The Future of Collaboration


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A long presentation that gives a primer on how Gamification can be used to build collaboration in a corporate community. I am rather proud of the information I collected and synthesized in this presentation, but I was never able to convince enough people its value.

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  • This is Chess Notation
  • These are Baseball Stats
  • This does not take into accout non-video game players such as soccer, baseball, chess, etc…
  • “Playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary challenges” - Bernard Suits Distinguished Professor Emeritus focused on Philosophy of Games, Ethics, Aristotle
  • TODO: Add more quotes from Gartner
  • Control Power Example: Here the aim is not for the agent to internalize power. Rather, to understand control power we might imagine a square room with four doors. These doors only open two at a time and only at particular times. The agent is free to choose whatever door he might like to pass through, yet he choices are still modulated by the flow of doors opening and closing.
  • Example: Carl, for example, imagined a gamification of the classroom with respect to attendance. In this game, rather than treating absence punitively by docking the player’s grade, the number of classes missed by absent students would then be added to the grade of those students that miss no class. Here class attendance might be increased by involving students in a game.
  • TODO: More examples
  • Good Games Have Different Goals for Each Level of InvolvementNovices need onboardingJourneymen need encouraging, experience, and educationExperts need fresh activities, content, and collaboration opportunitiesMasters need exclusive activities, access, and “Unlocks”
  • TODO: Animate
  • Time Based Patterns and systemsPacingAchievementProgression“Unlocks”Reward SchedulesDynamic Systems
  • Mechanics: Levels – Manager 1, 2, 3; Project / Program Manager 1, 2, 3; Application Developer 1, 2, 3, 4; IT Specialist 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Gold, Silver, Bronze Safety HerosPoints – Paychecks, ACE pointsLeaderboards – Project Status ReportsBadges – Mission – Virtual GoodsPlayer Journey
  • AchieversWinning, Creating, Challenging, Showing Off, CompareSocializersExpressing, Liking, Sharing, Helping, Commenting, Giving, GreetingExplorerViewing, Exploring, Voting, Rating, Curating, ReviewingKillerHarassing, Hacking, Cheating, Heckling, Taunting, Teasing
  • The Future of Collaboration

    1. 1. 1. Think about systems2. Willingness to Learn3. Willingness to Change4. Willingness to Grow5. Willingness to Develop Trust6. Communication7. Valuing Risk and Tolerating FailureCompetencies, Qualities And Attributes Required For Collaborative Working – Clare Cooper 2
    2. 2. Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress;working together is success. – Henry Ford 3
    3. 3. 4
    4. 4. • 1614: The white king commands his owne knight into the third house before his owne bishop.• 1750: K. knight to His Bishops 3d.• 1837: K.Kt. to B.third sq.• 1848: K.Kt. to Bs 3rd.• 1859: K. Kt. to B. 3d.• 1874: K Kt to B3• 1889: KKt -B3• 1904: Kt-KB3• 1946: N-KB3• 1980: Nf3 5
    6. 6. • 4 Million in the Middle East • 15 Million in Australia (71%) (1%) • 17 Million in South Korea• 10 Million in Russia (7%) (35%)• 105 Million in India (9%) • 100 Million in Europe (11.7%)• 10 Million in Vietnam (11.5%) • 200 Million in China (15%)• 10 Million in Mexico (9.3%) • 183 Million in the United States• 13 Million in Central and (60% of the population) Southern America (3%) 7 Stats from: Reality is Broken which references 11 different studies
    7. 7. • Average Age: 34 years• Average Experience: 12 years• Sex: Male: 60% Female: 40%• 19 Million are playing 20+ hours a week• 44% are playing online / multiplayer 8
    8. 8. The Fifth Generation History World of Warcraft• Generation 1 - The Mainframe • Average Player – 1974: Mazewar - First Multiplayer Online Game – 1978: MUD1 – Roy Trubshaw & Richard Bartle – Plays 3.5 nights a week• Generation 2 - The Online Modem Services – 1985: Islands of Kesmai on Compuserve – Plays for 3 hours at a time – – 1985: Habitat by Lucasfilm 1991: Neverwinter Nights by America Online • Launched in Q4 2004 with 1.5 – 1992: The Shadows of Yserbius by Sierra Online million subscribers – 1993: The Fates of Twinion by Sierra Online – 1994: The Ruins of Cawdor by Sierra Online • 2010 12 million subscribers• Generation 3 – The Internet – 1996: Meridian 59 by 3DO • Last Quarter: 11.4 million – 1996: The Realm Online by Sierra Online• Generation 4 – Popularization • 624,750,000 hours played and – 1996: Nexus: The Kingdom of Wind by Nexon recorded – 1997: Ultima Online by Origin Systems – 1999: Everquest by Sony 9
