Letters to His son Lucien. In Schirrmeister, A. (1982). Camille Pissarro . NY: Metropolitan Museum 1830: Jacob Camille Pissarro born on July 10 th in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands 1842-47: Studied in France 1855: Returned to France permanently 1859: Salon accepted one of his landscapes 1860: Became friendly with Ludovic Piette and with Julie Vellay 1863: On February 20 th , their son Lucien was born 1864: Visited Piette in Montfoucault 1865: Daughter, Jeanne-Rachel was born 1868: Salon accepted two of his Pontoise landscapes 1870: Salon accepted two landscapes and He and Julie married in London 1871: Sold two paintings to Paul Durand-Ruel; their son Georges was born 1872: Settled in Pontoise with Cezanne 1873: His paintings brought high prices at various auctions 1874: 1 st Impressionists exhibit; daughter Minette died; son Felix was born 1875: spent fall at Piette’s in Montfoucault 1876: Showed 12 works in the 2 nd Impressionist exhibition 1877: His works brought very low prices at auction; Ludovic Piette died 1878: Son Ludovic-Rodolphe was born 1879: Pissarro showed 38 works in 4 th Impressionist Exhibition 1880: Sent 11 paintings and etchings to the 5 th Impressionist exhibition 1881: Participated in 6 th Impressionist Exhibit; daughter Jeanne is born 1882: Sent 36 canvases to the 7 th Impressionist Exhibition 1884: Left Osny for Eragny; Paul Emile was born; financial problems 1886: Exhibited 20 ‘divisionist’ paintings in 8 th Impressionist Exhibition 1887: Durand-Ruel refused pointillist paintings; Financial straits 1889: Suffered from chronic eye infection 1890: Abandoned divisionism 1892: Durand-Ruel organized very successful retrospective 1897: In November, son Felix died in England at age 23 1901: Camille died of blood poisoning from an abcess of the prostate 1905: Lucien wrote to his mother: “ Don’t worry about father, HE WILL NEVER BE FORGOTTEN… .when he does come up, it will be for good . (Custom: MAY HIS MEMORY BE FOR A BLESSING!)
MAP Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionists Landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd These are some of the sites around Paris where Pissarro painted 1855-57: moved to France 1858: Set up studio in Paris 1863: Moved to La Varenne-saint-Hillaire, near Marne river 1866: Moved to L’Hermitage, a small hamlet in Pontoise 1869: Moved to Louveciennes, a suburb of Paris 1870: Franco-Prussian war began 7/19. Dec.-moved to London 1871: Returned to Louveciennes; house wrecked by soldiers 1872: Moved back to Pontoise 1874: Visited Piette at Montfoucault; earliest peasant paintings 1882: Left Pontoise for Eragny and stayed until death
ARTIST’S MOTHER (RACHEL) -Camille Pissarro, Paris, 1856 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pencil. Formerly Collection Lucien Pissarro, London His parents made important contributions These were to the Hebrew Congregation and the St. Thomas community Pissarro was born in The family home at 14 Dronningens Gade It still stands and bears the name “Pissarro building”
MADAME PISSARRO SEWING-Camille Pissarro, 1858 Cogniat, R. (1975) Pissarro. New York: Crown publishers Oil. 6 1/4” x 4 3/8” Ashmoleum Museum, Oxford 1865-Frederick (Camille’s father) died He left an unusual beque st He left an equal sum to the synagogue and the Protestant church The reason(s) are not known—but open to much speculation He did not include Camille in his will! A central concept throughout Pissarro’s life was FREEDOM! He rejected sentimentality in art He also rebelled against anything that stood in the way of “ ART” and especially, art seen through our “ SENSATIONS”
PORTRAIT OF JEANNE-RACHEL (Minette) 1866? Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pastel. 8 ½ x 5 ¼” (21 x 14.5 cm) Collection Robert Ettinger Jeanne-Rachel was just a toddler when her father did this portrait Pissarro used pastel on a sheet of blue paper His sketch approach captures the freshness of her youth Perhaps he worked quickly because she wouldn’t sit still they may’ve been outside, since she wears a kerchief
JEAN-RACHEL (Minette) HOLDING FLOWERS -Camille Pissarro, 1872 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 28 1/8” x 23 1/8” Yale University Art Gallery. John Hay Whitney Collection (PV193) 1865: Daughter, Jeanne-Rachel is born Pissarro was always wary of sentimentality He did not want his figures to say too much He was horrified at “orange-blossom” art It made delicate women swoon He thought sentimental art was the most corrupt There is a hint of sadness in the eyes of the girl Perhaps Pissarro had a foreboding This child died only two years later April 1874, daughter Jeanne-Rachel (Minette) dies at age 9
