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Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009
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Artof Pissarro4 Jae Wbst123009

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  • THE ART OF PISSARRO Pissarro, L.& Rewald, J. (Ed.) (1981). Letters to His son Lucien. Nov. 20, 1883, p. 38. In Schirrmeister, A. (1982). Camille Pissarro . NY: The Metropolitan Mus. Review: 1830: Jacob Camille Pissarro born on July 10 th in St. Thomas 1842-47: Studies in France 1855: Returns to France permanently 1859: Salon accepts one of his landscapes 1860: Becomes friendly with Ludovic Piette and with Julie Vellay 1862: Julie has a miscarriage 1863: O on February 20 th , their son Lucien is born 1864: Visits Piette in Montfoucault 1865: Daughter, Jeanne-Rachel is born 1868: Salon accepts two of his Pontoise landscapes 1870: Salon accepts two landscapes. He flees Louveciennes during Franco-Prussian War Marries Julie in London while staying at home of half-sister 1871: Sells two paintings to Paul Durand-Ruel In November, their son Georges is born 1872: Settles in Pontoise with Cezanne 1873: His paintings bring high prices at various auctions He and Monet organize independent exhibitions opposed to Salon 1874: 1 st exhibition of “Impressionists” dubbed by ironic critic In April, daughter Jeanne-Rachel (Minette) dies at age 9 In July, son Felix is born 1875: spends fall at Piette’s in Montfoucault 1876: Shows 12 works in the 2 nd Impressionist exhibition 1877: His works bring very low prices at auction Ludovic Piette dies 1878: In September, his son Ludovic-Rodolphe is born 1879: Pissarro shows 38 works in 4 th Impressionist Exhibition 1880: Sends 11 paintings and etchings to the 5 th Impressionist exhibition 1881: Participates with 11 landscapes in 6 th Impressionist Exhibition In August, his daughter Jeanne is born 1882: Sends 36 canvases and gouaches to the 7 th Impressionist Exhibition 1884: Leaves Osny for Eragny near Gisors (Eure) Their last child, Paul Emile is born Pissarro is faced with grave financial problems. 1886: Exhibits 20 ‘divisionist’ paintings in 8 th Impressionist Exhibition 1887: Durand-Ruel refuses to buy his recent, pointillist paintings Pissarro is again in financial straits Julie is so discouraged that she considers suicide 1889: Suffers from chronic eye infection 1890: Abandons divisionism Theo asks Camille to accept Vincent as a boarder Mme Pissarro objects to a SICK man among her small children Camille listens to his wife! (BIBLICAL CITATION!) 1892: Durand-Ruel organizes very successful retrospective Lucien marries Esther Bensusan, a Sephardic Jew (What are the chances of this happening? The implication is that some Jewish attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors were transmitted to his son. These are all cultural characteristics). 1897: In November, son Felix dies in England at age 23 Exhibits in Pittsburgh at the Second International Show 1901: Dies of blood poisoning from abcess of the prostate 1905: Lucien wrote to his mother: “ Don’t worry about father, HE WILL NEVER BE FORGOTTEN… .when he does come up, it will be for good . (MAY HIS MEMORY BE FOR A BLESSING!)