    9. 9. • Founded 2007 – Privately held• 600 employees• $850 million Revenue in 2010. Valued a 8 Billion.• 27 active games on their platform. 20 Games have been retired.• 250 million active players• 70 minutes a week of play• 730,000,000 hours of game play observed & recorded 10
    10. 10. • Idea 1: Storage is getting Cheaper• Idea 2: Games Stats are being recorded at an increasing rate• Idea 3: The Number of Players is increasing• Storage Space + Games Recorded + Players = Gaming Is No Longer An Art 11
    11. 11. 12
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    17. 17. • The Average Gamer has spent 2,500 hours of his life playing video games• The Hard Core Gamer has played 12,500 hours of his life playing video games• This sort of data collection and analysis by psychologists, sociologists, and economists has been going on now for about 10 years• ―…ten thousand hours of practice is required to achieve the level of mastery associated with being a world-class expert — in anything. In study after study, of composers, basketball players, fiction writers, ice skaters, concert pianists, chess players, master criminals, and what have you, this number comes up again and again. Ten thousand hours is the equivalent to roughly three hours per day, or twenty hours per week, of practice over ten years‖ – Daniel Levitin This is your Brain on Music• What Are These Companies Getting Good At?• What Are These People Getting Good At? 18
    18. 18. 1. Challenges are to be met and overcome2. Challenges are to be met with relentless optimism by focusing our energies on them3. Work must have clear success factors, be hands on, and outcomes of success known4. You must eliminate the fear of failure. This improves overall chance of success5. Build strong social connections and networks. Build prosocial activities6. Become a part of something bigger and more epic than an individuals actions Source: Reality is Broken by Jane McGonigal,Ph.D, Director of Game R&D at the Institute of the Future 19
    19. 19. Making Work Fun and Effective 20
    20. 20. • ―We suggest a short list of technologies that we recommend that CIOs should make time to see and experience themselves [in 2011]… Play with Examples of the Rising Gamification Trend‖ – Gartner January 13, 2011• ―By 2015, more than 50 percent of organizations that manage innovation processes will gamify those processes‖ – Gartner Press Release Headline April 12, 2011• ―Enterprise architects, CIOs and IT planners must be aware of, and lead, the business trend of gamification, educate their business counterparts and collaborate in the evaluation of opportunities within the organization.‖ – Brian Burke, Gartner Analyst 21
    21. 21. • Sovereign power functions according to the exercise of the power of a sovereign on the body of a subject.• Disciplinary power is a sort of training that strives to produce subjects that have internalized power so that they come to regulate themselves• Control power is about modulation or control of choice. 22
    22. 22. An individual’s movement is modulated by agentsentering into competition with one another ingames organized around particular sorts of goals.While these games certainly have rules, powerhere does not function through the force of the lawand its possible sanctions, but rather throughpeople electing to become participants in thegame. 23
    23. 23. • Gamification ≠ Game • Gamification strives to regulate Theory human behavior by turning it into a game. Rather than• Game Mechanics ≠ Core merely disciplining people or Experience regulating their behavior – We are not building a game through the threat of negative sanctions, people are here• Using Gaming Mechanics motivated to engage in certain to Increase Engagement, sorts of behavior through the Satisfaction & Fun transformation of this behavior into a type of competition. 24
    24. 24. Cameras are used tomonitor drivers. If youare driving under or atthe speed limit, you areentered into a lottery. Ifyou win, you get themoney that drivers whospeed have had to payinto the system. 25
    25. 25. 26
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    27. 27. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - noted for both his work in the study of happiness and creativity is best known as the architect of the notion of flow. He is the author of many books and over 120 articles or book chapters. He is described as the worlds leading researcher on positive psychology.28
