and also that the people would mutiny against him. The Prophecy was fulfilled in that 'Uthmaan became the leader of the Muslims, and secondly some of the people rose against him and slew him. 34
  35. 35. 5. 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph, had also been informed by the Prophet of his assassination in such detail that he knew the man who was going to kill him, and identified him and pointed him out to the people. They asked 'Ali why he did not kill the man and he replied: "Then who will kill me?" The night preceding his assassination 'Ali had come out, and gazed at the sky and said: "By Allah he never told a lie, nor was a lie ever told to him." The next day the same man killed 'Ali, and his blood spilled down his beard, as the Prophet had described. 6. Whilst the Muslims were fighting the Jews in Khyber, after some days of attempting to besiege the fortress, the Prophet said that the next morning he would entrust the flag to a man to whom Allah would give victory. He gave the flag to 'Ali, and the same day the fortress was conquered under Ali's command. 7. The Prophet saw 'Ali and Zubair one day laughing together, and he asked Ali if he loved Zubair. Ali replied: "How could I not love him since he is my nephew and co-religionist." The Prophet asked Zubair the same question, who gave a similar response. The Prophet then told Zubair that he would fight 'Ali, and that he would be the oppressor. So, in the Battle of Jamal, when Ali and Zubair, in opposing camps came face to face. 'Ali reminded Zubair of the incident, and Zubair recalled, and said that he had forgotten, and he immediately left the battle field. So the battle took place as the Prophet had predicted, and Zubair was the oppressor, since Ali was the Rightful Caliph, and to oppose him with violence was wrong. 8. The Prophet said: "The Caliphate will last for thirty years, then there will be a biting kingship." So it happened. The rule of the Rightly Guided Caliphs was exactly thirty years: Abu Bakr for two, 'Umar for ten, 'Uthman for twelve, 'Ali for two and a half and Hassan three and a half. After that evil spread and kingship was established. 9. The Prophet also predicted the capture of Egypt, and told his companions to treat the people well, and that they would seize the treasures of the Persian Chesros (Emperor), who lives in the white palace, all of which they accomplished, and that Suraqa bin Malik (one of the companions) would have the bracelets of Caesar put on his hands. So it happened that some such bracelets fell into the possession of 'Umar and he called Suraqa, and placed the bracelets on him, reminding him of the Prophet's words. 10. A narration in the most authoritative of the Hadith books, Saheeh al-Bukhari, told Auf bin Malik to look for six incidents before the last day: "The first, my death; the second the conquest of Jerusalem; third, an epidemic among them; fourth, the abundance of wealth so that a man would not gladly accept one hundred dinars even if given it; fifth, a trouble that would involve all Arab families without exception; sixth, a treaty with the Christians, which the Christians would violate, etc.. (the hadeeth describes this last event, not yet fulfilled). Jerusalem was captured, and after this in 16 A.H. an epidemic broke out in Umwas and seventy thousand died. Wealth became plentiful, especially during the Caliphate of 'Uthman, and after that in the time of 'Umar ibn AbdulAzziz, when the collectors of zakat found no one poor enough to receive it. Also the rebellious war arose in the time of 'Uthman and became worse after his murder, so none of the Arabs families were not involved in some respect. 11. The Prophet mentioned that the Muslims would conquer both Rome and Constantinople. He 35
  36. 36. was asked which would fall first, and the Prophet said: " The city of Heraclius ", i.e. Constantinople. Constantinople was taken by the Muslims in the fifteenth century. Rome still remains to be conquered, as it will be. So the order is correct, and rest still to be fulfilled. What is noteworthy about these statements of the Prophet is that they were made at a time when no one could imagine that a small city state, permanently under siege by the pagan Arabs, would reach such heights of power and strength, and that these predictions are not couched in some vague terminology open to various interpretations, like the Bible's Book of Revelation's " Beast of 666", and monsters with horns and little horns, or the meanderings of Nostradamus. The language is clear, their assertions direct, and often with specific names and dates. 