  • 2. MAP Rothkopf, K. (2007). Pissarro: Creating The Impressionist landscape. Baltimore: Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd.  These are some of the sites around Paris where Pissarro painted  1855-57: moves to France  1858: Sets up studio in Paris  1863: Moves to La Varenne-saint-Hillaire,near Marne river  1866: Moves to L’Hermitage, a small hamlet in Pontoise  1869: Moves to Louveciennes, a suburb of Paris  1870: Franco-Prussian war begins 7/19. Dec.-moves to London  1871: Returns to Louveciennes; house wrecked by soldiers  1872: Moves back to Pontoise  1874: Visits Piette at Montfoucault; earliest peasant paintings  1882: Left Pontoise for Eragny and stayed until death
  • LA MERE LARCHEVEQUE, 1880 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams  Pissarro examined the role and condition of peasants for many hours  He accorded great dignity to their lot in life  He did not dramatize or glorify  He simply documented their individuality
  • PEASANT WOMAN, 1880/81 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams Oil on canvas. 28 3/4” x 23 5/8” National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C. Chester Dale Collection  1879: Pissarro worked in Pontoise  He showed 38 works in 4 th Impression Exhibition  1880: Pissarro sent 11 paintings to the 5 th Impressionist Exhibition  1881: He tried to avoid conflict between artists about 6 th Exhibition  Pissarro participated with 11 landscapes  He worked with Cezanne and Gauguin in Pontoise  August 1881: Daughter Jeanne was born  1882: Sent 36 canvases to the 7 th Impressionist Exhibition  Pissarro and his family left Pontoise finally on December 1, 1882  They initially settled in a small village called Osny  They then left for Eragny  Pissarro lived there until his death in 1903  1883: Durand-Ruel organized first one-man show of Pissarro  Begins correspondence with Lucien in London  Durand-Ruel opens Impressionists in London  Pissarro was not successful
  • SEATED PEASANT WOMAN, 1885 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 28 1/4 x 23” (724 x 59 cm). Yale University Art Gallery. Gift of Mr. And Mrs. Paul Mellon, B.A. 1929 (PV676)  Pissarro emphasized the poise and nobility in this peasant woman  His organizational arrangement in this painting is powerful  Her angled left elbow is repeated in the pattern of her scarf  Her sense of concentration and stability is conveyed  This painting was created with a strong sense of composition
  • THE YOUNG MAID, 1896 Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams And Cogniat, R. (1975) Pissarro. New York: Crown publishers.  Pissarro had an instinctive drive for independence  It was an intuitive non-conformism  It made him commit himself wholly to the causes he thought good  These were both in the realm of art and in the field of politics  This position made him aid whatever appeared original  He was an ardent and courageous advocate of innovators  He thought Impressionism could be fortified by a solid structure  It had the power to transform revolutionary art into classicism  Interaction plays an important role in Impressionism  Pissarro was well aware of how the viewer reacted to his work  Impressionism is a more ‘scientic’ approach to depicting color
  • WOMAN IN FRONT OF A MIRROR, 1887 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Gouache. 12 1/2 x 9 1/2” (32 x 24 cm). Private collection. United States (PV1421)  Notice the arrangement of this composition  Pissarro sought a more dynamic organization for static objects  His approach is a stimulating alternative to symmetrical placement  Regarding Neo-Impressionism, Pissarro said: o “Really Impressionism was nothing but a pure theory of observation, without losing hold of fantasy, liberty, or grandeur—in a word, of all that makes an art great.”
