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Illuminated Manuscripts by TJ Ryan
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Illuminated Manuscripts by TJ Ryan



Our class presentation on Illuminated Manuscripts and its effect on technology.

Our class presentation on Illuminated Manuscripts and its effect on technology.



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Illuminated Manuscripts by TJ Ryan Illuminated Manuscripts by TJ Ryan Presentation Transcript

  • illuminated Manuscripts Prof.Brzl Group #2
    • What are they?
    • -Handwritten manuscripts with decorative borders, colorful characters and paintings
    • -such as Bibles, Liturgy of the and later on, commissioned secular writings hours
  • What are they? -the word “Illuminated” means to be lit up or enlightened -deriving from the gold embedded in the artwork and the enlightening man receives from the sacred writings
  • 3 What are they? -a vehicle to bring Christianity and literacy to Celtic and Germanic tribes
  • 3 Where are they found?
  • 3 Where are they found? -papyrus precursors found in Byzantine empire and Egypt -First manuscripts found in Ireland and Italy -flourished THROUGHOUT Europe during renaissance
  • 3 When were they found? -Earliest date back to 400 AD until 15th cen. -incunabulum period handwritten manuscripts Phased out in the infancy of the printing press from 1452 - 1500 ad
  • Who made them? -Monastic scribes and the aristocracy -they were copiers and artists -apprentices and pupils of the “master writers” -Later secular works were commissioned to professional scribes
  • 3 Who made them? -held power in society and felt closer to God "You write with the pen of memory on the parchment of pure conscience, scraped by the knife of Divine fear, smoothed by the pumice of heavenly desires, and whitened by the chalk of holy thoughts. The ruler is the Will of God. The split nib is the joint love of God and our neighbor. Coloured inks are heavenly grace. The exemplar is the life of Christ.” sermon of 12th century English Bishop
  • How are they created?
    • Parchment or vellum made from sheep and cow shin is soaked, scrubbed clean, and then stretched
    • Dusted and then rubbed out
  • How are they created?
    • Stationary or bookseller supplies scribe with parchment
    • They were the contractors and editors of the day
  • How are they created?
    • The Apothecary would purchase pigments
      • Came from plants, insects, stone and precious minerals
    • Crush and mixed them with powder and egg whites
  • How are they created?
    • The Scribe worked in the scriptorium and merely copied the exemplar (template)
    • Used a stylus to prick guide holes
    • Left space for the Illuminator to paint
      • Note: Scribe and illuminator often were different people
  • How are they created?
    • 3 Basic Fonts
      • Carolingian Minuscule
  • How are they created?
    • 3 Basic Fonts
      • Gothic
  • How are they created?
    • 3 Basic Fonts
      • B â tarde
  • How are they created?
    • Artist would then Illuminate
      • Gold leave - coins hammered into flaked were burnished on to paper first
      • Color added afterwards
      • Created
        • Marginalia
        • Decorated Letters
        • Miniatures (Larger pictures)
  • How are they created?
    • Stationer (bookseller) would then gather the parchment into a codex
    • Sowed them together with a spine and attached them to wood planks
    • Cover in leather
  • How are they created?
    • Let’s watch a demonstration
    • Flash video
  • Social context = 3-4 pages -a big book like bible would take entire herd of hides
  • Social context
    • Time consuming and Expensive material with high demand
    • Luxury item
    • Scribes received highest social class in community
  • Impact
    • Effective way to record history
    • Best surviving specimens of middle age art and writings
    • Due to barbaric invasions, if it wasn’t for monasteries, history of western world could have been lost
  • Impact
    • Manuscripts brought knowledge to a broader audience
    • The combination of pictures and writing helps increase literacy
    • “ in images the illiterate read”
      • Pope Gregory the great
  • Impact
    • Lastly, illuminated manuscripts shaped the ways we texts were read and digested
  • Precursor to the printing press
    • Skeumorphism is present as early prints followed same format as the manuscripts
      • Absent of title page, pagination, abreviation
      • Left space for hand draw illuminations
  • Precursor to the printing press
    • Incunabula
      • Books that were printed during the early stages of printing
  • Precursor to the printing press
    • “ It is a press, certainly, but a press from which shall flow in inexhaustible streams...Through it, God will spread His Word. A spring of truth shall flow from it: like a new star it shall scatter the darkness of ignorance, and cause a light heretofore unknown to shine amongst men.”
      • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Descramble and define the game!
    • Balunacuin
    • Incubabula
  • Descramble and define the game!
    • DEXOC
    • CODEX
  • Descramble and define the game!
    • LEVLUM
    • VELLUM
    A Young calves skin similar to parchment
  • Descramble and define the game!
    • lustys
    • stylus
    Used to prick guide holes in parchment
  • Descramble and define the game!
    • bugtegner
    • Gutenberg
    You should know this
  • Primary Sources
    • http://www.leavesofgold.org
    • http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts
    • http://classes.bnf.fr/phebus/explo/index3b.htm
    • http://www.kb.nl/kb/manuscripts/index.html