PORTRAIT OF JEANNE WITH A FAN- Camille Pissarro, c. 1873 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 21 7/8 x 18 1/8” (56.1 x 46.5 cm) Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (PV232) It is interesting to note that the shape of the fan is repeated It is found in the opening to the stove on the right Repetition of horizontals, verticals and diagonals draws the viewer One’s eye is directed toward the strongest contrast That is the white of Jeanne’s blouse against her dark blue dress The curve of the fan is also repeated in the curve of her back Her wide searching eyes hold unfathomable question Her openess make these paintings deeply touching
SELF-PORTRAIT -Camille Pissarro, 1873 Ascheroni, A. (1991). Pissarro. Milan: Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri S.p.A. Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 21 ½” x 18” (55 x 46 cm) Musee d’Orsay, Paris (PV200) This is the first of four self-portraits It shows him at the age of 43 His face is not smiling His face and jacket are painted in dark colors They contrast with the lighter background It seems to isolate him His long beard and pose bring to mind a biblical figure Was he familiar with Ezekiel 23? Did he use the warm, rosy vermillion from this phrase?
BIBLICAL CITATION-EZEKIEL 23: 14 -- (1985). TANAKH. The Jewish Publication Society. Philadelphia Strong, J. (n.d.) Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible . Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers Pissarro may not have known this phrase from the prophet Ezekiel But, then again, looking at his use of vermillion, maybe he did
PORTRAIT OF PIERRE PAPEIL -Camille Pissarro, date? Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pastel. 21 ½ x 18” (55 x 46 vm) Private collection (PV1523) This portrait is titled, but there is no information about this person He looks to have been a contemporary of Pissarro at this time They were both probably in their mid-40s He is well dressed and sports a shapely mustache Yet, his identity is a mystery He appears to be an official in a typically bourgeois interior He discreetly displays a red ribbon It is a symbol of the Legion d’Honneur Pissarro developed rich color subtlety in his handling of the skin He did so as well in the background It is a lush and sensitive treatment
PORTRAIT OF MADAME ESTUALL -Camille Pissarro, c. 1874 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pastel. 18 x 111/8” (46 x 29 cm) Collection Achim Moeller Fine Art, New York (PV 1521) This pastel portrait was done the same year as the previous one Yet her identity is also a mystery Pissarro handled her image in a much looser technique You can see the strokes of his pastel in the hatching on her cheek The contrast between her blue bow and dark blouse is clear Contrast between the blue background and striped chair is softer
THE ARTIST AND HIS WIFE , Pontoise, 1873 Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionist landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd On November 22, their 3 rd child, a son-Georges is born This photograph appears to be taken in the springtime The bench was in his garden at Pontoise They both appear relaxed and comfortable Because of his white beard, Pissarro appears older than 43 Camille’s mother withdrew her denial of consent to a wedding She suggested that they: “ wait until all these events [probably a reference to the Franco-Prussian War] are over, then you could go to London and there marry without my consent and without anyone knowing about it. I will supply you with the money for this trip. God willing.” Julie pressured Camille to marry her and legalize their union In Montfoucault, She gave birth to Adele-Emma on October 21 st The infant died three weeks later, on November 15 Pissarro’s mother feared the Prussian army and left for London She sent a condolence note to her son Two weeks later their 7-month stay in London came to an end They returned to Louveciennes
