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Introductions Who am I and who are these people sharing the table with you
Who are we? Turn to someone you don’t know and tell them Your Name Ask them their name and one of the following questions: What is the greatest thing you accomplished in the last year What is the biggest thing you are looking forward to in the next year What city were you born in What does your first and last name mean? Where did you get your education and what did you focus on or what was your favorite subject What is your favorite time of year and why
Prayer Prior to Studying the Bible Almighty God, heavenly Father, you give all the gifts of life and living, and you bid us to love you with our heart, soul, mind, and strength. During this time of study and learning and writing, grant to us the protection of your Holy Spirit, that we become neither weary nor proud, and that in all things we might, with our words, bring honor and glory to your Word, Jesus Christ your Son, our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.Amen.
Objective: Week Two To gain a greater understanding on what God Demands of us To gain a greater understanding of what God as Done for us To gain a greater understanding of the Ten commandments To gain a greater understanding of Laws
What Makes a Law a Law? True. By definition, there have never been repeatable contradicting observations. Universal. They appear to apply everywhere in the universe. Simple. They are typically expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Absolute. Nothing in the universe appears to affect them. Stable. Unchanged since first discovered (although they may have been shown to be approximations of more accurate laws) Omnipotent. Everything in the universe apparently must comply with them (according to observations).
The Code of Lipit-Ishtar(circa 1868 B.C.) If a man entered the orchard of another man and was seized there for stealing, he shall pay ten shekels of silver. If a man cut down a tree in the garden of another man, he shall pay one-half mina of silver. If a man married his wife and she bore him children and those children are living, and a slave also bore children for her master but the father granted freedom to the slave and her children, the children of the slave shall not divide the estate with the children of their former master. If a man's wife has not borne him children but a harlot from the public square has borne him children, he shall provide grain, oil and clothing for that harlot. The children which the harlot has borne him shall be his heirs, and as long as his wife lives the harlot shall not live in the house with the wife. If adjacent to the house of a man the bare ground of another man has been neglected and the owner of the house has said to the owner of the bare ground, "Because your ground has been neglected someone may break into my house: strengthen your house," and this agreement has been confirmed by him, the owner of the bare ground shall restore to the owner of the house any of his property that is lost. If a man rented an ox and damaged its eye, he shall pay one-half its price. If a man rented an ox and injured the flesh at the nose ring, he shall pay one-third of its price. If a man rented an ox and broke its horn, he shall pay one-fourth its price. If a man rented an ox and damaged its tail, he shall pay one-fouth its price.
If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death. The Code of Hammurabi
The Bible & the Law The Bible refers to laws established by covenants between God and his creation Adamic Covenant Noahic covenant Abrahamic covenant Mosaic covenant Davidic covenant
Types of Biblical Covenants Parity Covenant -Both parties are equal and bound under the covenant Covenant Between David & Jonathan Suzerainty Covenant - One party is more powerful than the other and demands things of the weaker Mosaic Covenant Promissory / Patron Covenant - The more powerful party gives something to the lesser Abrahamic Covenant
Content of a Covenant Preamble: identifying the Lordship of the Great King & stressing his greatness, dominance & immanence HistoricalPrologue: recounting the Great King's previous relationship to his vassal (with special emphasis on the benefits or blessing of that relationship). Ethical Stipulations: enumerating the vassal's obligations to the Great King (his guide to maintaining the relationship) Sanctions: a list of the blessings for obedience and the curses that will fall on the vassal if he breaks the covenant. Succession: Arrangements and provisions for the continuity of the covenant relationship over future generations.
Where Is this Moral Law? For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them on that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus.
Three Uses of the Law The law has been given to men for three reasons: (1) to maintain external discipline against unruly and disobedient men, (2) to lead men to a knowledge of their sin, (3) after they are reborn to give them a definite rule according to which they should pattern and regulate their entire life. The question is whether or not the law is to be urged upon reborn Christians.
Preaching the Law to the Believer The preaching of the Law is to be urged with diligence, not only upon the unbelieving and impenitent, but also upon true believers, who are truly converted, regenerate, and justified by faith. Believers are regenerate and renewed in the spirit of their mind, however this regeneration and renewal is not complete, but only begun. (Sanctification) In order that they may not from human devotion institute wanton and self-elected cults The old Adam also may not employ his own will, but may be subdued against his will, not only by the admonition and threatening of the Law, but also by punishments and blows, so that he may follow and surrender himself captive to the Spirit
The Law & the Fruits of the Spirit The distinction between the works of the Law and the fruits of the Spirit The works which are done according to the Law are called works of the Law as long as they are only extorted from man by urging the punishment and threatening of God's wrath. Fruits of the Spirit are the works which the Holy Spirit who dwells in believers works through them
The Law & the Believer Thus the Law is the immutable will of God for both the regenerate and unregenerate man; The man who is not yet regenerate complies with the Law out of constraint and unwillingness The believer, so far as he is regenerate, does without constraint and with a willing spirit that which no threatening, however severe, of the Law could ever extort from him.