    28. 28. Fixed ratio (FR) – schedules deliver reinforcement after every nth response Real-world example: Used car dealer gets a $1000 bonus for each 10 cars sold on the lot. Variable ratio schedule (VR) – a reinforcement schedule in which the number of responses necessary to produce reinforcement varies from trial to trial Real-world example: slot machines or certain number of strokes to finish a hole in golf (most players cannot be sure how many strokes they will need when they start) Fixed interval (FI) – reinforced after every nth amount of time Real world example: washing machine cycle Variable interval (VI) – reinforced on an average every nth amount of time Real world example: checking your e-mail or pop quizzes Based on the works of B.F. Skinner29
    29. 29. • Who is the player playing with? How can players find each other?• How are they collaborating? How can they tell the quality / quantity of the collaboration?• What are they collaborating on? How can players see their own progress and their groups progress on a common goal?• What is their preferred social style? How do players prefer to interact with each other? 30
    30. 30. • When was the last time the player did something?• How close are they to accomplishing a task?• What is their preferred method of communication? Email, Notification, Phone Call?• Who should be reminding them to reengage? The system, a fellow player, a computer controlled player?• How often does a player reengage after a given reminder? 31
    31. 31. Unmeasurable / Non-Measurable / Metrics Metric• Engagement – How much attention are • Fun – How much fun are your your users giving to your process / product / program? users having using your process /• Influence – How much influence do you product / program have over the choices your users are • Revenue – How much money are making you collecting from people using• Loyalty – How frequently will a users return to your product over your competitors your process / product / program• UGC – User Generated Content. How much • Search Engine Optimization: content are your users generating about How easy is it for users to find your process / product / program your process / product / program• Time Spent – How much time are your users spending doing activities in your above those of a competitor process / product / program?• Virality – How much are your users talking about your process / product / program 32
    32. 32. 33
    33. 33. Collaboration platforms allow people to berecognized for things they’ve done.Example: An employee points another employeeto a document and a presentation. A public thanksis given and that the worker that answered thequestion builds her reputation. This connectionand collaboration is formally recorded onemployee profile on the portal 34
    34. 34. Once employee ratings are established official program and projectrecognition is awarded for collaboration and meeting challenges.Bragging rights and peer respect are codified in the community.Projects identify challenges they will solve and regularly give outawards for overcoming these challenges. These awards are somethingthat can be placed on the desk as well as on the employee’s profile onthe Portal. Employees start to compete for badges and recognition.Example: The DERF I project will have 10 bronze, 4 silver, and 1 goldClient Interactions. Admittance to the DERF I project will qualify you tocompete for one of the DERF Program’s Platinum Client Interactionswith the VP’s and Director stake holders. Additionally 5 of any awardsare equal to the next level up. 35
    35. 35. Badges become assets needed to get the right to serve ona project. Projects and programs end up with payouts byoffering badges for the experience learned on the project.Badges set the criteria for project selection.Example: The DERF II project requires a Project Architectwith 5 Conceptual Architecture Badges and 5 ClientInteraction Badges rated silver or above and one PlatinumClient Interaction Badge. 36
    36. 36. Employees and trade skill shortages and credits. Theorganization adjusts skills and capabilities and has theanalytics to see work develop.Example: You approach a fellow co-worker to help you ona project because you are short 1 badge to work thechallenge and receive the badges associated with them.She loans you a badge, and you loan her another badgefor her project. This trade is recorded and reported on thecorporate portal. Mentoring relationships are aformalization of an ongoing trade relationship. 37
    37. 37. 38