MADAME JULIE PISSARRO- Camille Pissarro, 1883 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pastel. 23 3/4 x 18 1/4” (61 x 47 cm). Private collection. (PV1565) He met Julie Vellay in 1859 1860-She became pregnant with his child That pregnancy ended in a miscarriage, or possibly a stillborn His parents vehemently opposed this liaison with a servant 1865- Camille and Julie already had a two-year old child, Lucien Julie was again pregnant with their first daughter, Jeanne-Rachel She was called Minette and died at the age of 9 1871-They were wed 1873-Pissarro depended on his mother for financial support He was 43 years old! Pissarro made few portraits of Julie She was not a willing sitter Pissarro wrote about this work in a letter to his son, Lucien He complained about the personal reaction of the sitter She thought it did not look like her She said it looks too old, too red, and not delicate enough
PISSARRO PAINTING OUTSIDE-Ludovic Piette, 1874-76 Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionist landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Paris. 1873: His paintings bring high prices at various auctions He and Monet organize independent exhibitions opposed to Salon 1874: 1 st exhibition of “Impressionists” dubbed by ironic critic In April, daughter Jeanne-Rachel (Minette) dies at age 9 In July, son Felix is born 1875: spends fall at Piette’s in Montfoucault 1876: Shows 12 works in the 2 nd Impressionist exhibition Piette painted this while Pissarro visited him at Montfoucault There the artist made about 20 paintings They include some of his earliest paintings of peasants In September, his son Ludovic-Rodolphe was born He was named in memory of his friend Ludovic Piette Naming an infant in honor and memory is a great Jewish tribute Camille had met Ludovic at the Academie Suisse around 1860 Camille went to Montfoucault during the Franco-Prussian War He and his family took refuge with Ludovic Piette and his family There is no paintings of Montfoucault during his 4-month stay there They remained friends until Piette’s death on April 15, 1878 Before they came, Piette wrote to Pissarro: “… .we have to live with wolves: living in a land of prejudice. I am forced to accept it in order to avoid gossip. Consequently, as the rule goes, I must pretend that you are married, and you have to let them believe it: this will cut short all the ramblings….This is stupid but necessary.”
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST’S SON LUCIEN- Camille Pissarro, 1874 Lithograph. New York Public Library (Avery Collection) This image is a print, made by the lithography process An oily crayon was used to make the drawing It was done in reverse on a lithographic stone The stone was then wet, but the oily image remained dry The image was then inked with a brayer (or roller) Dampened paper was placed on top of the stone The stone was placed in a printing press A print was printed under press This image has a free and sketchy appearance It is fresh and alive with possibility Lucien was Camille and Julie’s first son He was born in 1865 He was 9 years old when his father created this image
PAUL CEZANNE (seated) and CAMILLE PISSARRO (standing) in PISSARRO’S GARDEN AT PONTOISE, 1877 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams The small boy in the back is Camille’s son, Lucien The two other men are unidentified They may be the friends from Cuba in the next photo This is the same bench of the photograph of Pissarro with Julie
PHOTOGRAPH OF CEZANNE (center), PISSARRO (standing) with 2 Cuban friends, 1873 Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionist landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd. The details are obscure of the visit of these two Cuban friends Did they come to visit because Cezanne was there? Or were they friends of Pissarro’s?
PORTRAIT OF CEZANNE -Camille Pissarro, 1874 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 28 ¼ x 23 ¼” (73 x 59.7 cm) Collection Laurence Graff (PV293) 1870s-Backgrounds became important components of Pissarro’s portraits This background includes two caricatures: Left: Adolphe Thiers, the premier Upper Right: Courbet from LE HANNETON, looking down on Cezanne Lower Right: a painting by Pissarro himself ROUTE DE GISORS: THE HOUSE OF PERE GALLIEN -Pontoise The juxtaposition of caricature and painting shows the humor of the scene Pissarro and Cezanne created art concerned with destroying conventions They might have asked: Why test the self-righteous pontificators if one cannot have irony towards oneself and best friends?