1 God:The 1st Commandment Thou shalt have no other gods. We should fear, love, and trust in God above all things.
1 How do we break this commandment? What do you rely on to solve problems? Money Possessions Skill Prudence Power Favor Friendships Honor Do any of these things make you feel more: Presumptuous Secure Proud Are you despondent when they are: Withdrawn Destroyed Harmed
1 What does it mean to have a “God”? See to it that you let Me alone be your God, and never seek another," Whatever you lack of good things, expect it of Me, and look to Me for it, and whenever you suffer misfortune and distress, creep and cling to Me. I, yes, I, will give you enough and help you out of every need; only let not your heart cleave to or rest in any other.” – Martin Luther “
2 God’s Name: The 2nd Commandment Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord, thy God, in vain. We should fear and love God that we may not curse, swear, use witchcraft, lie, or deceive by His name, but call upon it in every trouble, pray, praise, and give thanks.
2 How do we misuse God’s Name? Overtly False Oaths In Business In Court In the Market In Matters Concerning Money Possessions Honor In Marriage False Teaching Covertly When we associate ourselves with any of the activities that are listed in the second table and ruin God’s Name by our association with it as believers.
“ 2 How are we to swear and take oaths? For it is a truly good work, by which God is praised, truth and right are established, falsehood is refuted, peace is made among men, obedience is rendered, and quarrels are settled.” – Martin Luther
3 God’s Due:The 3rd Commandment Thou shalt sanctify the holy-day. We should fear and love God that we may not despise preaching and His Word, but hold it sacred, and gladly hear and learn it.
3 Why do we Sanctify Holy-days? We keep holy days We have bodily needs for Rest Relaxation Refreshment We have needs to worship God Hear Gods Word Apply God’s Word Praise God Sing Praise
3 Why do we Sanctify Holy-days? For the day needs no sanctification for itself; for in itself it has been created holy from the beginning of the creation it was sanctified by its Creator. But God desires it to be holy to you. Therefore it becomes holy or unholy on your account, according as you are occupied on the same with things that are holy or unholy.” – Martin Luther “
God’s Representatives: The 4th Commandment 4 Thou shalt honor thy father and thy mother [that it may be well with thee and thou mayest live long upon the earth]. We should fear and love God that we may not despise nor anger our parents and masters, but give them honor, serve, obey, and hold them in love and esteem.
4 The Estate of Fatherhood & Motherhood Honor & Love We are commanded to love How is love more than honor? The estate places them at God’s Side Honor includes Humility Modesty Deference Honor means we Address them kindly Reverence them Show them esteem Whom to Honor The people our parents delegate or confers this authority to School teachers Friends Family Neighbors People whom are our masters Boss Church Elders Governments Police
4 The Estate of Fatherhood & Motherhood The same also is to be said of obedience to civil government, which (as we have said) is all embraced in the estate of fatherhood and extends farthest of all relations. For here the father is not one of a single family, but of as many people as he has tenants, citizens, or subjects. For through them, as through our parents, God gives to us food, house and home, protection and security. Therefore, since they bear such name and title with all honor as their highest dignity, it is our duty to honor them and to esteem them great as the dearest treasure and the most precious jewel upon earth.” – Martin Luther “
5 God’s Image bearer:The 5th Commandment Thou shalt not kill. We should fear and love God that we may not hurt nor harm our neighbor in his body, but help and befriend him in every bodily need
5 Help & Befriend Him How can we break this commandment? When we ignore our neighbor When we don’t prevent evil from happing to our neighbor When we don’t defend our neighbor When we allow bodily hurt or harm to occur to our neighbor When we withhold our love from our neighbor
5 Hurt nor Harm our Neighbor Now this commandment is easy enough, and has been often treated, because we hear it annually in the Gospel of St. Matthew, where Christ Himself explains and sums it up, namely, that we must not kill, neither with hand, heart, mouth, signs, gestures, help, nor counsel. Therefore it is here forbidden to every one to be angry, except those who are in the place of God, that is, parents and the government. For it is proper for God and for every one who is in a divine estate to be angry, to reprove and punish, namely, on account of those very persons who transgress this and the other commandments.” – Martin Luther “
6 Spouses:The 6th Commandment Thou shalt not commit adultery. We should fear and love God that we may lead a chaste and decent life in words and deeds, and each love and honor his spouse.