12. The Prophet also predicted the dividing of the Muslims into many sects and mentioned some of their characteristics. The Prophet mentioned that some people would do to 'Ali what the Christians did to Jesus. This clearly refers to the Shi'a, who exaggerate in love and praise of 'Ali. One of the Shi'a sects, the Nusaria, actually worship him as the manifestation of Allah. The Prophet also mentioned that a group would arise who will deny Allah's Qadr (Divine Decree) and he called them the " Magians of the Ummah ", and so it happened, and they were called the Qadaria. He also mentioned the appearance of those who would claim the Qur'an is created, and of those who would tell people to take only from the Qur'an and ignore the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition), and these things have all come to pass. The Prophet also predicted that from the tribe of a certain individual a group would arise who would used the verses of Qur'an pertaining to unbelievers on the believers, and that they should be fought and killed. So it happened that the first of the deviant sects to arise was the Khawarij, who said that 'Ali and Muwawia were unbelievers, and whoever did not believe this, then they also were unbelievers, and they would slaughter the Muslims, and they arose from the tribe of Tamim, as the Prophet had said. (1.6) PROPHECIES IN THE HADITHS THAT HAVE PROVED TRUE: 13. The Prophet mentioned that there would be signs forewarning the approach of the last day. Among those that have clearly come to pass are: a. The barefooted bedouins competing in building tall buildings. Today we find in the Arabian 36
  37. 37. Peninsula, the Arabs who used to be impoverished herders of camels and sheep, are competing in building the tallest tower blocks. b. The Mosques would be like palaces. This is clearly the case, even though the Prophet ordered simplicity in the houses of Allah, the mosques have become more and more fantastic, with golden domes, marbled floors, lavish carpets and chandeliers. c. Disappearance of trustworthiness, so much so that one would only be able to say: " I know a trustworthy person in such-and-such town” d. The increase in killing, so that the one who kills does not know why he killed, and the one killed does not know why he was killed. I was recently sent an article from the Washington Post about the rise of gang warfare. Part of the initiation ceremony was for a new gang member (some times as young as eleven) to shoot someone. The second highest cause of death from fifteen to thirty five in the US are gun related. The massacre of civilians in the Vietnam War by American troops who had little idea why they were there, and the increase of such conflicts, is further illustration of the fulfillment of this prophecy. As are the rise of insane mass murders, of children killing children, such as Jamie Bulger... e. The increase of the use of riba (usury/interest) so that no one will able to escape being tainted by it. This clearly the state of the world economy today. f. The enemies of the Muslims dividing the Muslim's wealth and lands between them, the Muslims abandoning jihad, and concerning themselves only with the worldly matters. We have already mentioned this. g. The increase of literacy. h. The decrease of religious knowledge due to the disappearance of scholars. i. The increase of musical instruments, and the Muslims making it lawful even though the Prophet has forbidden them. j. The increase of sexual promiscuity, and new diseases that people had not heard of before spreading amongst them as a consequence of that. This is clear, with the arrival of AIDS, and other previously unheard of viruses. k. Appearance of Dajjals (liars), each claiming to be a Messenger of Allah, while Muhammad is the last messenger. There are numerous examples of this, starting with Musailima, who arose in the time of the Prophet, just before his death, to more modern liars such as Elija Muhammad, founder of the Black American racist movement "The Nation of Islam", and India's pretender Gulam Ahmed of Qadian. l. Nakedness of women while still being dressed. m. The drinking of wine becoming common, and the Muslims making it lawful by calling it another name. 37
  38. 38. n. Shouting in the mosques. o. The worst and most ignorant will become leaders and they will be oppressors. p. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, and treat his friends kindly and shun his father. q. Men will wear silk and gold, and the making of it lawful by the Muslims even though the Prophet had forbidden it for the men of his 'Ummah (nation). r. People will abandon the religion for a small worldly gain, and keeping to the religion will be like holding two hot coals. So these are just some of the numerous prophecies of Muhammad [SAW], that have clearly come true, and some have been fulfilled in this age in which we live, all adding weight to the evidence in favour of his claim.” 21 (1.7) TO SUM UP: 38