    38. 38. Name Ted Tschopp Job Title Information Technology Specialist IV Organization ITBI > CSPC > ETAE > Portfolio & Project Architecture Manager Situ Ramaswamy Active / Level (N/J/X/M) Mentor Mentoring Role Inactive Project Architect Active Novice Situ Ramaswamy - None- Systems Engineer Inactive eXpert Greg Goldasich Integration Engineer Inactive eXpert Tanmey Hoshing Application Developer Inactive Master Professor Clausen, Professor Bell Jonathan Watson Director Inactive Journeyman Michael De Vere Vanessa Ericson Manager Inactive Journeyman Michael De Vere Kevin McClure Project Analyst Inactive eXpert Darren Atkins Bryan Ogawa Data Analyst Inactive eXpert Darren Atkins Tom JanetzkeDatabase Administrator Inactive eXpert Jeff Bystrom John Howell 39
    39. 39. Validation (Training, Certification, Peer, Experience Skills Level (N/J/X/M) project Work, Self) (Years) .NET eXpert T,P,W 7 Java eXpert T,P,W 7 Web Master T,P,W 15 Rational Unified Process Journeyman T,P,W 3 System Engineering Journeyman T,P,W 5 Computer Science Master C, P, W 22 Computer Programming Master T,C,P,W 26 Physical Project Architecture Master P,W 15 Logical Project Architecture Master P,W 10 Project Integration Architecture Master P,W 10Enterprise Integration Architecture Journeyman P,W 6 Conceptual Architecture Journeyman P,W 40
    40. 40. 41
    41. 41. 42
    42. 42. • Architecture – Knowledgeable• Engineering – eXpert• Consulting – Master• Analysis – Master• Systems Design - Master• Systems Implementation - Master• Leading Edge Technology – Knowledgeable• Business Process – Knowledgeable• IT Education/Certification/Training – Knowledgeable• IT Industry Experience – Master• Utility Industry Experience – Knowledgeable• Specialized IT Knowledge –eXpert 43
    43. 43. ―By 2015, more than 50 percent of organizations that manageinnovation processes will gamify those processes‖ 44
    44. 44. Level NameLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 4 3 2 1 45
    45. 45. # Behavior Level Associated Reward Notes1 Asking Questions 12 Answering Questions 23 Attend Meeting4 Attend 4 Meetings in a Row5 Facilitate a Meeting6 Presentation to Meeting7 External Presentation / Meeting8 Mentor New Member9 Project Consultation 46
    46. 46. # Reward Cost Scarcity Notes1 AED CoC Lunch2 Free Book3 Access to Safari Books 10 Resource is from O’Riely scarce, if all4 Attend a Conference 1 taken, people must bid5 Gartner License 5 47
    47. 47. 48
    48. 48. Behavioral Feedback Progression Cascading Information Theory Community Collaboration Behavioral Momentum Blissful Productivity Reward Schedules Infinite Gameplay Urgent Optimism Appointments Achievements Loss Aversion Epic Meaning Countdown Progression Ownership Free Lunch Discovery Bonuses Combos Lottery Quests Virality Points Status Levels Boosts Engagement x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Influence x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Loyalty x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xUser Generated Content x x x x x x x x x Time Spent x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Virality x x x x x x x x x x x x x Fun x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Revenue x x x x x x x x x Findability x x x x x x Personality Achievers x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Explorers x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Socializers x x x x x x x x x x x x x Killers x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 49
    49. 49. Player Re- VisibleEngagemen Progress + t RewardSocial Call Motivating to Action Emotion 50
    50. 50. 51
    51. 51. • By combining game mechanics in a manner that cascades them together and moves the ―player‖ from being a novice to a master taking into account “players” skill level, the desired outcome, and their personality types. 52
    52. 52. • Game Mechanics are constructs of rules and feedback loops intended to produce enjoyable game play. They are the building blocks that can be applied and combined to Gamify any non- game context. 53
    53. 53. Killers Achievers• Player • World Focused focused• Actor • ActorSocializer Explorers• Player • World Focused Focused• Interactor • Interactor 54
    54. 54. Griefers Politicians• Implicit • Explicit• Actor • ActorFriends Networkers• Implicit • Explicit• Interactor • Interactor 55