  • YOUNG FLEMISH MAID, 1896 Cogniat, R. (1975) Pissarro. New York: Crown publishers. Oil on canvas. 21 7/16 x 17 3/3” Stephen Hahn Gallery. New York  Once again, Pissarro’s choice of imagery is very revealing  He could easily have easily omitted some objects  He included the edge of the chair, open doorway and bedroom beyond  He also broke up the space directly behind the seated subject  His choices reflect a more ‘realistic’ or ‘’modernist’ approach  He documented what existed and what he saw
  • MAIDSERVANT-1867 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 36 1/2 x 28 1/4” (93.6 x 73.7 cm) The Chrysler Museum, Norfolk, VA (PV53)  By contrast, this painting was done nearly 30 years before  Pissarro shows respect for the maidservant  He also includes a bench, tree trunk, etc.  Yet his paint handling is more traditional  Light comes from the right and highlights the maid’s back  It also creates a swath of light on the ground  But there is no scintillating fragmentation of brushstroke  Pissarro’s paint technique is very traditional His choice of focusing on the maid’s back is not! At this time, Pissarro’s sensitivity to the role of servants increased
  • STUDY FOR CAFÉ AU LAIT, 1881 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Black chalk. 23 x 17 14” (59.5 x 44 cm). Private Collection CAFÉ AU LAIT, 1881 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 1/2 x 21 3/8” (65.3 x 54.8 cm). The Art Institute of Chicago. Potter Palmer Collection. 1922.436 (PV549) Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams  He observed closely and with kindness  Pissarro was known for his even temper  He connected to servants as equals
  • THE LITTLE COUNTRY MAID, 1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 1/4 x 21” (65 x 54 cm). The Tate Gallery. London. (PV575) and Rewald, J. (1963) Pissarro. NY: Abrams  At this time, Pissarro’s sensitivity to the role of servants increased  Pissarro was fanatical about his own work  His letters to his sons communicate his ardor for his profession  He had passion for its strenuous physical and mental demands
  • YOUNG WOMAN MENDING, 1895 Cogniat, R. (1973) Pissarro. New York: Crown Publisher. Oil on canvas. 25 5/8 x 21 3/8” Art Institute of Chicago. Gift of Mrs. Leigh B. Block. and GIRL SEWING, 1895 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 5/8 x 21 3/8” Art Institute of Chicago. Gift of Mrs. Leigh B. Block. 1959,36 (PV934)  This painting was done the same year as his FOOT BATH and BATHER  Notice how all the surface areas are fragmented with short strokes  This exists even though he had abandoned divisionism/Impressionism  His sensitivity to the play of light on various textures is clear
  • GIRL WASHING PLATES, c. 1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 33 1/4 x 25 5/8” (85 x 65.7 cm) Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England (PV579)  Pissarro’s choice of subject matter may remind one of Millet’s work  Degas captured the essential distinction: o “Millet? Yes, his sower sows for Humanity. Pissarro’s peasants work for their bread.”  Even Pissarro noticed this and wrote: o “they are all throwing Millet at my head, but Millet was biblical! For a Hebrew, there is not much of that in me. It’s curious!”  He opposed Millet’s sentimentality in vehement terms
  • PEASANT UNTANGLING WOOL, 1875 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 21 1/4 x 18” (55 x 46 cm). Foundation e.G. Buhrle Collection. Zurich. (PV270)  The family went to Montfoucault around mid-August 1874  This was a few months after the death of their 2nd daughter, Jeanne  It was also a month after the birth of their third son, Felix  They were distressed and almost penniless  They stayed at the Piettes all summer  Their last stay was during the autumn of 1876  Montfoucault offered Pissarro isolation from Paris and Pontoise  It offered an opportunity to study peasant life in direct terms  Montfoucault was a tiny hamlet, with approximately 50 inhabitants  It was virtually on the border between Brittany and Normandy  The nearest town is 12 to 15 miles  Here a sense of distance and isolation pervades Pissarro’s works  His figures in Montfoucault paintings are static  Montfoucault was a place from which there is nowhere else to go  Pissarro’s choice of subject matter may remind one of Millet’s work  Degas captured the essential distinction: o “Millet? Yes, his sower sows for Humanity. Pissarro’s peasants work for their bread.”  Even Pissarro noticed this and wrote: o “they are all throwing Millet at my head, but Millet was biblical! For a Hebrew, there is not much of that in me. It’s curious!”  He opposed Millet’s sentimentality in vehement terms
  • PEASANT WOMAN WITH BASKET, c. 1889 Cogniat, R. (1975) Pissarro. New York: Crown publishers. Oil on canvas. 6 1/4 x 7” Faure Museum. Aix-les-Bains.  Pissarro had an instinctive drive for independence  It was an intuitive non-conformism  It made him commit himself wholly to the causes he thought good  These were both in the realm of art and in the field of politics  This position made him aid whatever appeared original  He was an ardent and courageous advocate of innovators  He thought Impressionism could be fortified by a solid structure  It had the power to transform revolutionary art into classicism  His form of Impressionism had roots in scientific principles  At 55, he did not fear to commit himself to follow a new path  On February 20, 1889, he wrote to Seurat: o “The execution of my work is not rapid enough, in my opinion, and there is not the instantaneous reaction of the senses which I deem essential.”  Pissarro advised a young painter: “ An artist must seek that aspect of nature which is compatible with his temperament and choose his subject matter more for its form and color than for its design possibilities. It is futile to outline and thereby restrict forms…..Paint what you see and what you feel. Paint freely and without hesitation, for it is important to set down the first impression….You should have but one master: nature; it is she you must always consult.”