PHOTOGRAPH OF PISSARRO (seated) with SONS LUDOVIC-RODOLPHE, LUCIEN, AND FELIX AT KNOCKE, 1894 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Pissarro had a headstrong (stiff-necked/Jewish) courage and tenacity He undertook and sustained his work He was stubbornly unmoved by current fashions and market trends He was somewhat isolated from his well-to-do family He had an extremely precarious financial situation He displayed a profound belief in “enthusiasm” and “ardor” He had an unshakable conviction that he had made the right choice He remained committed to his values These endowed him with a known mark of integrity It made others willingly turn to him for advice
FELIX-Camille Pissarro, 1881 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil. 21 1/4” x 18 1/8” Tate Gallery, London. (PV 550) In July 1874: their son Felix is born He was 9 years old when his father did this painting His body language indicates a shy, quiet, and retiring personality Indicated by his hair, curved shoulders and arm, hat and neckerchief 1897: In November, son Felix dies in England at age 23
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST’S SON LUDOVIC-RODOLPHE -Camille Pissarro, 1885-88 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Watercolor 12 1/4 x 9 5/8 (31.1 x 24.6 cm) Private Collection 1878: In September, his son Ludovic-Rodolphe is born Ludovic’s confident glance at his father, the painter, is telling He appears to be a confident young boy at 9 or 10 years old Notice the light, translucent, fresh, and watery handling of paint This is DEFINITELY a painting and not an attempt to RE-present The integrity of the paint is dominant This is an approach called modernism 1939: Ludovic-Rodolphe and Lionello Venturi published a Catalogue Raisonne
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST’S SON, PAULEMILE -Camille Pissarro, c. 1894 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 13 ½ x 10 ½” (35 x 27 cm) Private collection. (PV865) Pissarro’s aesthetic is clear in this painting His approach is to emphasize the dominance of the paint The work has a ‘painterly’ appearance There is a clear effort to keep it fresh and alive It reflects his approach of showing ‘truth to materials’ This is a Modernists’ Aestetic Unity of composition results from the repetition of curves These are in the chair, back of head, chin, etc. This may have been Pissarro’s intuitive use of design elements
SELF-PORTRAIT -Camille Pissarro,1888 Pen and Ink. New York Public Library (Avery Collection) This Self-Portrait drawing was done with a similar aesthetic Pissarro sees himself staring at the viewer (in a mirror?) A sketchy application, allows the handling of material to dominate Pissarro used hatching, a series of parallel lines to create tone He used them diagonally on the shadow side of his face He also used them to darken his hat and jacket He used them vertically in the background
SELF-PORTRAIT- Camille Pissarro,1890 Schirrmeister, A. (1981). Camille Pissarro . NYC: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Etching, third state, 7 3/8 x 7 in. (18.7 x 17.8 cm) Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Lee M. Friedman Fund This print was done when Pissarro was 60 years old It is a print, called an etching The image was created in the following manner: A metal plate was coated with a waxy/oily substance A needle scratches through this substance exposing the metal The metal is placed into an acid bath, which ‘bites’ the plate The covering substance is removed Ink is applied to the plate and goes into the ‘bitten’ lines It is put on a press and covered with damp paper The press forces the ink onto the paper Voila! A hand pulled print
HEAD OF NINI, THE ARTIST’S NIECE -Camille Pissarro, about 1890 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams Pencil. Collection of Mr. And Mrs. T. Lawrence Herring, New York This drawing was done in pencil Pissarro probably used a very soft lead to obtain those fuzzy lines He emphasized the curve of her forehead, check and chin on the left He also drew attention to her nose and right eye This was all done by varying the pressure on the pencil
NINI, THE ARTIST’S NIECE -Camille Pissarro, About 1890 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams Charcoal. Collection Mrs. Ralph M. Coe, Cleveland This is a charcoal drawing of Pissarro’s niece, Nini Charcoal for drawing is made by removing the water from wood This is usually done by a slow ‘cooking’ process Charcoal sticks or vines were used in the 19 th century The sticks produce a rich, soft line The charcoal does not crumble and can be varied by pressure Pissarro also used hatching (parallel lines to create a tone) He applied multiple layers for deep rich blacks Here he emphasized the round, fullness of her body Light comes from the right creating a shadowy 3-D figure
SELF-PORTRAIT -Camille Pissarro,1898 Pencil Collection of John Newberry Pissarro used a rough paper for this drawing Minimal lines and varied pressure draw attention to his eyes This is not surprising since his visual ‘sensation’ was of such importance He used hatching in the background, on his cheek, nose, shoulder
PISSARRO’S STUDIO-Eragny, 1890s Notice that the painting of Cezanne by Pissarro is on the upper shelf The open door and wide windows gave the best Northern working light
PHOTOGRAPH OF CAMILLE PISSARRO IN HIS STUDIO-Eragny, 1897 Once again, the strong light is coming from the left It casts his working surface in complete light Pissarro was 67 years old when this photograph was taken
PISSARRO WITH HIS WIFE, HIS SON PAUL-EMILE AND HIS DAUGHTER JEANNE IN THEIR GARDEN AT ERAGNY, 1897 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Like the other Impressionists, Pissarro liked to paint outdoors This was called their ‘plein-aire’ painting His easel with attached worktable and storage was portable What a good idea to add wheels to this contraption!