    55. 55. • Vision: What is our vision for this project? What is the key benefit? Where is the fun?• Play style: Who is playing? Who are they playing with? What’s their primary play style? What social actions do they find engaging? Why?• Mastery: What is the core activity & feedback system? What are players optimizing? What skills are they learning? What journey are they on? What’s driving them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―Play Well?‖• Progress: How will you ―Light the way‖ towards mastery? How will players know how to get started, and what to do? How will they know if they’re playing well or poorly?• Engagement: What activities and events will re-engage players throughout their lifecycle? How do these activities leverage core social actions? 56
    56. 56. • Changing the Game - By: David Edery and Ethan Mollick• Fun Inc.: Why Gaming Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century - By: Tom Chatfield (Nov 15, 2010)• Game-Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty Through Rewards, Challenges, and Contests - By: Gabe Zichermann and Joselin Linder (Mar 29, 2010)• Gamification by Design - By: Gabe Zichermann (coming out in 2011)• Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World - By: Jane McGonigal (Jan 20, 2011)• Rock, Paper, Scissors: Game Theory in Everyday Life - By: Len Fisher (Nov 4, 2008)• Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete - By: Byron Reeves and J. Leighton Read (Nov 2, 2009)• Game On: Energize Your Business with Social Media Games - By: Jon Radoff (April, 2011) 57
    57. 57. • Designing Social Interfaces: Principles, Patterns, and Practices for Improving the User Experience - By: Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone• Designing for the Social Web - By: Joshua Porter• Finite and Infinite Games: A Vision of Life as Play and Possibility - By: James P. Carse• Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness - By: Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein (Feb 24, 2009)• Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames - By: Ian Bogost (Sep 30, 2010)• Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do - By: B.J. Fogg• Play: How it Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul - By: M.D. Stuart Brown and Christopher Vaughan• Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions - By: Dan Ariely (Apr 27, 2010)• Building Social Web Applications: Establishing Community at the Heart of Your Site - By: Gavin Bell• The Upside of Irrationality: The Unexpected Benefits of Defying Logic at Work and at Home - By: Dan Ariely (Jun 1, 2010)• Building Web Reputation Systems - By: Randy Farmer and Bryce Glass 58
    58. 58. • A Theory of Fun for Game Design - By: Raph Koster (Nov 6, 2004)• Challenges for Game Designers - By: Brenda Brathwaite and Ian Schreiber• Creating Games: Mechanics, Content and Technology - By: Morgan McGuire• David Perry on Game Design: A Brainstorming ToolBox - By: David Perry and Rusel DeMaria (Mar 24, 2009)• Game Feel: A Game Designers Guide to Virtual Sensation - By: Steve Swink• Level Up!: The Guide to Great Video Game Design - By: Scott Rogers• Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals - By: Katie Salen and Erin Zimmerman• The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses - By: Jesse Schell (Aug 18, 2008)• The Art of Game Design: A Deck of Lenses - By: Jesse Schell 59
    59. 59. • Digital Game-Based Learning - By: Marc Prensky• Dont Bother Me Mom – I’m Learning! - By: Marc Prensky• Good Video Games and Good Learning - By: James Paul Gee• How Computer Games Help Children Learn - By: David Williamson Shaffer• Learning by Doing: A Comprehensive Guide to Simulations, Computer Games, and Pedagogy in e-Learning and Other Educational Experiences - By: Clark Aldrich• Learning Online with Games, Simulations, and Virtual Worlds: Strategies for Online Instruction - By: Clark Aldrich• Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America - By: Allan Collins and Richard Halverson• Teaching Digital Natives: Partnering for Real Learning - By: Marc Prensky• The World Is Open: How Web Technology Is Revolutionizing Education - By: Curtis J. Bonk• What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy - By: James Paul Gee 60
    60. 60. • Gamestorming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers - By: Dave Gray, Sunni Brown and James Macanufo• Got Game: How the Gamer Generation Is Reshaping Business Forever - By: John C. Beck and Mitchell Wade• Serious Games: Games That Educate, Train, and Inform - By: David Michael and Sande Chen• The Complete Guide to Simulations and Serious Games: How the Most Valuable Content Will be Created in the Age Beyond Gutenberg to Google - By: Clark Aldrich 61
