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  • 1. Conclusions
  • 2. Important• Make sure you say what your argument was.I.e. restate your main point on the topic• Make reference to the most important ideasoutlined and discussed in the essay.• NEVER introduce a new idea or topic.
  • 3. Should individuals or governments beresponsible for reducing fossil fuels• Intro: In this essay it will be argued thatindividuals must take responsibility for fossilfuel reduction if the world is to see a realchange in its use.
  • 4. Conclusion• In brief, what were your main points?• What side of the argument did you argue for?• Do you have any suggestions for what we should do in the future?• This essay has shown individuals can make big reductions in theirfossil fuel use by making in-expensive alterations to their homesand that because there are so many individuals these smallchanges add up to make a larger change that is much greater thanone government can do. While governments no doubt have a roleto play this essay demonstrates that it is the individual who has totake the main responsibility. Future campaigns should thereforefocus on changing individuals’ habits.
  • 5. Essay question• In a global business environment a key focus of humanresource management in multinational companies isthe issue of culture shock. Discuss this issue and thensummarise and evaluate ways in which humanresource managers can deal with it.Thesis statement• This essay will discuss key issues associated withexpatriate staff and culture shock and summariseeffective ways of dealing with it
  • 6. Answer4) To sum up, there is no doubt that moving senior-level staff and theirfamilies abroad can create a range of problems associated with thenew language and culture.2) Individuals will cope with such moves in different ways ranging fromminor discomfort to intense psychological stress.1) Research has shown that if strategy training and help are givenbefore employees depart from their home country, they are lesslikely to suffer from severe culture shock.5) Companies that put in place strategies that help employees dealwith these problems fine that staff settle into their new lives moreeasily.6) As a result, there is less disruption to business.3) In conclusion, while employee culture shock is a potential threat tomultinational companies, effective human resource training cansignificantly minimise that risk and result in well-adjusted andproductive staff.
  • 7. Study• Which linking expression introduces theconclusion?• Which linking expression introduces the finalsentence?
  • 8. Read the following introductions and essayoutlines. Then write a conclusion for each one.Should men get paternity leavefrom work?• Women have had the right to maternity leavein the UK for many years. In recent years therehas been a call from men that they too shouldhave paid leave from work when their child isborn. This could have a huge impact on theeconomy. This essay will argue that the cost tothe economy is worth the price.• Small businesses will not be able to afford it.• Other less rich countries provide paternityleave and they have many small businesses.• Women are better at looking after childrenthan men.• Children need both parents. If men spent moretime with their children they would becomebetter carers.Is the cost of a universityeducation too high?• The cost of going to university has increasedsignificantly in recent years. It can now coststudents tens of thousands of pounds to geta degree. This essay will argue that this is toohigh a price tag.• People with degrees earn more money thanthose without so they should pay for theirextra education.• Some students may earn more money in thefuture, but not all students do.• Anyone can go to university and thegovernment can’t afford to pay for everyone.• Because the cost is so high, only the rich cannow afford university. If you are clever andpoor you can’t attend.
  • 9. What goes into a conclusionAnswer these questions• In brief, what were your main points?• What side of the argument did you argue for?• Do you have any suggestions for what weshould?
  • 10. Your turn• In brief, what were your main points?• What side of the argument did you argue for?• Do you have any suggestions for what we shoulddo in the future?Essay titles• It is worth the expense and risk to make amanned flight to Mars?• The future status of English as a global languageis assured. Discuss.