  39. 39. All the above reasons we suppose are more than enough for us to consider Qur’an as the Word of God, and to treat it as the base of our study. In a way Qur’an promotes education, awareness, knowledge, and emphasizes on humans to travel through the universe to look for His Signs, think and ponder, believe in Him and surrender and act to His Will and purpose that we are here for. He has purposely left the remains and the means for us to discover and unravel the truths that lie beyond in the heavens and the earth. He says: Have they not travelled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? They were stronger than these in power [Qur'an 30:9] The glorious history of Islamic civilization is an instructive example of the fruits of implementing Islam in society and life. Muslims are justifiably proud of their history, which saw them excel in diverse fields of intellectual endeavour, among them: the establishment of law and justice, advancement of science and technology, enrichment of the humanities and a flourishing of the arts. How is it that a culture of illiterate shepherds achieved ascendancy? The implementation of the Qur'an and the example of the Prophet Muhammad reformed their society into one focused on God-consciousness, truth, justice, compassion and knowledge. The revival of Islamic civilization is linked to a return to the pure teachings of Islam and an appreciation of its rich cultural and intellectual tradition. 22 So now we are in a position to discuss about PROPHETS- who they are, why they are sent and what is the difference between these Prophets and fake Rulers (dajjals) who allow corruption to occur on this earth. In fact this way (Al-Islam) is the Right Way of your Rabb and We have spelled out Our revelations very clearly for the people who use their common sense. [F. Malik Tr. Sura An’am 6:126] References 39
  40. 40. 1. Samira Fayyad Khwaldeh, The Most Beautiful Names of Allah, p. 21 2. B. Walker, Foundations of Islam, pages 38,42 3. Al Alim, The Religion of Islam-Quran, The World of Islam 4. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, note to 2:23, p.163, Volume I 5. Al Alim, The Religion of Islam-Quran, The World of Islam 6. Harun Yahya, The Miracles of Qur’an, Video CD 7. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible the Qur’an and Science, p, p 134_142, 26, Chapter III 8. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, p.136_141, CH.III 9. Harun Yahya,The Miracles of Qur’an, Video 10. A.Y.Ali, Al-Alim, Note 3111 to 25:53, and notes 3104 to 25:48, 3106 to 25:49 11. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, p.173,174, Ch V 12. Mazhar U. Kazi, Self Evident Miracles of the Holy Quran, p.69_70 13. Harun Yahya, Miracles of the Qur’an, Video 14. A.Y.Ali, note 919 to 6:95 15. M.U.Kazi, Self Evident Miracles of the Holy Qur’an, pp.67 16. A.Y.Ali, note 859 to 6:38 17. Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, p.191,192, Ch. VI 18. M.U. Kazi, Self Evident Miracles of the Holy Qur’an, p.68,67 19. Dr. M.U.Kazi, Self Evident Miracles of the Holy Qur’an, p.72_74 20. Excerpted from an article written by scholars from al-Azhar, Originally Posted by Abu Mubarak 21. Brother Abdurraheem Green, Material on the Authenticity of the Qurán #4, “Prophecies, Predictions, Science, Surety and the Consequences of Turning Away”. 22. 40
  41. 41. CHAPTER II: THE PROPHETS, REVELATION AND ADAM’S CREATION IN PARADISE 2.1 Understanding the Meaning of the Prophet (Nabi) and the Messenger (Rasul) 2.1.1 Prophet / Nabi 2.1.2 Messenger / Rasul 2.1.3 Difference between a Prophet and a Messenger 2.1.4 The Warner / Nazeer 2.1.5 The Bearer of glad Tidings / Basheer 2.2 God’s Communing with the Prophets 2.2.1 Means of Revelation: (A) INDIRECT WAHY (i) Inspiration in the heart (ii) Inspiration through the dream (B) DIRECT WAHY (i) From behind the Veil (C) THROUGH THE INTERMEDIATORY (i)Through the Angels 2.2.2 Can the non Prophets receive the Revelation? 2.2.3 Has the Revelation come to an end? 2.3 Who are the Angels? 2.3.1 Angels as Message Bearers of God 2.3.2 Angels as Strengthening the Believers 2.3.3 Angels as executing God’s Orders 41
  42. 42. 2.3.4 Angels as Intecessors 2.4 Who are the Jinns and the Devils? 2.4.1 Exixtence; 2.4.2 Abilities; 2.4.3 The Occult 2.5 Who was Iblis? 2.6 Humans: Who are we? 2.6.1 The Story of Human Creation (A) When God informed about Adam-the first man (B) Angels’ Response (i) Angels thought on the basis of the predecessors of Adam? (a) They knew about the Jinns? (b) Or they knew about the Animals? (ii) Angels thought of humans as incapable Vicegerents? 2.6.2 Adam the first Prophet (C) God’s Ordering Prostration for Adam (D) Jinns’ Response (i) Lesson 1 regarding Satan’s Disobedience (ii) Lesson 2 Iblis’ reprieve until the Day of Resurrection (E) Eve’s creation (F) The Paradise for Adam and Eve (iii) Lesson 3 regarding Satan’s deceit (iv) Lesson 4 regarding Allah’s Word (v) Lesson 5 regarding Fate (vi) Lesson 6 regarding Guidance (vii) Lesson 7 regarding Punishment for the followers of Shaytan 42