  • PEASANT WOMAN AT SPINNING WHEEL, 1885-90??? Rewald, J. (1963). Camille Pissarro. NY: Abrams. Charcoal. Collection of Mr. And Mrs. Lazaro Phillips, Montreal.  This drawing was done during a time of grave financial stress  Lucien had returned to France to do illustrations for periodicals  This was his effort to assist his parents financially  Pissarro was enamored of Seurat’s color theories  He painted his first “divisionist” canvas  He explained new ‘scientific impressionism” to Durand-Ruel, dealer  This shows Pissarro’s openness to new ideas, even at 55 years old
  • LA MERE PRESLY-Montfoucalt, 1874 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 28 1/4 x 23 1/2” (73 x 60 cm). Private collection (PV288)  Some of Pissarro’s women peasants stuck in their immobility  Pissarro visited Montfoucault many times in the mid 1870s  He worked on integrating the figure into the landscape  He created novel approaches  He delineated figures and objects with angular contours  These are fragmented into many short straight lines  They form a polygonal, almost crystal-like outline  This solved the tension between the figure and its background
  • SEATED PEASANT, SUNSET, 1892 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 31 1/2 x 25 1/4” (81 x 65 cm). Private collection (PV 824)  After expressing some satisfaction to Lucien at having completed, SEATED PEASANT , Pissarro defined his new method: o “I stand more than ever for the impression from memory: you get less the thing itself, but vulgarity goes also, to let the truth, half seen and felt, emerge.  Further: o “Really Impressionism was nothing but a pure theory of observation, without losing hold of fantasy, liberty, or grandeur—in a word, of all that makes an art great.”
  • THE BATHER, 1893 Cogniat, R. (1973?) Pissarro. New York: Crown Publisher Oil. 13 3/4 x 10 5/8” National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Chester Dale Collection.  Pissarro was in his 60s when he painted this and the following two  An instantaneous reaction of the senses occurs here  The woman (is she putting on or taking off her garment?)is idyllic  She is sheltered by a huge tree and a soft bank  A body of water reflects light on her back  She is not far from a city of some sort Is this a reverie? Was she a ‘real’ person? Is this an older man’s wishful thinking?
  • WOMAN AND CHILD AT THE WELL-1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 31 3/4 x 25 1/8” (81.5 x 66.4 cm) The Art Institute of Chicago. Potter Palmer Collection. 1922.436 (PV574) And Rewald, J. (1963). Camille Pissarro.