6 What is prohibited & commanded? What is Prohibited Vice Lewdness Unchastely Fornication The act To cause To incite Provide the means To help To persuade What is Commanded Make resistance Afford protection Rescue wherever there is danger and need Give help Provide Godly Council
6 What is the purpose of this commandment? Thus, to state it in the briefest manner, there is required this much, that every one both live chastely himself and help his neighbor do the same, so that God by this commandment wishes to hedge round about and shield every spouse that no one trespass against them.” – Martin Luther “
7 Possessions: The 7th Commandment Thou shalt not steal. We should fear and love God that we may not take our neighbor's money or property, nor get them by false ware or dealing, but help him to improve and protect his property and business [that his means are preserved and his condition is improved].
7 What is forbidden by this commandment? When you don’t work worth your wage When you don’t prevent damage to your employer or his goods When you neglect his goods Indolence Idleness Malice When you do things your way When you over charge people When you are lazy When you are unfaithful on your job
“ 7 What is forbidden by this commandment? Furthermore, in the market and in common trade likewise, this practice is in full swing and force to the greatest extent, where one openly defrauds another with bad merchandise, false measures, weights, coins, and by nimbleness and queer finances or dexterous tricks takes advantage of him; likewise, when one overcharges a person in a trade and wantonly drives a hard bargain, skins and distresses him. And who can recount or think of all these things? To sum up, this is the commonest craft and the largest guild on earth, and if we regard the world throughout all conditions of life, it is nothing else than a vast, wide stall, full of great thieves. Therefore they are also called swivel-chair robbers, land- and highway-robbers, not pick-locks and sneak-thieves who snatch away the ready cash, but who sit on the chair at home and are styled great noblemen, and honorable, pious citizens, and yet rob and steal under a good pretext.” – Martin Luther
8 Honor & Good Reputation: The 8th Commandment Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor. We should fear and love God that we may not deceitfully belie, betray, slander, or defame our neighbor, but defend him, [think and] speak well of him, and put the best construction on everything.
8 Rights and the Tongue Secure Your Neighbors Rights* Don’t allow them to be hindered & twisted Deal truly & uprightly Allow right to remain right Don’t allow right to be turned into a wrong Don’t allow rights to be glossed over Don’t remain silent Don’t show favoritism False Use of the Tongue Lying Slander Gossip Speaking Evil False Witnessing False Judging False Preaching *Note: The above also applies to the Church and Christian Doctrine
8 God wishes the reputation, good name, and upright character of our neighbor to be taken away or diminished as little as his money and possessions, that every one may stand in his integrity before wife, children, servants, and neighbors.” – Martin Luther “
9 The 9thCommandment Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house. We should fear and love God that we may not craftily seek to get our neighbor's inheritance or house, and obtain it by a show of [justice and] right, etc., but help and be of service to him in keeping it.
10 The 10th Commandment Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his cattle, nor anything that is his. We should fear and love God that we may not estrange, force, or entice away our neighbor's wife, servants, or cattle, but urge them to stay and [diligently] do their duty.
9&10 What is Prohibited We are not to… Think Purpose Plan Alienate …anything that is our neighbors We are not to even if It seems right We can do it with honor No one would accuse us No one would blame us
“ 9&10 And yet we who pretend to be godly, know how to adorn ourselves most finely and conceal our rascality, resort to and invent adroit devices and deceitful artifices (such as now are daily most ingeniously contrived) as though they were derived from the law codes; yea, we even dare impertinently to refer to it, and boast of it, and will not have it called rascality, but shrewdness and caution. In this lawyers and jurists assist, who twist and stretch the law to suit it to their cause, stress words and use them for a subterfuge, irrespective of equity or their neighbor's necessity. And, in short, whoever is the most expert and cunning in these affairs finds most help in law, as they themselves say: Vigilantibusiurasubveniunt. [The laws favor the watchful] ” – Martin Luther
What does God remind us about? I the Lord, thy God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me, and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments. God threatens to punish all that transgress these commandments. Therefore we should dread His wrath and not act contrary to these commandments. But He promises grace and every blessing to all that keep these commandments. Therefore we should also love and trust in Him, and gladly do [zealously and diligently order our whole life] according to His commandments.