CAMILLE PISSARRO-1895 Goodman, S. (2001) (Ed.). The Emergence of Jewish Artists in 19th c. Europe . NY: The Jewish Museum Acculturated French Jews were not calling for specifically religious art They expressed subjects of a general order with universal interest Pissarro’s approach ran into the racial culture of his day The Impressionists were accused of being color blind This was a malady held to affect Jews disproportionately at that time In the 1890s, the Dreyfus Affair polarized public opinion Pissarro was for Dreyfus He was proud to see a fellow Jew argue that “race is a fiction” At his death, Jewish publications worldwide mourned his passing
PORTRAIT OF JEANNE-Camille Pissarro, 1898 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 25 ¼ x 21” (65 x 54 cm) Foundation Rau pour le Tiers-Monde. Zurich (PV1065) Pissarro’s second daughter was born in 1881 She was 17 years old when Pissarro painted this portrait She was also called Jeanne Notice that the placement of the flower draws your eye to her face The curve of the round back chair is repeated in her coiffure
PORTRAIT OF PAULEMILE- Camille Pissarro, c. 1899 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas. 25 1/4 x 21” (65 x 54 cm). Collection Joel and Carol Honigberg, Chicago The Pissarro children are often depicted reading Pissarro himself was an avid reader of political philosophy and literature Could this orientation come from Pissarro’s background? Books and reading are highly valued in the Jewish culture Pissarro subscribed to numerous journals and periodicals Pissarro did not associate reading and painting He said that painting is not illustrating a text, or a context He also believed that writing about painting is an almost impossible task
JEANNE READING -Camille Pissarro, 1899 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on Canvas. 21 1/2 x 25 1/2” (551 x 654 cm). Private collection (PV 111) Jeanne is shown again the following year Here she is one component of an avant-garde composition Notice the multiple repeated abstract patterns Asymmetrical composition reflects modernists aesthetics Pissarro shared his passion for reading with his children He once wrote to Mirbeau: “ Every day I rest by reading. I find that my eyesight is all the better after having gone through a book that I enjoyed.”
PORTRAIT OF CAMILLE PISSARRO -Camille Pissarro, c. 1900 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams Oil on canvas 13 ½” x 12 ½ “ (35 x 32 cm) Private collection (PV1114) One can see marks of self-depreciation in Pissarro’s portraits There are also gentle signs of self-irony, tenderness and doubt What do you think?
PISSARRO PAINTING -Camille Pissarro, 1900 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abram Oil on canvas. 20 ¼” x 12” (52 x 31 cm). Dallas Museum of Art. The Wendy and Emery Reves Collection (PV 1115) Pissarro’s work constructed his life The paintings he did of his children set the tempo of his biography He painted with his pulse throbbing, but without sentimentality
SELF-PORTRAIT -Camille Pissarro, 1903 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abram Oil on canvas. 16” x 13” (41 x 33 cm) The Tate Gallery. London (PV 1316) This was created in his apt. in Paris overlooking the Poont-Neuf It reinforces his image He was likened to a biblical prophet by his contemporaries. This may have been due to his long flowing white beard He endows himself with the force of personality He developed that over a lifetime….
LETTER TO LUCIEN-Nov. 20, 1883 Pissarro, L.& Rewald, J. (Ed.) (1981). Letters to His son Lucien. Nov. 20, 1883, p. 38. In Schirrmeister, A. (1982). Camille Pissarro . NY: The Metropolitan Museum “ Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for?”
The Art of Part Four: FAMILY and Friends MYRNA TECK, PH.D. INDEPENDENT SCHOLAR
Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for? (Letters to his son, Lucien) November 20, 1883
it is said that the love of ART cannot be TAUGHT It can only be CAUGHT!
So, I hope I’ve made The Art of Contagious to you today!