  • PEASANTS CHATTING IN THE FARMYARD, ERAGNY, 1895-1902 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 31 1/2 X 25 1/4” (81 X 65 CM). PRIVATE COLLECTION, FRANCE (PV1272)
  • APPLE PICKERS-1881 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 1/4 x 21” (65 x 54 cm). Collection Evelyn A. J. Hall (PV545)
  • PEASANT DIGGING, 1882 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 25 1/4 x 21” (65 x 54 cm) Private collection. Switzerland (PV577)  Pissarro’s “biblical” quality was attributed to Millet’s influence  His rejection of it is central to Pissarro’s figure paintings  By extension, it is central to Pissarro’s aesthetics  The ”Biblical” quality stands for a sign  It was a gesture, mood, or expression  It referred to an ethereal, religious, or mythical content  Or, it hinted at some form of “beyond”  It may have suggested o An ideal o A lost paradise o A longing for happiness, or o A striving for something other than the present conditions  None of this exists in Pissarro’s figures  They do not carry a message with a lofty content or any ideal  Rather, the glorification is in the fact that they simply: ARE  Their existence is appropriate and sufficient celebration Pissarro advised one not to impose a meaning on their reveries  He was very aware of the price of his individualistic outlook  Was he stubborn? Stiff-necked?  This is an adjective frequently—and biblically—given to Jews!  He shrewdly observed o “too serious to appeal to the masses and not enough exotic tradition to be understood by the dilettante.”  Pissarro abhorred any art whose function was to deliver a message  He equated anarchy, art, nature, living, and the beautiful  His new understanding was not o Idealistic nor materialistic o religious nor socialist o literary nor factual o symbolist nor realist o representational nor illustrative  Each of these would hobble or circumscribe his SENSATION  Pissarro’s figures are simple and sincere  They are not on show and no pretense animates their action  They have nothing to say:  They are absorbed by their own reverie or their chores  Pissarro gave repeated voice to a dream: o “I believe that there will be another generation who will be more sincere, more studious, and less malign, who will achieve the dream.” ( PROPHECY?)  Pissarro was interested in the unfathomable aspect of his figures’  He called their dreams ‘ABSOLUTE LIBERTY”  This was pertinent to the artistic individual factor—the SENSATION
  • MAKING PEA TRELLISES, 1887 Cogniat, R. (1973?) Pissarro. New York: Crown Publisher. Oil. Faue Museum, Ais les-Bains.
  • WOMEN PLANTING PEASTICKS, date? Thomson, R. (1990). Camille Pissarro . NY: New Amsterdam Books.  He was very aware of the price of his individualistic outlook  Was he stubborn? Stiff-necked?  This is an adjective frequently—and biblically—given to Jews!  He shrewdly observed o “too serious to appeal to the masses and not enough exotic tradition to be understood by the dilettante.”  Pissarro abhorred any art whose function was to deliver a message  He equated anarchy, art, nature, living, and the beautiful  His new understanding was not o Idealistic nor materialistic o religious nor socialist o literary nor factual o symbolist nor realist o representational nor illustrative  Each of these would hobble or circumscribe his SENSATION  Pissarro’s figures are simple and sincere  They are not on show and no pretense animates their action  They have nothing to say:  They are absorbed by their own reverie or their chores  Pissarro gave repeated voice to a dream: o “I believe that there will be another generation who will be more sincere, more studious, and less malign, who will achieve the dream.” ( PROPHECY?)  Pissarro was interested in the unfathomable aspect of his figures’  He called their dreams ‘ABSOLUTE LIBERTY”  This was pertinent to the artistic individual factor—the SENSATION
  • PICKING PEAS, ERAGNY, c. 1893 Pissarro, J. (1993). Camille Pissarro. New York: Harry Abrams. Oil on canvas. 18 x 21 1/2” (45 x 55 cm). The Langmatt Foundation, Sidney and Jenny Brown, Baden, Switzerland (PV857)
  • Camille Pissarro wrote: “ Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for?” Was Pissarro committed to ‘REPAIRING THE WORLD?” This Jewish tradition (Pirke Avot-Ethics of the Fathers) requires you to be the best that YOU can be!
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Art of Part Two: PEOPLE MYRNA TECK, PH.D. INDEPENDENT SCHOLAR
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    • 27. Painting, art in general, enchants me. It is my life. What else matters? When you put all your soul into a work, all that is noble in you, you cannot fail to find a kindred soul who understands you, and you do not need a host of such spirits. Is that not all an artist should wish for? (Letters to his son, Lucien) November 20, 1883
    • 28. It is said that the love of ART cannot be TAUGHT IT can only be CAUGHT!
    • 29. So, I hope I’ve made The Art of Contagious to you today!

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