    61. 61. • Achievements • Infinite Gameplay• Appointments • Levels• Behavioral Momentum • Loss Aversion• Blissful Productivity • Lottery• Bonuses • Ownership• Cascading Information Theory • Points• Combos • Progression• Community Collaboration • Quests• Countdown • Reward Schedules• Discovery • Status• Epic Meaning • Urgent Optimism• Free Lunch • Virality 62
    62. 62. Type Progression Boosts Engagement, Loyalty, Time Spent, Influence, Fun, Findability, User Generated Content Personality Achievers, Explorers, Killers Types See Also: Points, Levels, Game Design Description Achievements are a virtual or physical representation of having accomplished something. Achievements can be easy, difficult, surprising, funny, accomplished alone or as a group. Achievements are a way to give players a way to brag about what theyve done indirectly as well as add challenge and character to a game. Achievements are often considered "locked" until you have met the series of tasks that are required to "unlock" the Achievement63
    63. 63. Type Feedback Boosts Engagement, Time Spent, Influence Personality Achievers, Explorers, Socializers Types See Also: Game Design Description Appointment Dynamics are game dynamics in which at a predetermined times/place a user must log-in or participate in game, for positive effect64
    64. 64. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement, Loyalty, Revenue, Influence, Time Spent Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers, Killers See Also: Blissful Productivity, Infinite Gameplay, Epic Meaning Description Behavioral Momentum is the tendency of players to keep doing what they have been doing.65
    65. 65. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers, Killers See Also: Behavioral Momentum, Community Collaboration, Urgent Optimism Description The idea that playing in a game makes you happier working hard, than you would be relaxing. Essentially, we’re optimized as human beings by working hard, and doing meaningful and rewarding work.66
    66. 66. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement, Influence, Time Spent, Virility, Fun, User Generated Content Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers, Killers See Also: Behavioral Momentum, Community Collaboration, Urgent Optimism Description Bonuses are a reward after having completed a series of challenges or core functions. Can be from completing a Combo or just for a specific special task. Also see: Mega Bonuses.67
    67. 67. Type Feedback Boosts Engagement, Loyalty, Influence, Time Spent Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers, Killers See Also: Appointments, Quests Description The theory that information should be released in the minimum possible snippets to gain the appropriate level of understanding at each point during a game narrative.68
    68. 68. Type Feedback Boosts Engagement, Influence, Time Spent, Virality Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers, Killers See Also: Bonuses, Quests Description Combos are used often in games to reward skill through doing a combination of things. This also can add excitement or incentivize doing another action after already having completed one. The successful completion of a combo usually comes with the reward of a bonus69
    69. 69. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement, Influence, Time Spent, Virality Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Socializers See Also: Blissful Productivity, Behavioral Momentum, Game Design Description The game dynamic wherein an entire community is rallied to work together to solve a riddle, a problem or a challenge. Immensely viral and very fun.70
    70. 70. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement, Fun, Influence Personality Achievers, Explorers, Types Killers See Also: Blissful Productivity, Behavioral Momentum, Game Design Description The dynamic in which players are only given a certain amount of time to do something. This will create an activity graph that causes increased initial activity increasing frenetically until time runs out, which is a forced extinction.71
    71. 71. Type Behavioral Boosts Engagement, Loyalty, Influence, Time Spent, Fun Personality Explorers, Achievers Types See Also: Epic Meaning, Game Design Description Also called Exploration, players love to discover something, to be surprised. This also can be seen in the Game Feature, Discovery. Discovery encourages players to discover new pages within a website. This drives up page views and time-on-site.72
    72. 72. 73
    73. 73. UserProgression Feedback Behavioral Influence Loyalty Generated Time Spent Virality Fun Revenue SEO Achievers Explorers Socializers Killers Content Personality Type Benefits Type 74